September Gnus

Science Gnus Almanac Home

September is:

 National Better Breakfast Month, Self Improvement Month, Be Kind To Editors and Writers Month, International Square Dance Month, Cable TV Month, National Bed Check Month, National Chicken Month, National Courtesy Month, National Honey Month, National Mind Mapping Month, National Piano Month, National Rice Month, National Papaya Month, and Classical Music Month.  You’ll also note a number of television show debuts (selected by our panel of experts). September used to be THE month for TV debuts.  To make your life, and dinner conversation complete….

On September 3 we list all the Treaties of Paris (there are quite a few) 

and …on September 7 we’ll find out how many Vice Presidents died in office.

September Quotes:

      “My favorite poem is the one that starts 'Thirty days hath September' because it actually tells you something.”…..Groucho Marx

"'Tis the last rose of summer,

Left blooming alone;

All her lovely companions

Are faded and gone."

-   Thomas Moore, The Last Rose of Summer, 1830

Science Gnus is an almanacish compendium of News of Science, History, Mathematics and Items of Interest as well as Professor Sy Yentz, Dr. Matt Matician, the Activity of the Month, Factorinos, Trivia Question, Bonus Trivia Question, Extinct, Trivia Answers, Jokes, Obscure Question, Scientist of the Month, and the Flower Rock and Word of the Month

Calendar Highlights


1715 –Sunday-  Ooh yes it's good to be the king
Ooh La La
Gee but it's good to be the king
Say it girls
You can be sure about one thing
Ooh La La
Mais oui, it's good to be the king
It's good to be the king…..
Mel Brooks………………

King Louis XIV kaput. It was sunset for The “Sun King” as he  went to that big throne in the sky after a reign of 72 years—the longest of any major European monarch. He had succeeded his father, naturally named Louis XIII in 1643.  He did not assume actual personal control of the government until the death of his prime minister, Cardinal Mazarin, in 1661. Famous for saying “L’etat c’est moi” - I am the State, Louis’ legacy is his magnificent palace at Versailles, “gloire” (the glory of France) , and quite a few wars including, The War of Devolution, the Dutch War, The Nine Years War, and the War of the Spanish Succession.

1804 –Saturday-  What happens if a big asteroid hits Earth? Judging from realistic simulations involving a sledge hammer and a common laboratory frog, we can assume it will be pretty bad. …..Dave Barry…….Juno, one of the largest main belt asteroids, was discovered by German astronomer Karl Ludwig Harding. The third to be discovered, but number ten in size, Juno is of 150 miles across.  The feature that has made Juno so interesting to astronomers and other scientists is the 100km crater near the southern pole. This crater is thought to be the result of an impact fairly early in Juno’s evolution which possibly makes Juno  the source of some stony, iron bearing meteorites that have been found on Earth. The asteroid is essentially is a leftover building block of the solar system.

1807 –Tuesday- Never do today what you can put off till tomorrow. Delay may give clearer light as to what is best to be done. ….Sleazoid former U.S. vice president, and killer of Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr was acquitted of plotting to annex parts of Louisiana and Spanish territory in Mexico to be used toward the establishment of an independent republic. Burr was acquitted on the grounds that, though he had conspired against the United States, he was not guilty of treason because he had not engaged in an "overt act," a requirement of the law governing treason. Oh…O.K.

1819 –Wednesday- Come to me. I want to plow you like a Calgary driveway at Christmas……..John Cleese……..  Plowing ahead with the development of the plow - Jethro Wood, a blacksmith from Scipio, New York, received a patent for his removable parts plow. Wood’s  plow was of cast iron, but in three parts, so that a broken part might be replaced without purchasing an entire plow. In 1837, John Deere developed and marketed the world's first self-polishing cast steel plow. The large plows made for cutting the tough American prairie ground were called "grasshopper plows." As Harper’s New Monthly Magazine of December 1874 describes it Poor Jethro “but lost his fortune in developing his invention and defending his rights. He however, overestimated the extent of novelty in his invention.  He seems to have thought it the first iron plow.

1826 –Friday- A nickel will get you on the subway, but garlic will get you a seat ….Unknown……Happy Birthday, Alfred E. Beach, American inventor and publisher born in Springfield, Mass.  Beach’s  magazine, Scientific American helped stimulate 19th-century technological innovations and became one of the world's most prestigious science magazines…..even though the layman can have some difficulty understanding some of the articles and go into open eyed coma reading the same sentence over and over.  Beach's most famous invention was New York City's first subway, the Beach Pneumatic Transit.  According to the history of the NYC Subways,, he thought the pneumatic (air-driven) system viable for transit operation in underground tunnels. He applied for a permit from the Tammany Hall (the ridiculously corrupt Boss Tweed) city government, and after being denied, decided to build the line in secrecy, in an attempt to show that subterranean transit was practical. (He actually did receive a permit to built a pneumatic package delivery system, originally of two small tunnels from Warren St. to Cedar St., later amended to be one large tunnel, to "simplify construction" of what he really intended to build.) The Beach tunnel was constructed in only 58 days, starting under Warren Street and Broadway, directly across from City Hall. The single track tunnel ran east into Broadway, curved south, and ran down the middle of Broadway to Murray Street, a distance of one block, about 300 feet in all. The subway opened to the public on February 26, 1870. Operated as a demonstration from 1870 to 1873, the short tunnel had only the one station and train car.

          1837-Friday-  Dit dot ditty dit dot a ditty ditty 
Dit dot ditty dit dot a ditty ditty
Dit dot ditty dit dot a ditty ditty
Dit dot ditty, Baby come home to me
I sent my baby a telegram asking to be her man
Begging her to come back home to me (Baby come home to me)
Oh I dotted the I's and I crossed the T's
And I'm begging pretty please
Honey honey, come back home to me (Baby come home to me)
Morse Code of Love (originally recorded by the Capris but later by Manhattan Transfer, The Tokens; The Alleycats; Wild Wind; The Shackshakers; The Van-Dells; The Mighty Echoes; T
he Showvinistics……..
Samuel Morse, filed a patent for his telegraph machine. In 1830, Joseph Henry  had demonstrated the potential of William Sturgeon's electromagnet for long distance communication by sending an electronic current over one mile of wire
 to activate an electromagnet which caused a bell to strike…and two boxers started round 1 of the fight…no,no,no Professor Sy Yentz has his pugilistic sense of humor. Later, in 1837, British physicists, William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone patented the
Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph using the same principle of electromagnetism. However, it was Morse who successfully exploited the electromagnet and bettered Joseph Henry's invention. Morse made sketches of a "magnetized magnet" based on Henry's work
and  invented a telegraph system that was a practical and commercial success.  Morse used pulses of current to deflect an electromagnet, which moved a marker to produce written codes on a strip of paper Morse Code. --  as in ... --- ... / ... --- ...

           1854-Friday- In the long term, the economy and the environment are the same thing. If it is unenvironmental it is uneconomical. That is the rule of nature..Mollie Beattie ………Happy Birthday, Anna Comstock, biologist, artist and nature study pioneer born in Otto, New York.  Beginning with New York’s Westchester County, During the 1890s, she was instrumental in bringing nature study to elementary education in the United States
Comstock also became Cornell's first woman assistant professor. When conservative trustees objected to employing female professors, her title was changed to lecturer in 1900. Common sense prevailed and she regained the title of assistant professor the following year.  When she carried all of her work at once, it was called the Comstock Load.

      1864 –Thursday-So Atlanta is ours, and fairly won…Letter, William T. Sherman to Gen. Henry W. Halleck, Sept. 3………….  Rhett Butler, Scarlet O’Hara take note; Confederate General John Bell Hood evacuated Atlanta, Georgia, after losing the The Battle of Jonesborough (see august 31).  This was the climax of a four-month campaign by Sherman to capture the vital Rebel supply center. On Sept. 2 Henry Slocum's XX Corps moved into the city, and accepted the surrender of the city from Mayor James Calhoun. The Union troops then deported the Real Housewives of Atlanta,  Monica: Still Standing, The Braxton’s,  T.I. & Tiny,  The Family Hustle,  Keyshia Cole: The Way It Is,  Brothers to Brutha,  Kim Zolciak: ‘Don’t Be Tardy For The Wedding, Love & Hip Hop: Atlanta, Tiny and Toya + Toya A family Affair , and Frankie & Neffeto  to International Falls, Minnesota. Fargo, \

             1865-Friday- Bearing in mind that it is from the vitality of the atmospheric particles that all the mischief arises, it appears that all that is requisite is to dress the wound with some material capable of killing these septic germs, provided that any substance can be found reliable for this purpose, yet not too potent as a caustic. In the course of the year 1864 I was much struck with an account of the remarkable effects produced by carbolic acid upon the sewage of the town of Carlisle, the admixture of a very small proportion not only preventing all odour from the lands irrigated with the refuse material, but, as it was stated, destroying the entozoa which usually infest cattle fed upon such pastures ……Joseph Lister performed the first antiseptic surgery. He used carbolic acid - the common name for phenol.  Carbolic acid is a caustic poison obtained by distillation of coal tar or produced synthetically.  Lister based his work on that  of Louis Pasteur, who demonstrated in wine fermentation that  germs entered from the outside air. Lister believed that if infection arose spontaneously within a wound, (common belief) it would be virtually impossible to eliminate it. However, if germs entering from the air outside the wound caused infection (in the same way that the wine became contaminated), then those germs could be killed and infection prevented. He learned that carbolic acid was being used as an effective disinfectant in sewers and could safely be used on human flesh. Beginning in 1865, Lister used carbolic acid to wash his hands, his instruments, and the bandages used in the operation. Lister also sprayed the air with carbolic acid to kill airborne germs.   We note that according to Candace Millard’s Destiny of the Republic about the death of James Garfield, that the president’s physicians were aware of Lister’s technique.  It would have save Garfield’s life.  They pooh poohed it resulting in Garfield’s “death by physician”.     

          1887-Thursday-   So listen, Mr. DJ
keep those records playing
'cause I'm having such a good time
dancing with my baby
......Sam Cooke........... “Ich bin ein Berliner".  Emile Berliner filed for a patent (he would receive it on November 8) for his invention of the lateral-cut, flat-disk gramophone. It is now called the record player…..but then we don’t use the record player anymore so…… History lesson for the digital age - the first records were made of glass, later zinc, and eventually plastic. A spiral groove with sound information was etched into the flat record. Emile got the patent, but Thomas Edison got the fame because he was the one that made it work and make music with his American invention. Berliner's legacy still lives on in his trademark (later adopted by RCA): a picture of a dog listening to "his master's voice" issuing from a gramophone. 

     1905 –Friday-  If you care at all about the future of the world's food supply, you care – whether you know it or not – about Saskatchewan……Andrew Ross Sorkin, Columnist – The New York Times……..Alberta and Saskatchewan became Canada’s eighth and ninth provinces.    In case you were wondering, there are ten Canadian provinces and three territories. The provinces are Alberta, Manitoba, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, and Saskatchewan. The territories are the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and the Yukon Territory. Alberta in terms of year-round comfort was ranked as the best in Canada  by Environment Canada…obviously people who had been out in the cold too long.  It is the only Province in Canada to be debt free and rat free, not including human rats. It has the most sunny days year round in Canada. Saskatchewan is the only province with entirely artificial boundaries. It lies between the 49th and 60th parallels of latitude, bordered by the US and the Northwest Territories, and between long 101°30´ and 102° W and 110° W, bordered by Manitoba and Alberta. The province was created from the North-West Territories in 1905, at the same time as Alberta, and shares with that province the distinction of having no coast on salt water. 

1914-Tuesday……Oh and surrounded there by some of whom wept around her
in a corner of the cage they found her
she went as soft as she came so shy til the last song
oh the passenger pigeon was gone
........John Herald………… The last passenger pigeon, Martha, died at the Cincinnati Zoo. The passenger pigeon had been hunted to extinction. The fact that it traveled and nested in large flocks made it easy to slaughter.
An account from 1866 claimed a flock three hundred miles long passed overhead. Their great flights would darken the skies for hours. The birds were intensely communal, thronging together in nesting sites that occupied thousands of acres,
building hundreds of nests in each tree. The adult male passenger pigeon had grey upper parts, the tips of the wings and the tail were black; its throat was a dark rust, while its breast was a lighter rust; its eyes were red. The adult female was of a duller color,
with brownish upper parts and a lighter, brownish throat and breast; its eyes were black . See our Extinct-Kaput page

1923 –Saturday-  Once you have been in an earthquake you know, even if you survive without a scratch, that like a stroke in the heart, it remains in the earth's breast, horribly potential, always promising to return, to hit you again, with an even more devastating force. …..Salman Rushdie…….. The Great Kanto Earthquake estimated at 7.9 magnitude destroyed one third of Tokyo and most of Yokohama, leaving 2.5 million people homeless.The first shock hit at 11:58 a.m., emanating from a seismic fault six miles beneath the floor of Sagami Bay, 30 miles south of Tokyo. A 60- by 60-mile segment of the Philippine oceanic plate ruptured and thrust itself against the Eurasian continental plate, releasing a massive burst of tectonic energy and destruction. Just to add to the misery, the quake resulted in the Great Tokyo Fire. Floods followed as the rivers Fukuro Chiyo and Takimi burst their banks. At least 143,000 people were killed, although unofficial estimates say as many as 300,000 may have died.

1939 –Friday-  The wave of appalling terrorism against the [minority] inhabitants of Poland, and the atrocities that have been taking place in that country are terrible for the victims, but intolerable for a Great Power which has been expected to remain a passive onlooker. We will not continue to tolerate the persecution of the minority, the killing of many, and their forcible removal under the most cruel conditions. I see no way by which I can induce the government of Poland to adopt a peaceful solution. But I should despair of any honorable future for my own people if we were not, in one way or another, to solve this question……….Adolf Hitler, August 23, 1939, justifying the German invasion of Poland……. World War II began At  4:45 a.m. Hitler told the Nazi Reichstag that Poland had tried to invade Germany.  Everyone sure  believed that one .   1.5 million German troops invaded Poland all along its 1,750-mile border with German-controlled territory. Simultaneously, the German Luftwaffe bombed Polish airfields, and German warships and U-boats attacked Polish naval forces in the Baltic Sea. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler (just like self - aggrandizing Russian dictator Vladimir Putin in 2008 while attacking Georgia) claimed the massive invasion was a defensive action……sort of like “he punched me in the fist with his nose”.  Meanwhile Russia, led the cuddly Joseph Stalin,  invaded on the East Side on the basis of a pact between Russia and Germany called the Ribentropp-Molotov pact (signed August 21). Russia and Germany had signed treaties with Poland a few years before, and France and England had given their promise to protect Poland in case of an attack in 1939. France and England had hoped that Russia would protect Poland, but …..Big Mistake.

1974 –Sunday-  Blackbird fly, Blackbird fly
Into the light of the dark black night
……The Beatles………In a hurry to get to Europe?  Lockheed-Martin’s SR-71 Blackbird set (and holds) the record for flying from New York to London: 1 hour 54 minutes and 56.4 seconds. Just about the length of a flight delay in Newark Airport on an average week day .  The SR-71 was developed as a long-range strategic reconnaissance aircraft capable of flying at speeds over Mach 3.2 and at 85,000 feet. The first SR-71 to enter service was delivered in 1966 and the plane was retired in 1990 although NASA used some during the 1990s

1979-Saturday- Space is big. You just won't believe how vastly, hugely, mind-bogglingly big it is. I mean, you may think it's a long way down the road to the drug store, but that's just peanuts to space. …..Douglas Adams……Pioneer 11, an unmanned spacecraft launched in April 1973, made the 1st flyby of Saturn  and returned the first close-up snap shots of the planet. Pioneer 11 followed Pioneer 10 which had been the first man made spacecraft to fly by Jupiter. Among “11’s”  discoveries were two new moon and a new ring; it also charted the magnetosphere, the magnetic field, and the general structure of Saturn's interior. The spacecraft's instruments measured the heat radiation from Saturn's interior and unfortunately included Saturnian microbes that upon being exposed to Earth’s atmosphere via radio waves, resulted in an outbreak of a heretofore unknown disease Amplificatius Stupiditus which causes weak minded males (usually)to call in to radio sports talk programs.

1983 –Thursday- From the flashing lights and the configuration of the windows, he recognized the aircraft as a civilian type of plane,....'I saw two rows of windows and knew that this was a Boeing,' he said. 'I knew this was a civilian plane. But for me this meant nothing. It is easy to turn a civilian type of plane into one for military use. …Gennadie Osipovich, the SU-15 Interceptor pilot………Soviet jet fighters intercepted   Korean Airlines (KAL) flight 007 passenger flight that had mistakenly crossed into Russian airspace and shot the plane down, killing 269 passengers and crewmembers.  The Boeing 747 was flying from the USA to Seoul via Anchorage. It is believed to have strayed north of its scheduled course towards the Soviet island of Sakhalin. It has never been determined how the KAL flight ended up nearly 200 miles off course.

1985Sunday- Seize the moment. Remember all those women on the 'Titanic' who waved off the dessert cart…..Erma Bombeck…..The “unsinkable” Titanic was found. The British luxury passenger liner sank on April 15, 1912 en route to New York on its maiden voyage. The vessel sank with a loss of approximately 1,500 lives. The wreck is about 640 km south of Newfoundland.  At the time of her construction she was the largest and most luxurious ship afloat. American Robert D. Ballard headed the joint U.S/French expedition, which used an experimental, unmanned submersible developed by the U.S. Navy to search for the ocean liner. The submersible, Argo traveled just above the ocean floor, sending photographs up to the research vessel Knorr. As Argo was investigating debris on the ocean floor it suddenly passed over one of the Titanic's massive boilers, lying at a depth of about 13,000 feet. It also found Leonardo DiCaprio, a ring, and several Celine Dion CDs.  The CD’s were left at the bottom.

1989-Friday-  Every chance,
every chance that I take
I take it on the road
Those kilometres and the red lights
I was always looking left and right
Oh, but I'm always crashing
in the same car…
..David Bowie……….
The federal government passed new car safety legislation requiring all newly manufactured cars to install an air bag on the driver's side. We note that all Congressional cars already came equipped with gas bags. In 1971, Ford built an experimental airbag fleet. General Motors tested airbags on the 1973 model Chevrolets that were only sold for government use. The 1973, the Oldsmobile Toronado was the first car with a passenger air bag intended for sale to the public. By 1988, Chrysler became the first company to offer air bag restraint systems as standard equipment.  Car and Driver notes that  Every airbag deployment is literally a contained and directed explosion.“We don’t like to use the word ‘explosion’ around here,” claims Ken Zawisa, the global airbag engineering specialist responsible for frontal airbag strategies at GM. “But it is a very fast, well-controlled chemical reaction. And heat and gas are the result.” The term “airbag” itself is misleading since there’s no significant “air” in these cushions. They are, instead, shaped and vented nylon-fabric pillows that fill, when deployed, with nitrogen gas.

2004 –Wednesday- Were I like thee I'd throw away myself……Timon…..Timon of Athens, 4. 3 …………..Chechen terrorists (Muslims) entered Middle School Number 1 in Beslan in southern. At 9:30 a.m a group of around thirty armed men and women, arriving in a GAZel van and a GAZ-66 military truck , stormed the school whose pupils were aged from seven to eighteen years old. Most of the attackers wore black ski masks and a few were seen carrying explosive belts. After an exchange of gunfire with police, in which five officers and one perpetrator were killed, the attackers seized the school building taking more than 1,300 hostages. The brutes demanded the withdrawal of Russian troops from the disputed nearby region of Chechnya. On September 3, 2004, the third day of the standoff, shooting broke out between the hostage-takers and Russian security forces. According to official data, 344 civilians were killed, 186 of them children, and hundreds more wounded.


Back to  Calendar


44 BCFriday- Love child, never meant to be
Love child, (scorned by) society
Love child, always second best
Love child, different from the rest…..
The Supremes………
Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declared her son (age three) co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Yes, this was THAT Cleopatra and the son was her son by Julius Caesar although he was never formally acknowledged by Caesar.  That lasted until 37 BC. After 37, he is no longer mentioned in official documents because by  then Cleopatra had taken up with Marc Antony and  Cleopatra now hoped to continue her dynasty through the children of Marc Antony, the twins Alexander Helius and Cleopatra Selene. This all came to a brutal denoument after….see below.

31 BC –Tuesday-  Across the center of the shield were shown
the ships of brass, the strife of Actium:
you might have seen all of Leucata's bay
teeming with war's array, waves glittering
with gold. On his high stern Augustus Caesar
is leading the Italians to battle,
together with the senate and the people,
…..Virgil, Aeneid, 8.676……Battle of Actium - Off the western coast of Greece, forces of Octavian defeated troops under Mark Antony and Cleopatra in a naval battle. The fighting continued throughout the day of September 2, until, inexplicably, Cleopatra took her troops, sailors, ships and asp and left the naval battle. Mark Antony, also leaving his troops behind, followed his sweetie back to Egypt. The result was that Octavian’s forces, led by  Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, won the battle. Octavian would become emperor and change his name to Augustus. Cleopatra’s son, Caesarion, was rendered kaput  after the suicide of his mother and the suicide of Marc Antony following Octavian’s occupation of Alexandria.

1666-Thursday- Try to set the night on fire….The Doors……..The Great Fire of London. began on the night of September 2, as a small fire on Pudding Lane, in the bakeshop of Thomas Farynor. Faryonr happened to be the baker for King Charles II. At this time, most London houses were constructed of wood and pitch so they were dangerously flammable, and poof, the fire spread rapidly.   The conflagration became one of the major events in the history of England. It destroyed the medieval City of London inside the old Roman City Wall. It threatened, but did not reach, the aristocratic district of Westminster, (perish the thought!),  Charles II's Palace of Whitehall, and most of the suburban slums. It did, however, destroy13,200 houses, 87 parish churches, St. Paul's Cathedral, and most of the buildings of the City authorities. It is estimated that it destroyed the homes of 70,000 of the City's. 80,000 inhabitants

 1752 –SaturdayI love, I love, I love my calender girl
Yeah, sweet calender girl
I love, I love, I love my calender girl
Each and every day of the year
………Neil Sedaka……
This was the last day of the Julian calendar in Great Britain and the British colonies (that includes America for you history buffs out there) the Gregorian Calendar designed to correct the extra leap year day problem went into effect the next day with Sunday becoming September 14, hence 11 days were dropped.  People celebrating birthdays or having appointments during the next 11 days must have been a bit confused.  Most other countries had made the adjustment in 1582. The delay had its origin in the Reformation. Britain, a Protestant country would not follow the lead of the Catholics (Pope Gregory) In order to create a more standardized calendar, Julius Caesar consulted with an Alexandrian astronomer named Sosigenes and created a more regulated civil calendar based entirely on the Earth's revolutions around the sun. See Sept. 3 for the start of the confusion. 

1789 –Wednesday- Alexander Hamilton started the U.S. Treasury with nothing, and that was the closest our country has ever been to being even……Will Rogers…..The United States Department of the Treasury was founded during the first session of Congress. The first Secretary of the Treasury would be Alexander Hamilton of New York. The Treasury Department is the second oldest department in the federal government after the Department of State.  the secretary of the treasury, became the second-ranking cabinet member after the Secretary of State. One of the first necessities, after the new government was set up in 1789 under the Constitution of the United States, was machinery for the collection of taxes, the custody of federal funds, and the keeping of accounts. We note that on September 13, 1789 - The United States government took out a loan for the first time. The loan was taken from banks in New York City.

1838 –Wednesday- The people to whom your fathers told of the living God, and taught to call 'Father,' and whom the sons now seek to despoil and destroy, are crying aloud to Him in their time of trouble; and He will keep His promise, and will listen to the voices of His Hawaiian children lamenting for their homes………Hau`oli la hanau! Happy Birthday, Queen Liliuokalani, (Lydia Lili‘u Loloku Walania Wewehi Kamaka‘eha) the last reigning monarch of the Hawaiian islands. The Queen felt her mission was to preserve the islands for their native residents. Dole Pineapple had other ideas. Lili‘uokalani sought to amend the constitution to restore some of the power lost during the reign of her brother. Local sugar planters and businessmen feared a loss of revenue and influence and instigated an overthrow. To avoid bloodshed, the Queen yielded her throne on January 17, 1893.  A provisional government was established.  On July 4, 1894, the Republic of Hawaii with Sanford B. Dole – as in pineapples- as president was proclaimed. Surprise! It was recognized immediately by the United States government. Hawaii was annexed to the United States through a joint resolution of the U. S. Congress in 1898 and Queen Liliuokalani was forced to give up her throne. 

1850-Monday-  Two hours is about as long as any American can wait for the close of a baseball game, or anything else for that matter. …….Happy Birthday, Albert Spalding, 19th century baseball player and tireless promoter of baseball's interests nationally and internationally, and, coincidently, simultaneously further his own sporting-goods enterprises, the A.G Spalding Company.  Spalding published the first official rules guide for baseball. In it he stated that only Spalding balls could be used (previously, the quality of the balls used had been, shall we say widely varied.) Spalding also founded the Baseball Guide, which at the time was the most widely-read baseball publication. He retired from playing baseball in 1878, although he continued as a major force as owner of the Chicago White Stockings (now the Chicago Cubs) and major influence on the National League- which he co-founded.   Spalding was inducted into the Hall of Fame by the Committee on Baseball Veterans in 1939, the year the Hall opened. Professor Sy Yentz, growing up in NYC during the 1950s and early 60s fondly remembers the Spalding rubber ball, the “spaldeen” used for punch ball (it expanded slightly after a few days of “punching”) games because of it’s superior bounce and longevity…until you lost it down a sewer.

 1853-Friday-A small piece of sodium which lived in a testube fell
in love with a Bunsen burner. "Bunsen! my flame! I
melt whenever I see you" said the sodium. The bunsen
burner replied :"It's just a phase you're going
……..Alles Gute zum Geburtstag! Happy Birthday, (Friedrich) Wilhelm Ostwald, German chemist who almost along with Jacobus Henricus van  Hoff, and Svante Arrhenius organized physical chemistry into a nearly independent branch of chemistry. Physical chemistry is study of the properties, changes, and the relationships between energy and matter.  Ostwald won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1909 for his work on catalysis - the process in which the rate of a chemical reaction is increased by means of a chemical substance known as a catalyst. (Abyssinian American Bobtail

American Curl and American Domestic is the beginning of a catalyst). Catalysts can be divided into two main types - heterogeneous and homogeneous. In a heterogeneous reaction, the catalyst is in a different phase from the reactants. Oscar Wilde was a homogeneous. He is also known for the Ostwald process to mass produce nitric acid from ammonia.

1877 –Sunday Soddy, wrong numberapologies to Alfred Hitchock….Happy Birthday, Frederick Soddy, English chemist and physicist who received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1921 for his investigations of  radioactive substances.  Soddy worked with Ernest  Rutherford at McGill University in Montreal where he showed how radioactive elements disintegrate, in a study that introduced the concept of "half-life" for radioactive decay.   He suggested that different elements produced in different radioactive transformations were capable of occupying the same place on the Periodic Table, and he named these elements "isotopes" from Greek words meaning "same place." For example, uranium 235 and uranium 238 are two different isotopes of the same element, uranium, one with 235 protons and neutrons in its nucleus, and the other with 238.   His scientific texts are still used.  They include The Interpretation of Radium, Matter and Energy -The Chemistry of the Radio-Elements -2 parts, and Love’s Tender Passion, The Spinster’s Caribbean Vacation With Dirk.

1901 Monday-  Mm dooby do, dahm dahm
Dahm do dahm ooby do
Dahm dahm, dahm do dahm, ooby do
Dahm dahm, dahm do dahm, ooby do
Dahm dahm, dahm ooh dahm
Mm dooby do……(Come softly, darling)
(Come softly, darling)
(Come softly, darling)
(Come softly, darling)…..
The Fleetwoods……….
Vice President of the United States -days from taking over for the to be  kaputed William McKinley- Theodore Roosevelt uttered the famous phrase, "Speak softly and carry a big stick” (and you will go far) at the Minnesota State Fair. Roosevelt attributed it to a West African proverb but its origin isn't known.  However, the  Theodore Roosevelt Society says the quotes is from a letter to a friend.

1935 –Monday- (Regarding his prayers to keep Hurricane Gloria away from Virginia Beach) It was 'extremely important because I felt that if I couldn't move a hurricane, I could hardly move a nation….. Pat Robertson………….The Labor Day Hurricane in Florida. In the days before hurricanes were named, this storm virtually snuck up on Florida. The hurricane was the first ever Category Five Hurricane on record to hit the United States. In fact, it held the distinction of being the only Categroy  Five storm to hit the United States coastline for 34 years until Hurricane Camille in August, 1969.  After the storm had demolished the sparsely populated (in those days) Florida Keys, it then turned northward, and made a second landfall in Florida's Big Bend area this time as a Category Two hurricane.  This was the same path that Hurricane Andrew (another Category five) would follow in 1992.

1938 –Friday- You couldn't make Wyatt Earp today for $1 million an episode. But for $50,000 a segment, you can turn it into color and have a brand new series with no residuals to pay…..Earl Glick…… Happy Birthday, Wilson Markle, Canadian engineer who invented the film colorization process in 1983. Colorization is the computer process by which black and white film images are converted to color. During the 1960s and 1970s  his company, Image Transform put color to black and white NASA space footage to add more interest to the lunar missions. Of course the process plummeted to unforeseen depths of taste when Ted Turner got his hands on the process and started colorizing classic black and white movies.  The Museum of Broadcasting site notes that: Popular Mechanics reported in 1987 that it cost more than $3,000 per minute of running time to colorize a movie. The economic justification for such an expenditure lay in audience demand. Variety estimated in 1988 that while it cost $300,000 to colorize an old movie, the revenue generated by the release of the colorized version was $500,000. This revenue came mostly from television syndication, although videocassette release was also important in some cases. Another important consideration was the opportunity to claim new copyrights on old films, thus extending the film's potential life as a profit center for the owner.

1945 –Sunday- The thoughts and hopes of all America—indeed of all the civilized world—are centered tonight on the battleship Missouri. There on that small piece of American soil anchored in Tokyo Harbor the Japanese have just officially laid down their arms. They have signed terms of unconditional surrender. Four years ago, the thoughts and fears of the whole civilized world were centered on another piece of American soil—Pearl Harbor. The mighty threat to civilization which began there is now laid at rest. It was a long road to Tokyo—and a bloody one. We shall not forget Pearl Harbor. …..Harry Truman………Three and a half months after it ended in Europe, combat in World War II ended in the Pacific Theater: The final official surrender of Japan was accepted by General Douglas MacArthur aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.  Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signed on behalf of the Japanese government. General Yoshijiro Umezu then signed for the Japanese armed forces, and reportedly  his aides wept as he made his signature but that was only because the Americans were serving fried sushi.  Supreme Commander MacArthur next signed on behalf of the United Nations  and Admiral Chester W. Nimitz signed for the United States.

1948 –Thursday-  I  touch the future. I teach. I really appreciate that sentiment. That's going with me…….Happy Birthday, Birthday  Christa MacAuliffe, astronaut, first teacher in space, who died in the Challenger Space Shuttle when 73 seconds into its 10th launch, STS-51L exploded in midair, killing its crew of seven. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration announced a contest to take a teacher into space,  High School teacher, McAuliffe  - she taught history, social studies and civics- applied. She won the contest, beating out more than 11,000 other applicants (including Professor Sy Yentz).  When Challenger exploded just after takeoff, millions of horrified schoolchildren and adults were watching from schools, homes and offices world-wide.  Space shuttle flights were suspended until 1988. An independent U.S. commission blamed the disaster on unusually cold temperatures that morning and the failure of the O-rings, a set of gaskets in the rocket boosters…..and the geniuses that went ahead with the launch despite all the warnings.

 1952-Thursday-  Heart, you motor of emotion
Heart, you've never been
Like this before
Heart, at frst I thought
That you were joklng
But I know deep down in you
That you're sure…..
Nick Lowe……….
The first human heart operation was performed by using the deep- freezing method. Professor Sy Yentz refers to this the ventricle as popsicle procedure. A 5 year old girl was the first patient to undergo a heart operation in which this deep freezing technique was employed. Her body temperature, except for her head, was reduced to 79 degrees Fahrenheit. Dr. Floyd Lewis at the Medical School of the University of Minnesota performed the operation.  By freezing her they were able to cut off the flow of blood for 51 minutes and sew up a hole in her heart.

1969 –Tuesday-  A man asks a trainer in the gym: “I want to  impress that beautiful girl , which machine can I use?” Trainer replies: “Use the ATM”……The first automatic teller machine in the United States was installed in Rockville Center, New York.  In 1939, Luther George Simjian had patented an early and not very successful prototype of an ATM. However that fact there were no ATM cards in those days put a damper on that one.  It took a while to get to the essential machine that we have today. John D White is often credited with inventing the first free-standing ATM design. Then in  1967, John Shepherd-Barron invented and installed an ATM in a Barclays Bank in London. Naturally, standing on line in a bank was the inspiration for  Don Wetze,l co-patentee and chief conceptualist of the automated teller machine. Wetzel was standing on the wrong line –the slow moving one….the one we always stand on….at a Dallas bank .The first ATM  wasn't in a lobby, it was actually in the wall of the bank, out on the street. They put a canopy over it to protect it from the rain and the weather of all sorts. Unfortunately they put the canopy too high and the rain came under it. They ended up with wet money (could this be the first incidence of money laundering?)

1969 Tuesday Please, Spock, do me a favor ... don't say it's `fascinating'..." -- Dr. McCoy  "No... but it is... interesting..." -- Spock (The Ultimate Computer) ……….It was also a sad day for histrionic acting devotees as on the same day that the ATM made its debut, Star Trek went kaput as  the science-fiction television series aired its last first run episode.  Although Star Trek ran for only three years (starting in 1966) and never placed better than No. 52 in the ratings, it would go on forever! The show, starring William Shatner and Leonard Nimoy, became a cult classic and spawned four television series; the original, Star Trek: The Next Generation, Star Trek: Deep Space 9 Star Trek: Voyager  and ten (and counting) movies. Leonard Nimoy was the only actor to appear in every episode of the series, including "The Cage", the original pilot episode which starred Jeffrey Hunter as the Captain. In this final first run episode, The Enterprise is in danger (surprise!) when Janice Lester, one of Kirk's former lovers, steals his body. Why was it aired in September? The episode was originally scheduled to air on March 28, 1969 but was postponed to Sept. 3rd due to the kapution of the 34th President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower.

1970 –Wednesday-  Apollo does not always keep his bow strung……Horace Due to budgetary constraints, NASA announced the cancellation of two Apollo missions to the Moon, Apollo 15 (the designation was re-used by a later mission), and Apollo 19. The remaining missions were then renumbered 15 through 17.  Apollos 18-20 were intended to visit a couple of large impact craters, the hope being that the samples returned would include ancient rocks from deep inside the Moon. This was expected to be essentially unchanged since the Moon formed. Such primordial material is buried beyond our reach on Earth and studying it would have provided a bonanza of data on the early Solar System.  The Apollo space program cost was given as $25.4 billion, around $150 billion about in today’s money.  In 1970 there was much media screeching over spending the money to fight poverty instead.  Well that certainly worked out well. Of course Apollo 18 was launched in 2011 but it was a horror movie.

1971: Thursday I've got a ticket to the moon
I'll be leaving here any day soon
Yeah, I've got a ticket to the moon….
Electric Light Orchestra……Luna 18, the  USSR Lunar Lander launched. On September 7, it entered lunar orbit and  spacecraft completed 85 communications sessions and 54 lunar orbits before it was sent towards the lunar surface by use of braking rockets. It impacted the Moon on September 11, at 3 degrees 34 minutes N, 56 degrees 30 minutes E (selenographic coordinates) in a rugged mountainous terrain.  As NASA dryly note, “signals ceased at the moment of impact”.  However, earlier signals unfortunately were received on Earth where some mutated in the ionosphere causing the outbreak of the disease Parentus Enablus Moronia  (parents who habitually give obnoxious children “another chance”) in susceptible humans

1987- Wednesday They say we're young and we don't know
We won't find out until we're grown
Well I don't know if all that's true
'Cause you got me, and baby I got you
After running into the usual interminable red tape while trying to a sign for his new restaurant, Cher-less former “singer” Sonny Bono announced his intention to run for mayor of Palm Springs beginning a political career that would get him to congress before it abruptly ended via a tree in 1998. Elected mayor, Bono even got the sign for his restaurant.

1988-  Friday If at first you don't succeed, failure may be your styleQuentin Crisp…..A bad day for Soviet space flights  (see Luna18, 1971 above) as Phobos 1 - USSR Mars Orbiter/Lander (launched July 7, 1988) was lost en route to Mars through a command error. The Phobos 1 mission was to investigate the larger of Mars two moons,  Phobos. However, hope springs eternal and there was a Phobos 2.  Shortly before the final phase of the mission, during which the spacecraft was to approach within 50 m of Phobos' surface and release two landers, one a mobile 'hopper', the other a stationary platform, contact with Phobos 2 was lost. The mission ended when the spacecraft signal failed to be successfully reacquired on 27 March 1989.  They never suspected Phobian (ancestral home of Martha Stewart) interference.

1995-  Saturday Rock 'n roll is here to stay,
it will never die
It was meant to be that way,
though I don't know why
I don't care what people say,
rock 'n roll is here to stay
Danny and the Juniors…….After nearly a decade of inducting musicians into an imaginary Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, the actual physical Rock and Roll Hall of Fame opens in Cleveland.  Performing at the opening ceremony at Cleveland’s Municipal Stadiium  were Chuck Berry, Bob Dylan, Al Green, Jerry Lee Lewis, Aretha Franklin, Johnny Cash, the Pretenders, John Fogerty, Lou Reed, Iggy Pop, George Clinton, the Kinks, John Mellencamp, Bruce Springsteen, Booker T. and the MGs, Eric Burdon and Martha Reeves..  The first induction dinner (choice of steak, chicken or fish)  had been  held at New York’s Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in January 1986. Inductees include Chuck Berry, James Brown, Ray Charles, Sam Cooke, Fats Domino, the Everly Brothers, Buddy Holly, Jerry Lee Lewis, Elvis Presley and Little Richard. Robert Johnson, Jimmie Rodgers and Jimmy Yancey were honored as early influences.

1992 –Wednesday  I feel the earth move under my feet…….Carol King……..Nicaragua was struck by  a 7.6 Richter Scale earthquake and tsumamic.  At least 116 people killed, more than 68 missing and over 13,500 left homeless in Nicaragua. At least 1,300 houses and 185 fishing boats were destroyed along the west coast of Nicaragua.  The tsunami ran inland 1,000 meters at Masachapa. Hiroo Kanamori  & Masayuki Kikuchi explain what happened; the Nicaragua earthquake was a slow thrust earthquake which occurred on the subduction interface between the Cocos and North American plates, and because of the absence of sediments on the trench floor offshore of Nicaragua, the slip propagated up-dip all the way to the ocean bottom, exciting large tsunamis. The occurrence of slip on a plate interface filled with soft subducted sediments caused the rupture process to be slower than in ordinary subduction-zone thrust earthquakes.Why, a child of five could understand this.  Someone fetch a child of five…………Groucho Marx.

2012 – Sunday Q: How many Muslims does it take to change a light bulb? A: 101. One to screw it in and a hundred to blame improperly dressed women for causing voltage fluctuations in light bulbs……. .A decades-long ban on veiled female news presenters was unveiled by State television in Egypt.  There is a distinction between the hijab (literally "covering up" in Arabic) and the niqab (meaning "full veil"). Hijab is a common sight among Muslim women, a scarf that covers their hair and neck. Niqab consists of covering up completely, including gloves and a veil for the face - leaving just a slit for the eyes, or covering them too with transparent material.  The secularist governments of  Anwar Sadat and Hosni Mubarek had launched the ban. Anchorwoman,  Fatma Nabil was adorned in an Islamic headscarf or hijab while reading the news on Channel 1 in Cairo. The veiled anchorwoman read the news on Egypt's state television for the first time, reflecting a shift in official media since the overthrow of Hosni Mubarak and the subsequent rise of Islamists.

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.          301 –Tuesday-  The nice part about living in a small town is that when you don't know what you're doing, someone else does……unknown……..We usually introduce  a country’s independence of founding with the national anthem lyrics.  Alas, San Marino’s anthem (like that of Spain and  Bosnia and Herzegovina), has none.  San Marino -Area: 61.2 square km (23.6 square miles), population – 31,000 -  one of the smallest nations in the world and the world's oldest republic still in existence, was founded by Saint Marinus (Marino). It is the oldest republic in the world. So where is San Marino? In the Apennine Mountains of course. It is a landlocked entity, completely surrounded by Italy. San Marino is the sole survivor of the independent states that existed in Italy at various times from the downfall of the Western Roman Empire to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. As for St. Marinus?  Tradition is that he was a blacksmith by trade who came from the island of Rab on the other side of the Adriatic.

1189 –Sunday- …a bad son, a bad husband, and a bad king…. Sir Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades ……….Richard I of England (Richard "the Lionheart", or Coeur de Lion) was crowned at Westminster. Richard was the 2nd of for boys for Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, Henry (the Young King) – kaput in1183, Dickie, Geoffrey –kaput in 1186, and John, who would succeed Coeur de Lion in 1199.  The Lionheart spent only six months of his ten year reign in England, claiming it was "cold and always raining." That is when he wasn’t leading the 3rd Crusade or being taken prisoner by Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI.  In all, Richard spent about 6 months of his ten year reign in England until his predictably stupid death via arrow during a petty siege of a castle in France (where else?) in  1199.

1643 –Thursday- Chico: Alright, why a duct? Hammer: (pause) I'm not playing "Ask Me Another," I say that's a viaduct. Chico: Alright! Why a duct? Why that...why a duct? Why a no chicken? …..apologies to the Marx Brothers…. Happy Birthday, Lorenzo Bellini, Italian physician and anatomist, born in Florence.  Bellini described the collecting, or excretory, tubules of the kidney, known as Bellini's ducts (tubules). He  is considered a founder of Italian iatromechanism, which regarded the body as a Cartesian machine, compatible in its functions to mechanical laws.

1658-Tuesday-  He lived a hypocrite and died a traitor….John Foster…. In Poisonous Quotations…….. Oliver Cromwell kaput.  Cromwell, the Lord Protector of England had led the Parliamentary forces against King Charles I in the English Civil War.  He later ravaged Ireland setting the stage for hundreds of years of religious tension and conflict. Different accounts cite cancer or a bladder stone as the cause of kapution. Because of "this small piece of gravel," reflected French philosopher Blaise Pascal years later, "he is dead, his family is cast down, all is peaceful, and the king is restored." In 1661, according to Trivia, the Cromster was disinterred and dragged through the streets. The next day, the 12th anniversary of Charles I's execution, the remains were taken to Tyburn, where, according to diarist John Evelyn, they were "hanged on the gallows from nine in the morning until six at night." They were cut down, their heads were bludgeoned off, and their bodies were tossed in a pit beneath the gallows. Their heads were paraded through London on poles and then were stuck on spikes atop Westminster Hall.  About 25 years later, a storm dislodged Cromwell's mummified head from its perch. It landed in the street, where it was picked up by a sentry and sold. It passed from owner to owner down through the years. In the 20th century it was given to Cromwell's alma mater, Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, where studies confirmed its identity. It matched Cromwell's death mask, and a brown spot on the parchment like skin indicated Cromwell's distinctive wart. In March, 1960, the head was buried in a secret location at the college to protect the protector from further disturbance.

1728 –Friday-  I sell here, Sir, what all the world desires to have—POWER. Happy Birthday, Matthew Bolton, British manufacturer and engineer who financed and introduced James Watt's steam engine. After meeting Watt and asking “Watts that” he converted to the idea of the development of steam power and became the money man in the system that produced steam engines which sold all over the world.   When Bolton’s close friend John Roebuck went bankrupt and lost patents on his own, mostly unsuccessful, steam engine developments. Bolton acquired Roebuck's patents in 1775 and then entered into a partnership with Watt..


 1752 –Sunday- Does anybody really know what time it is
Does anybody really care
If so I can't imagine why
We've all got time enough to cry
….Chicago Remember the change to the Gregorian Calendar on Sept.2? You should. After all it was yesterday’s entry…Well the day of 3rd of September never happened - nor did the next 10. England and the American Colonies dropped the Roman era Julian Calendar, which had become 10 days out of synchrony with the solar cycle, and adopted the Gregorian Calendar. People rioted in the streets thinking the government stole 11 days of their lives. Instituted by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582, the calendar has 365 days with an extra day every four years (the leap year) except in years divisible by 100 but not divisible by 400. Thus, the calendar year has an average length of 365.2422 days. It moved the day's date up from September 3rd to September 14th. Some other countries, including the ever progressive Russia, did not change until the twentieth century. Got it?

1777-Wednesday-  You're a grand old flag,
You're a high flying flag
And forever in peace may you wave.
You're the emblem of
The land I love.
The home of the free and the brave
George M. Cohan……… The American flag was flown in battle for the first time, during a Revolutionary War skirmish at Cooch's Bridge, Maryland. Patriot General William Maxwell ordered the stars and stripes banner raised as a detachment of his infantry and cavalry met an advance guard of British and Hessian troops. Unfortunately, the rebels were defeated and forced to retreat to General George Washington's main force near Brandywine Creek in Pennsylvania, where they would be defeated again. Three months before, on June 14, (now celebrated as Flag Day) the Continental Congress adopted a resolution stating that "the flag of the United States be thirteen alternate stripes red and white" and that "the Union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new Constellation."  


1783 –Wednesday- Treaties are like roses and young girls -- they last while they last ….Charles deGaulle……The American Revolution officially came to an end when representatives of the United States (John Adams, John Jay, and Benjamin Franklin), Great Britain, Spain and France signed the Treaty of Paris on this day in 1783. The signing signified America's status as a free nation, as Britain formally recognized the independence of its 13 former American colonies, and the boundaries of the new republic were agreed upon: Florida north to the Great Lakes and the Atlantic coast west to the Mississippi River. In case you noted that throughout history there have been a lot of Treaties of Paris, here are a few
Treaty of Paris (1229)—ended the Albigensian Crusade
Treaty of Paris (1259)—between Henry III of England and Louis IX of France
Treaty of Paris (1623)—between France, Savoy, and Venice against Spanish forces in Valtelline
Treaty of Paris (1763)—ended the Seven Years' War (French and Indian War in the U.S)
Treaty of Paris (1783)—ended the American Revolutionary War
Treaty of Paris (1810)—ended the war between France and Sweden
Treaty of Paris (1814)—ended the war between France and the Sixth Coalition(Treaty of Paris (1815)—followed the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo (War of 1812 in the U.S)
Treaty of Paris (1856)—ended the Crimean War
Treaty of Paris (1898)—ended the Spanish-American War
Paris Peace Conference, 1919—treaties with the defeated powers of the First World War Treaty of Paris (1920)—united Bessarabia and Romania
Paris Peace Treaties, 1947—formally established peace between the World War II Allies and Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Romania, and Finland
Paris Peace Accords (1973)—ended American involvement in the Vietnam War. You’ll also note that the U.S likes to end its wars with Treaties of Paris – see French & Indian War, the Revolution, The War of 1812, the Spanish American War, and Vietnam.

1802 –Friday-  Earth has not anything to show more fair:…Dull would he be of soul who could pass by…..A sight so touching in its majesty:…….This City now doth, like a garment, wear…….The beauty of the morning; silent, bare,…..Ships, towers, domes, theatres, and temples lie Open unto the fields, and to the sky;…We have a pretty good idea when English poet William Wordsworth composed this sonnet.  The  title is  Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802.

1803 –Saturday-  Q: What is the most important rule in chemistry? A: Never lick the spoon! ……English scientist John Dalton started using symbols to represent the atoms of different elements.  Dalton’s atomic theory stated that all matter was composed of small indivisible particles termed atoms, atoms of a given element possess unique characteristics and weight, and three types of atoms exist: simple (elements), compound (simple molecules), and complex (complex molecules). Antoine Lavoisier had introduced the system of chemical nomenclature. His Traité Élémentaire de Chimie in  was the first modern chemical textbook.  Dalton's theory was presented in New System of Chemical Philosophy, written between 1808 and 1827

1866-Monday- Support bacteria - they're the only culture some people have ….Unknown……..Happy Birthday, Christian Herter, American physician who investigated the role of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. He discovered that bacteria’s favorite roles included Hamlet, Lady MacBeth, James Bond, and letter turner on Wheel of Fortune. Herter also developed techniques for measuring their products such as indol. Herter's early research interests culminated in the publication of his best known work, the scintillating page turner, The Diagnosis of Diseases of the Nervous System  in 1892

1875 –Friday-Oh Lord, won’t you buy me a Mercedes Benz ?
My friends all drive Porsches, I must make amends.
Worked hard all my lifetime, no help from my friends,
So Lord, won’t you buy me a Mercedes Benz
….Janis Joplin…..Alles Gute zum Geburtstag! Happy Birthday, Ferdinand Porsche, Austrian automotive engineer born in born in the village of Maffersdorf.  Porsche joined Daimler Germany in 1923. In 1926, Daimler merged with Benz, providing the opportunity for Porsche to work on the Mercedes S and SSK projects. Porsche and his son, Ferdinand Anton Ernst Porsche, collaborated to develop the first designs of the Volkswagen car in 1934 on orders from Adolf Hitler to design and build the first "peoples car” Porsche also designed the many military vehicles used by the Nazis during WWII.  This did not thrill the French who threw him in prison for 20 months after the war. Yes, he also designed the Porsche too.

1899-Sunday- A man goes to the eye doctor. The receptionist asks him why he is there. The man complains, "I keep seeing spots in front of my eyes." The receptionist asks, "Have you ever seen a doctor?" and the man replies, "No, just spots Happy Birthday, Sir (Frank) Macfarlane Burnet, Australian physician, virologist born in Traralgon. Burnet was the recipient, with Sir Peter Medawar, of the 1960 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of acquired immunological tolerance to tissue transplants. Yes, they took Scotties out of the Scotties box and put them in Kleenex boxes and then put…voila, a tissue transplant.  It’s nothing to sneeze at!  Actually, Burnet developed two concepts that have proven very influential in immunology: First, acquired immunological tolerance, which was the cornerstone upon which organ transplantation has become almost routine, and second, the clonal selection theory of antibody production, which showed how antigens are targeted for destruction by lymphocytes.

 1905-Sunday- A positron meets an electron. Hey I’m anti matter says the positron. Are you sure asks the electron? Yes replies the positron, I’m positive……. Happy Birthday, Carl David Anderson, American physicist born in New York City.  Anderson and  Victor Francis Hess of Austria, won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936 for his discovery of the positron, or positive electron, the first known particle of antimatter. Positrons are usually produced by nuclear decay, sort of like Regis Philbin.  The positron is identical to the electron in mass, but has an opposite charge of +1 (the electron is defined to have a charge of -1)

1966-Saturday- Ozzie Nelson: Shakespeare is the world's greatest playwright. His plays are known the world over.
Ricky Nelson: I think he's a little corny, myself.
David Nelson: I don't see anything corny about him.
Ricky Nelson: Oh, no? What about that Hamlet? Guy's talkin' to himself about commitin' suicide, walkin' through graveyards pickin' up old skulls - it just isn't commercial. …….The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet aired its last episode ( a rerun from the 65/66 season)  after more than a decade on television. The sitcom focused a real life family playing a TV family based on the real life family. It starred 1940’s band leader Ozzie Nelson and wife, singer Harriet Nelson, nee Hilliard. The show premiered as a radio comedy in 1944 and ran for 10 years. Even before the radio show ended, a TV version was launched in 1952. The show, featuring controversial  plots such as -Ozzie decides that he wants to go on a diet so he can fit into a pair of size 33 pants. Or, Ozzie buys Thorny a lighter for his birthday…..yes, it was a simpler time.  The teenage sons, David and Ricky were not wise cracking brats (note; that the post All in the Family sitcoms). Ricky became a rock star, rejuvenating the show. For a period of years, beginning in 1957, each episode would conclude with a song by Ricky Nelson and his band, led by the great  lead guitarist James Burton.

1967 –Friday Why do they call it rush hour when nothing moves? …..Mork (Robin Williams)……….September 3  - see 1752 above may lay claim to the most confusing day in history.  In addition to the lost days with the implementation of the Gregorian Calendar, in Sweden motorists stopped driving on the left side of the road and began driving on the right side. Wouldn’t you have loved to  have been there?.  A Time Magazine report noted that once Parliament decided to switch, Swedish bureaucracy mobilized with “terrifying “efficiency. First, psychologists made studies of drivers and pedestrians; traffic engineers surveyed Sweden's 70,000 miles of roadway from Malmo to remotest Lapland. Then thousands of new signs and traffic lights were ordered.  Then every home, hospital and prison received manuals detailing the 107 basic European road symbols that would replace the helter-skelter Swedish markers. And just to make sure foreign workers and visitors got the message, the Commission on Right-Hand Traffic printed pamphlets in nine languages from Portuguese to Serbo-Croatian.  But for all the predictions of mayhem on the highway on H-day, the elaborate preparations cost motorists $120 million in special taxes. Aside from a few bent fenders and dented egos, the change was, in fact, so bloodless that two days passed before Sweden reported a single traffic fatality.  Somehow we don’t think this would have gone as smoothly in the United States.

  1970-Thursday-  Hail! Hail! the
gang's all here,
What the deuce do
we care,
What the deuce do
we care,
Hail! Hail! we're
full of cheer,………
Words by D.A. Estron / Music by Theodore Morse and Arthur Sullivan ……A hailstone found in Coffeyville, Kansas, weighed in at 1.5 lbs. and was 17 inches around. This was surpassed in 2003 in south-central Nebraska in June
with the largest hailstone ever recovered in the United States, a seven-inch (17.8-centimeter) wide chunk of ice almost as large as a soccer ball.  The National Climate Extremes Committee, which is responsible for validating national records, formally accepted the
measurements last month: seven inches in diameter (17.8 centimeters) and a circumference of 18.75 inches (47.6 centimeters). We’re not sure how this compared to Oliver Cromwell’s gallstone ( see 1658).   However, time and tide and hail wait for no man and 
on May 23, 2011 a strong supercell thunderstorm moved across northern Kiowa County Oklahoma producing large, damaging hail. A hail research team (hat measured 6 inches in diameter The hailstone was so large that it significantly caved in the roof of
the vehicle that captured it

1970-Thursday- (I'm in pieces, bits and pieces)
Since you left me and you said goodbye
(I'm in pieces, bits and pieces)
All I do is sit and cry
(I'm in pieces, bits and pieces)
You went away and left me misery
(I'm in pieces, bits and pieces)
And that's the way it'll always be
……A dark day in Rock history as Rolling Stone Magazine reported that the Dave Clare Five (musical white bread  to the Beatles’ whole grain) were no longer Glad All Over and had broken up  (Dave Clark Mike Smith Lenny Davidson Rick Huxley Nd Denis Payton) Davidson, Huxley and Payton left and Alan Parker and Eric Ford joined on lead guitar and bass. This line-up, renamed "Dave Clark & Friends", lasted until 1973.

1976 –FridayI'm moving to Mars next week, so if you have any boxes... Steven Wright……The unmanned spacecraft Viking II landed at 6:38 p.m. EDT on Utopia Planitia, the largest impact crater on Mars. Viking 2 performed a whole raft of experiments: physical properties of the soil, atmospheric structure, biology, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy, meteorology, seismology, radio science (location of the lander and also information about Mars’ motion), neutron mass spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy,  ionospheric properties, and making brownies. Its twin, Viking I was the first to arrive on the surface of Mars on July 20, 1976. It also examined the  possible amino acid mixture that resulted in the formation of Tom Cruise. Viking 2′s orbiter sprang a leak and was then shut down July 25, 1978, after more than 700 orbits. The lander’s batteries died April 11, 1980. (Viking 1′s lander worked until Nov. 13, 1982.) The Viking 2 lander is still visible on the surface of Mar .

1980Wednesday How do you catch an Ether bunny? With an Ethernet……bada bing….. Ethernet specifications were published by Xerox working with Intel and Digital Equipment Corporation. The Ethernet originated the late 1960s, when Norman Abramson designed the University of Hawaii's Aloha radio network. It connected the IBM mainframe on the island of Oahu to the other islands and ships at sea.  Robert Metcalf of Xerox officially invented the Ethernet in 1973.  It  is a system for connecting computers within a building using hardware running from machine to machine. It differs from the Internet, which connects remotely located computers by telephone line, software protocol and some hardware. Metcalfe wanted Ethernet to be a shared standard from which everyone could benefit, and therefore it was released as an open standard on this day.

2000 –Sunday- It’s absolutely stupid that we live without an ozone layer. We have men, we’ve got rockets, we’ve got saran wrap – FIX IT!!!.......Lewis Black…… Like the Blob in the 1958 movie,NASA data showed the  ever growing ozone  hole at just under 11 million square miles - the biggest it had ever been. Record low temperatures in the stratosphere are believed to have helped the expansion of the ozone hole during the southern hemisphere’s spring season. Antarctic ozone depletion starts in July, when sunlight triggers chemical reactions in cold air trapped over the South Pole during the Antarctic winter. It worsens during August and September (particularly in September when the U.S Congress returns from vacation and the amount of hot air in the atmosphere quadruples) before tailing off as temperatures rise in late November of early December. Depletion of the ozone layer over Antarctica and the Arctic is being monitored because ozone protects Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. Only 10 or less of every million molecules of air are ozone. The majority of these ozone molecules resides in a layer between 10 and 40 kilometers (6 and 25 miles) above the Earth's surface in the stratosphere. The ozone hole, like Hilary Clinton’s ego, continues to expand to this day.

2009-Thursday- But don't tell my heart, my achy breaky heart
I just don't think he'd understand
And if you tell my heart, my achy breaky heart
He might blow up and kill this man
…..Billy Ray Cyrus………..In case you have a strong desire to capture insects with your tongue,
Scientists at the Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease (GICD) traced the evolution of the four-chambered human heart to a common genetic factor linked to the development of hearts in turtles and other reptiles. The research, published in the September 3 issue of the journal Nature, showed how a specific protein that turns on genes is involved in heart formation in turtles, lizards and humans. "This is the first genetic link to the evolution of two, rather than one, pumping chamber in the heart, which is a key event in the evolution of becoming warm-blooded," said Gladstone investigator Benoit Bruneau who led the study.

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476 – You got a lotta nerve
To say you are my friend
When I was down
You just stood there grinning
You got a lotta nerve
To say you gota helping hand to lend
You just want to be on
The side that's winning…..Bob Dylan……….
Friday Romulus Augustus, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, was deposed by Odoacer, a German barbarian who proclaimed himself king of Italy. Odoacer was a mercenary leader in the Roman imperial army when he launched his mutiny against the young emperor, Romulus, probably 14 years old, acted as a figurehead for his father's rule. He reigned, if you could call it that,  only ten months, minus “time outs” for not doing his homework or breaking curfew. At Piacenza, Odoacer defeated Roman General Orestes, the emperor's powerful father, ( Odoacer’s father had once had been an assistant to Attila the Hun) and then took Ravenna, the capital of the Western empire since 402. Although Roman rule continued in the East, the crowning of Odoacer marked the end of the original Roman Empire, which centered in Italy.

1241 – Wednesday Come on and hear, come on and hear,
Alexander's Ragtime Band.
Come on and hear, come on and hear,
It's the best band in the land!..........
Irving Berlin……..Co` latha breith sona dhuibh!, Happy Birthday, Alexander III (Alaxandair mac Alaxandair)of Scotland. Alexander was one of those rare Scottish kings…………a good one.  He succeeded where his father, Alexander II, had failed in ridding the Western Isles of Scotland of Norse influence. Then he made his family so powerful that they would be a rival to the future kings of Scotland in influence. And, unfortunately,  his kaptution, from a mysterious riding accident,  would  plunge Scotland into a succession crisis that would ultimately lead to war with England and centuries of conflict.

1774 –Sunday From what I have said of the Natives of New-Holland they may appear to some to be the most wretched people upon Earth, but in reality they are far more happier than we Europeans; being wholly unacquainted not only with the superfluous but the necessary  …..James Cook, First Voyage……. New Caledonia was first sighted, during the second voyage of Captain James Cook aboard Resolution. He named his discovery New Caledonia – after Caledonia, which was former name for Scotland.  The first meeting between Kanak and Europeans took place a few days later, when Cook and his crew landed at Balade on the North-East Coast of the Grande Terre.

1781Tuesday  …….Everybody's very happy
'Cause the sun is shining all the time
Looks like another perfect day
I love L.A. (We love it)
I love L.A. (We love it)
We love it
………Randy Newman…….La La Land invented.  In  1771 Father Junipero Serra and a group of Spaniards founded the San Gabriel Mission as the center of the first "community" in an area inhabited by small bands of Gabrielino Indians. Twelve years after Portola's trek, which began in San Diego and ended in Monterey, a company of settlers called "Los Pobladores" were recruited in the states of Sonora and Sinaloa in Mexico. Their mission, under authority of Governor Felipe de Neve, was to establish pueblos, and take the tour of the homes of the Hollywood stars,  in the name of the king of Spain. On September 4, 1781, the Pobladores, a group of 12 families - 46 men, women and children led by Captain Rivera y Moncada - established a community in the area discovered by Portola, and named it El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reyna de Los Angeles de Porciuncula, after the nearby river. Unable to fit El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reyna de Los Angeles de Porciuncula Dodgers on a baseball uniform, they had to shorten the name. Over time, the area became known as the Ciudad de Los Angeles, "City of Angels," and on April 4, 1850 became the City of Los Angeles

1801 Friday  Be it known that I, CULLEN WHIPPLE, of the city and county of Providence, in the State of Rhode Island, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Machinery for Performing Certain Parts of the Operations Involved in the Manufacture of Wood-Screws, of which the following is a full, clear and exact description, reference being had to the accompanying drawing, which makes part of this specification, and in which….Patent……….Happy Birthday, Cullen Whipple, American inventor and machinist of Providence, RI, who patented the first practical screw machine.  The screw machine (currently referred to as the U.S Government) was a  method of mass-producing pointed screws for making pointed screws. Prior to this invention, screws had blunt ends, and it was necessary to drill a starter hole. So yes, many people were screwed.  For most historians, Archimedes of Syracuse is the grandfather of the screw. The Greek scientist and mathematician popularized its mechanical principles when he concocted his helix-shaped water-lifting device in the 3rd century B.C., known as the "Archimedes' screw".

1826 –Monday Lumberjacks make good musicians because of their natural logarithms………Grattis pŒ fšdelsedagen  Happy Birthday, Martin Wiberg, Swedish philosopher and inventor.  Wiberg is regarded a computer pioneer, he wore a coonskin hat while working,  for his 1875 invention of a machine that could print logarithmic tables. The tables were subsequently published in English, French and German, but oddly, not Swedish.  A common logarithm isthe value of the power when a number is expressed as to the power of 10 (has the base 10). Thus 100 expressed as to the power of 10 is 102 and the log of 100 is 2.

 1833 –Wednesday Out on the corner, standin so bold
Stood a little paper boy, so hungry and cold
And as the crowd came passin' by
These words he said with tears in his eye
Please buy a paper from me,
so I can get me something to eat
My clothes are ragged,
No shoes on my feet,
Said the little paper boy
…..Hank Williams. It’s
Newspaper Carrier Day and Sept. 4 marks the anniversary of the hiring of the first paperboy (Thought Police version is newspaper carrier) in the United States. In 1833, The New York Sun ran the following ad: "To the Unemployed - - A number of steady men can find employment by vending this paper. A liberal discount is allowed to those who buy to sell again." Ten-year-old Barney Flaherty, although not a man, was the first to answer the ad and got the job and a cultural icon was born. The New York Sun just made its debut the previous day on September 3 and would become the first successful penny daily, popular with the city’s less affluent, working classes. Publisher Benjamin H. Day, emphasized local events, police court reports, and sports in his four-page morning newspaper. Advertisements, notably help-wanted ads, were plentiful.

1848-Monday  Invention, it must be humbly admitted, does not consist in creating out of void but out of chaos……Mary Shelley…………. Happy Birthday, Louis Latimer, Black inventor born in Chelsea, Massachusetts.  Latimer received a patent for an improved process for manufacturing the carbon filaments in light bulbs. Edison’s bulb would not have succeeded without it. These improvements allowed for a reduction in time to produce and an increase in quality. During his life time he worked with and for Alexander Bell, Hiram Maxim and Thomas Edison. Latimer was the only black member of an exclusive social group, the Edison Pioneers.  He also supervised the installation of electric lights in New York, Philadelphia, Canada, and London. Other Latimer patents included a ‘Water Closet for Railroad Cars’ 1874, ‘Apparatus for Cooling and Disinfecting’ 1886, and ‘Locking Rack for Hats, Coats, and Umbrellas’ 1896. Latimer published  scintillating book entitled Incandescent Electric Lighting: A Practical Description of the Edison System. He continued to work as a patent consultant until 1922.

            1866-Tuesday  There are only two kinds of naval vessels - submarines, and targets…..Unknown……… Happy Birthday to the appropriately cognemed, inventor, Simon Lake, born in Pleasantville, New Jersey. Lake’s submarine, the Argonaut, was the first to make extensive open-sea operations and to salvage cargo from sunken vessels.  Lake, a  Quaker American mechanical engineer and naval architect obtained over two hundred patents for advances in naval design and competed with John Philip Holland to build the first submarines for the United States Navy. Ironically, Lakes submarines operated in rivers and bays but not lakes. His his Lake Torpedo Boat Company built a total of 33 submarines for the U.S. Navy between 1909 and 1922.

1882-Monday If it weren't for electricity we'd all be watching television by candlelight. ….George Gobel…………..On the birthday of  Lewis Latimer –see 1848 above- ,  the first central electric station to supply light and power was the Edison Electric Illuminating Company at 257 Pearl Street in New York City. It was shocking! Electrifying! One Man One Volt… Edison had always wanted to grow up and “join the circuits”. The station's "Jumbo No.1" generator was a direct-current steam-powered dynamo which went on line at 3 p.m. The armature (an armature is one of the principal electrical components of an electromechanical machine--a motor or generator) alone was 6 tons of its total 27 ton weight, and used air cooling. By October 1, 1882, less than a month after the opening of the station, Edison Electric had 59 customers. By December 1, it had 203, and a year later, 513. Pearl Street became the model that led the way for electrification in cities and towns across the United States. The plant remained in operation until 1895

1886- Saturday I was born on the prairies where the wind blew free and there was nothing to break the light of the sun. I was born where there were no enclosures……. Apache chief Geronimo surrendered to General Nelson Miles and U.S. government troops at Fort Bowie, New Mexico He had battled the U.S forces for over 30 years. However, by 1886 the Apaches were exhausted and hopelessly outnumbered. Geronimo was  the last Indian warrior to formally give in to U.S. forces and signaling the end of the Indian Wars in the Southwest .  At the end, his group consisted of only 16 warriors, 12 women, and 6 children and Michael Ansara as Cochise with John Lupton as Tom Jeffords. Upon their surrender, Geronimo and over 300 of his fellow Chiricahuas were shipped to Fort Marion, Florida. One year later many of them were relocated to the Mt. Vernon barracks in Alabama, where about one quarter died from tuberculosis and other diseases. Geronimo died on Feb. 17, 1909, a prisoner of war, unable to return to his homeland. He was buried in the Apache cemetery at: Fort Sill, Oklahoma.  James Hurst on the Southern New site notes that on Route 80 south of Rodeo, New Mexico, near Apache, Arizona, stands a marker commemorating Geronimo's surrender. A short distance south of the marker is a road which leads east and then south/southeast to the actual surrender site. This is four wheel drive vehicle country, and heavy rains can render the road virtually impassible in spots. Once at the site, the canyon road leads east and ends about two miles inside New Mexico. From there, travel is by foot following either the canyon floor (the creek bed) or a higher narrow trail. For one who wishes to understand the elusiveness of the Apaches and the difficulties in the Army's attempts to capture them, a day spent hiking Skeleton Canyon will be an invaluable lesson.

 1888- Tuesday Light makes photography. Embrace light. Admire it. Love it. But above all, know light. Know it for all you are worth, and you will know the key to photography …….George Eastman patented the first roll-film camera and registered the name Kodak. "You press the button, we do the rest" promised George Eastman with this advertising slogan for his Kodak camera.  Eastman’s key breakthrough was with cellulose. It produced a cleaner image than paper and was easily spooled onto a film roller, making it compact. It proved to be the birth of modern camera film. Eastman’s camera was pre-loaded with enough film for 100 exposures. After the film was used up and developed, the whole camera was returned to the customer           

1905 – Monday If you saw a man drowning and you could either save him or photograph the event...what kind of film would you use?.... Anonymous ….. Alles Gute zum Geburtstag! A big day for photography – see George Eastman above-  Happy Birthday, Walter Zapp, inventor, born in Riga, Latvia. Zapp is known as the  “father of Minox” (see our Who’s Your Daddy page for a list of “fathers of…”'s%20Your%20Daddy.html) the  first and revolutionary miniature camera of which more than one million copies have been sold since its invention in 1935.  Zapp also invented a paper cutter made especially for photographers but we also know that paper cuts are for everyone.

1913 –Thursday  Genetic Olympic headline….RNA wins by a Strand……….Happy Birthday, Stanford Moore, American chemist born in Chicago, Illinois.  Moore shared the 1972 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with  Christian B. Anfinsen and William H. Stein, for their research into the ribonuclease molecule which catalyzes the hydrolysis of RNA into smaller components. Moore and Stein are credited with describing in detail the chemical structure of catalytically active sites on the enzyme and their relation to the enzyme's biological activity.   He is also known for his applications of chromatography to the analysis of amino acids and peptides obtained from proteins and biological fluids and for the use of those analyses in determining the structure of the enzyme ribonuclease.  Why a child of five could understand this.  Someone fetch a child of five…..Groucho Marx.

1918 – Wednesday If 'pro' is the opposite of 'con' what is the opposite of 'progress'?......Happy Birthday, Paul Harvey (Aurandt), American radio broadcaster born in Tulsa, Oklahoma. His eponymous  radio show Paul Harvey News and Comment was first broadcast nationally in 1951 and continued into the 21st century.  It made his  brisk, quirky delivery one of the longest-lasting and best-known shticks and voices on American radio. Harvey's program, which was an idiosyncratic mix of headlines, comments, quips and advertisements, all voiced by Harvey was syndicated at times to  more than 1200 radio stations around the country each day.

1923 –Thursday Orthopox-13: Youd better destroy those blimps quickly Crypto, or our Bay City brain farm will turn into a den of unmotivated degenerates sitting in front of their TV screens, twiddling their thumbs...Ahem!....from Destroy All Humans, 2006 

The maiden flight of the first U.S.airship, the USS Shenandoah. the first American built rigid airship.  We note that on this date it was officially ZR-1 but on  October 10, 1923, the ship was christened USS Shenandoah (an American Indian term meaning “daughter of the stars”) and officially accepted as a commissioned vessel of the United States Navy. Shenandoah’s first flights were on-the-job training for the American Navy, which had no previous experience operating a rigid airship of its own.  On September 3, 1925, on its 57th flight, Shenandoah was caught in a storm over Ohio.  Updrafts caused the ship to rise rapidly, at a rate eventually exceeding 1,000 feet per minute, until the ship reached an altitude over 6,000 feet.  Shenandoah rose, fell, and was twisted by the storm, and the ship finally suffered catastrophic structural failure, breaking in two at frame, and crashed, killing the entire crew.

1927 –Sunday Before we work on artificial intelligence why don't we do something about natural stupidity?......Steve Polyak……. Happy Birthday John McCarthy, American computer scientist born in Boston, Massachusetts.  McCarthy was one of the pioneers Artificial Intelligence. The cognitive scientist coined the term in his 1955 proposal for the 1956 Dartmouth Conference, the first artificial intelligence conference. In a 2007 article, he described artificial intelligence as “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines” and said intelligence was “the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world.”  He also he created the computer programming language LISP in 1958. LISP was initially used primarily by the AI, an example of which can be heard on many Hip Hop recordings and also the show, Hillbilly Hand Fishing as well as the  Jersey Shore.

1941 –Thursdayin the waters which we deem necessary for our defense, American naval vessels and American planes will no longer wait until Axis submarines lurking under the water, or Axis raiders on the surface of the sea, strike their deadly blow—first………Franklin D. Roosevelt –after the “Greer Incident”………Even though war had not yet been declared between the U.S and Germany (see December 8, 1941), a German submarine made  the first attack against a United States ship, the USS Greer.  One year earlier, the Roosevelt administration had sold 50 “pre-owned” destroyers to the British.  According to the captain’s log of the German U-652, the incident began after British planes dropped depth charges near the patrolling submarine. The submarine located a destroyer within 1200 meters of its position. What may be significant is that the submarine captain classified the destroyer as “one of the 50 American vessels that are now sailing for England.”  The torpedo attack was unsuccessful as was the Greer’s depth charge counter attack and then the U-boat’s counter counter torpedo  attack and then the Greer’s counter counter counter depth charge attack.  Nobody hit nothin’. 

1949 Sunday  We know how Truman betrayed the American people in their hopes for peace, how he betrayed the Negro people in their thirst for equal rights, how he tore up the Bill of Rights and subjected the whole American people to a reign of FBI-terrorization…..Paul Robeson, accepting the Stalin Peace Prize from Stalin – 1952……The Peekskill Riots erupted  after a Paul Robeson (along with other artists such as Woody Guthrie, Lee Hays and Pete Seeger) concert in Peekskill, New York. The1concert was to benefit a group called the Civil Rights Congress which had  had been championing the cause of the "Trenton 6" -- six black youths sentenced to the electric chair in New Jersey. The congress had convinced the New Jersey Supreme Court to throw out the six men's convictions and order a new trial. Local yokels, inflamed by the Ku Klux Klan,  Robeson’s Stalinist sympathies, the left wing activism of the others  and their salute to the greatest hits of ABBA, attacked concert goers as they departed following the show. 

1950 –Monday Driving in to Darlington County
Me and Wayne on the Fourth of July
Driving in to Darlington County
Looking for some work on the county line
ruce Springsteen…..Darlington Raceway is was the site of the inaugural Southern 500, the first 500-mile NASCAR race. The Darlington History website notes that; Californian Johnny Mantz drove to victory that day in the first Southern 500®.  The race took over 6 hours to complete (about the length of time it takes to drive into Manhattan on the LIE during rush hour, Many of the teams running in the Southern 500® that day ran out of tires and began buying tires from fans in the infield so they could finish the race. Mantz started dead last in the field of 75 racers, many of whom had never raced on asphalt, but roared to the checkered flag averaging a blistering 76 mph. Mantz showed the first use of a “tire strategy” by using truck tires because he knew car tires of the day would not last long enough to win the race.

1951-Tuesday  In general my children refuse to eat anything that hasn't danced on television….. Erma Bombeck ……President Harry S. Truman’s opening speech before a conference in San Francisco was broadcast across the nation, marking the first time a television program was broadcast from coast to coast. The speech focused on Truman’s acceptance of a treaty that officially ended America’s post-World War II occupation of Japan and the offer of free sushi for a year.  Later, Truman sang some of his favorite vaudeville songs, did a little magic act, hosted a dance contest, showed how to cook a soufflé, and knocked out Richard Nixon in a three round boxing match.  

1957 Wednesday  Up in the morning and off to school
the teacher is teaching the golden rule.
American history and practical math
you study them hard, hoping to pass
working your fingers right down to the bone
the guy behind you won't leave you alone
…….Chuck Berry……
During the Little Rock Crisis, Orval Faubus, governor of Arkansas, called  out the National Guard to prevent African American students from enrolling in Central High School.  Three years after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously in Brown v. Board of Education that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal, nine African American students—Minnijean Brown, Terrance Roberts, Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Thelma Mothershed, Melba Patillo, Gloria Ray, Jefferson Thomas, and Carlotta Walls—attempted to integrate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. The students, known as the Little Rock Nine, were recruited by Daisy Bates, president of the Arkansas branch of the NAACP.  President Eisenhower issued Executive Order 10730, sending units of the U.S. Army’s 101st Airborne Division to Little Rock and federalizing the Arkansas National Guard. These U.S. Army troops escorted the nine students, into Central High School on September 25, 1957.


1957 Wednesday  They’ll Know You Arrived When You Drive Up in an Edsel…..advertisement…….Elsewhere, another disaster was occurring.  This was “E Day” and the Ford Motor Company introduced the Edsel - named for Edsel Bryant Ford, Henry Ford's son.   This inaugural model, 1958, was intended to be an intermediate-level brand, bridging the gap between the cheaper Fords and pricier Mercurys and Lincolns.  Too bad it was superbly ugly.  Automotive writers roundly trashed the Edsel. One reporter said it looked like "a Pontiac pushing a toilet seat." Another called it "an Oldsmobile sucking a lemon.  Needless to say, by 1960 the Edsel had gone the route of the dinosaurs and was kaput. It has remained at the top of the list of all time commercial failures along with New Coke, Sony  Betamax, the Apple Newton (Lisa too), Crystal Pepsi, Pepsi Blue, Polaroid Instant Home Movies, the Delorean,  the 1976 Summer Olympics, Mitt Romney’s presidential campaign, electric cars, and television classics such as Supertrain, Pink Lady & Jeff, The Chevy Chase Show, The Pat Sajak Show and Thicke of the Night.

1959- Friday Bom ba ba bom bab um dab um dab um wa wa wa
Bom ba ba bom bab um dad um dab um wa wa wa
Bom ba ba bom um dab um dad um dab um dab
I am only five years old and my baby's three
(Bom ba ba bom um dab um dab um dab um dab
Jan & Dean….Baby Talk…...Dick Clark's first package tour – The Caravan of Stars - opened  at the Michigan State Fair, featuring The Coasters, LaVern Baker- Jim Dandy, Duane Eddy, Jan and Dean – Baby Talk, Frankie Avalon (singing Why), and Annette Funicello with her epic, Tall Paul, Jack Scott, Ray Sharpe, Skip & Flip, Rusty York, Santo & Johnny- Sleepwalk,  and someone named Dick Carouso

1961- Monday Michael row the boat ashore, hallelujah
Michael row the boat ashore, hallelujah
Sister help to trim the sail, hallelujah
Sister help to trim the sail, hallelujah
The Highwaymen's Michael (Row the Boat Ashore) landed at # 1 on the Billboard Charts, paddling past Joe Dowell’s Wooden Heart. Michael would in turn be bumped off by Bobby Vee with Take Good Care of My Baby.

1967 –Monday  Just sit right back and you'll hear a tale,
A tale of a fateful trip
That started from this tropic port
Aboard this tiny ship.
The mate was a mighty sailing man,
The skipper brave and sure.
Five passengers set sail that day
For a three hour tour, a three hour tour.
………George Wyle and Sherwood Shwartz…….
world already reeling from the cancellation of Ozzie and Harriet just a year and a day earlier, was stunned as Gilligan’s Island went kaput. Gilligan's Island, a seminal, metaphysical, political satire that paved the way for West Wing and other relentlessly politically correct fare,  was a comedy about seven people stranded with a seemingly inexhaustible supply of supplies, on a deserted island during a “three hour tour”.  Featuring Bob Denver as the moronic yet innocently endearing (channeling his inner Maynard G. Krebs from Dobie Gillis (middle name is Walter. Named for his aunt, the "G" is silent) , Gilligan, first mate of the ill-fated SS Minnow, the show also starred Alan Hale as the Skipper, Jim Backus (voice of Mr. Magoo) as millionaire Thurston Howell III, and Tina Louise as the glamorous starlet Ginger. Although the show ran for only three years, it aired in reruns for decades. The characters were resurrected in three TV movies. While they would be rescued from the island in future specials, the last episode featured King Killiwani and two other natives coming  to the island looking for a 'White Goddess.'  This turned out to be Gilligan.

1969: Thursday- Come on people now
Smile on your brother
Everybody get together
Try to love one another
Right now …..
he Youngbloods were canceled from NBC's Tonight Show at the last minute. Substituting for Crosby Stills Nash and Young who had canceled because Neil Young had broken up with the rest, Jesse Colin Young and the gang were there to play Get Together. The Youngbloods told  the press they left because the show went back on their promise to let them play two songs. Host Johnny Carson went ballistic on the air that night and gave his side of the story: "They complained about the set, the lighting, the sound, the show -- everything. So we wiped their noses, told them they'd been in show business a day and a half, and sent them home."

1972 Monday I swam my brains out…..Mark Spitz became  the first competitor to win seven medals at a single Olympic Games. The 22 year old Spitz, who spent so much time in the water that it soaked up his personality leaving a surly humorless superstar, 22, made his farewell appearance by swimming the butterfly leg of the 4 x 100 meter medley relay and helping the United States team to win in a world record time of 3 minutes 48.2 seconds. Spitz’s record lasted 36 years until the Beijing Olympics when Michael Phelps again swimming the butterfly leg of the 4 x 100 meter medley relay, won his 8th gold medal.

1976- Saturday …..What you doin in the back aah
What you doin in the back aah?
You should be dancing, yeah
Dancing, yeah
……Disco Fever amok as The Bee Gees' You Should Be Dancing hit #1 on the Billboard Charts breaking Elton John’s heart as it knocked Don’t Go Breaking My Heart from the top spot.  The fever continued as K. C & the Sunshine Band’s (Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake Your Booty, Wild Cherry’s Play That Funky Music, Walter Murphy’s A Fifth Of Beethoven and then the Disco equivalent of Beethoven, Rick Dee’s Disco Duck (Part 1)

1977 Sunday round up the usual suspects……… Captain Renault…….Casablanca….. The Golden Dragon Massacre took place in San Francisco, California.  Five people  were killed and eleven people were wounded as Chinese gangs clashed at the Golden Dragon Restaurant on Washington Street.  This was the continuation of an earlier dispute over fireworks between the Ping Boys and the Joe Boys.  The first brouhaha resulted in one dead and 4 wounded Joe’s.  On this day three masked armed men entered the restaurant, Ping leader, Michael Louie saw them coming and hid under a table.  The shooters then cleverly sprayed the restaurant with fire from shotguns and semi-automatic weapons, killing the five innocent bystanders, including two tourists,  and wounding 11 more in the fusillade.  The slaughter led to the formation of the San Francisco Police Department's Gang Task Force.  Five men from the Joe Boys were arrested and convicted for the crime.

1985 –Wednesday Most of my advances were by mistake. You uncover what is when you get rid of what isn't …..Richard Buckminster Fuller…….The discovery of Buckminsterfullerene, by discovered by Sir Harold Kroto in the UK and Richard E. Smalley and Robert F. Curl, Jr in the US in soot of all thing. This was the first fullerene molecule but 3rd allotrope of carbon.  Buckminsterfullerene's atoms are bonded together into a highly symmetrical, hollow polygon structure (resembling a sphere) with 60 vertices and 32 faces. Twelve of these are pentagons and twenty are hexagons giving it the same geometry as that of a soccer ball….the scientists got a kick out of that.  Eponymously named after the architect R Buckminster Fuller (Bucky) whose geodesic dome design is similar to the molecular structure of C60, the unique structures, also known as buckyballs, have led to an entirely new branch of chemistry.

1998 Friday Yeah, I've been searchin'
A-a searchin'
Oh, yeah, searchin' every which a-way
Yeah, yeah
Oh, yeah, searchin'
I'm searchin'
Searchin' every which a-way
Yeah, yeah
he Coasters……..Google was  founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, two students at Stanford University. Of course we googled the history of Google (Most of the Gnus would not be possible without Google. Pre-Google, the entire Gnus was about 150 pages, post Google we’ve got up to 400 pages per month.) So the Google time line notes that in August Sun co-founder Andy Bechtolsheim wrote  a check for $100,000 to an entity that didn’t exist yet: a company called Google Inc. (We note that this happens on Broadway all the time and the people on the receiving end of the check can end up indicted).
Google set up workspace in Susan Wojcicki’s garage at 232 Santa Margarita, Menlo Park. Google filed for incorporation in California on September 4. Shortly thereafter, Page  and Brin opened  a bank account – “they had to Brin and bear it”- in the newly-established company’s name and deposited Bechtolsheim’s check. They then hired Craig Silverstein, a fellow computer science grad student at Stanford.

2006- Monday  Vaccination is the medical sacrament corresponding to baptism ……Samuel Butler…….A vaccine for a type of meningitis was offered for the first time in Great Britain for all babies at two, four and 13 months as part of the national childhood immunization program. The vaccine was designed for protection against pneumococcal disease which causes meningitis and septicaemia, a very serious infection, with a death rate of 20 per cent. Meningitis is an infection of the fluid of a person's spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain. Swiss physician Gaspard Vieusseux first described meningococcal disease, following an epidemic in Geneva, Switzerland in 1805. In 1913, American scientist Simon Flexner developed an antimeningococcal serum that is shown to decrease mortality in people with meningococcal meningitis

2012 – Tuesday  Well, you don't know what
We can find
Why don't you come with me little girl
On a magic carpet ride
Steppenwolf……A carpet that can help prevent falls in elderly by warning them after detecting unusual footsteps was developed.  Researchers at the University of Manchester in England, described it as a  'magic carpet' that can detect falls and may even predict mobility problems. Beneath the carpet is a mesh of optical fibers that detect and plot movement as pressure bends them, changing the light detected at the carpet's edges. These deflected light patterns help electronics 'learn' walking patterns and detect if they are deteriorating as elderly folks stagger all over the house.  As many as 30%-40% of community dwelling older people fall each year. This is the most serious and frequent accident in the home and accounts for 50% of hospital admissions in the over 65 age group.

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1638 – Sunday Il est certain qu’il était passionné pour la gloire, et même encore plus que pour la réalité de ses conquêtes. Dans l’acquisition de l’Alsace et de la moitié de la Flandre, de toute la Franche-Comté, ce qu’il aimait le mieux était le nom qu’il se faisait". [It is certain that he passionately wanted glory, rather than the conquests themselves. In the acquisition of Alsace and half of Flanders, and of all of Franche-Comté, what he really liked was the name he made for himself]…..Voltaire on Louis XIV……..Joyeux Anniversaire!, Happy Birthday,Louis XIV of France France's Roi Soleil (Sun King), who had the longest reign in European history (1643-1715). During this time he brought absolute monarchy to its height and established an impressive court at Versailles. Unfortunately, he did not work and play well with others as he fought most of the other European countries in four wars - The War of Devolution (1667-68) The Dutch War (1672-78) The War of the League of Augsburg (1688-97) and The War of the Spanish Succession (1702-13) The early part of his reign (1643-61), while Louis was young, was dominated by the chief minister Cardinal Mazarin. In the middle period (1661-85) Louis when he wore those really giant wigs, reigned personally and innovatively, but the last years of his personal rule (1685-1715) were beset by problems – beginning in “85’ when he took what proved to be the disastrous step of revoking the Protestant (Huguenot) minority's right to worship by his Edict of Fontainebleau, often called the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Many Huguenots--who constituted an industrious segment of French society--left the country, taking with them considerable capital as well as skills. In addition Louis's display of religious intolerance helped unite the Protestant powers of Europe against the Louie.

 1661 – Monday We hang the petty thieves and appoint the great ones to public office.  ….Aesop…… Nicolas Fouquet,  Louis XIV Superintendent of Finances was arrested in Nantes (the King’s birthday, see 1638 above) by D'Artagnan, captain of the king's musketeers and also Fouquet’s best friend. No, Athos, Porthos & Aramis were not there.  By his transactions with financiers, to whom he allowed huge profits, Fouquet had succeeded in nearly causing the country to go broke while also accumulating a vast personal fortune. The trial took three years. Fouquet was sentenced to banishment, but the king, still resentful, changed the sentence to life imprisonment.

1667 – Monday Where there is matter, there is geometry….Johannes Kepler…. Buon Compleanno!  Happy Birthday, Giovanni Gerolamo Saccheri, Italian mathematician born in San Remo, Genoa. His mathematical works were almost forgotten until his two most notable books, the Logica demonstrativa , an explanation of, yes, logic and geometry, and the Euclides ab omni naevo vindicatus were virtually forgotten until they were rescued from oblivion, a town in Piedmont. The Euclides  was found by by E. Beltrami in 1889 and the Logica by G. Vailati in 1903. They also found his shopping list and copies of several tic tac toe games that he lost. Much of his logical and mathematical reasoning has become part of mathematical logic and non-Euclidean geometry.

   1698 –Friday  Almost cut my hair
It happened just the other day
It's gettin' kind of long
I could've said it was in my way….
Crosby, Stills and Nash…………….A close shave!  In an effort to move his people away from archaic customs, Tsar Peter I of Russia imposed a tax on beards. Z.Z Top immediately cancelled their scheduled tour.  Furthermore, Peter ordered his noblemen to wear fashionable Western clothes  such as, cowboy hats,  Nehru Jackets, burgundy tuxedoes with pink shirts, polo shirts with madras shorts, black leather pants with black leather shirts and spikey Mohawk hairdos, instead of their archaic long costumes. To add insult to injury, Peter personally cut off the beards of his noblemen and had many others cut by former NY Giant pitcher Sal, the Barber, Maglie . All men except the peasants and priests had to pay Peter's yearly beard tax and wear a medal proclaiming, "Beards are a ridiculous ornament." According to Diane Stanley in her book, Peter the Great

              1774 –Monday - I am not a Virginian, I am an American ….Patrick Henry….The first session of the Continental Congress convened at Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia. Fifty-six delegates from all of the colonies except Georgia, they were protesting the end of Gone With the Wind,  drafted a declaration of rights and grievances and elected Virginian Peyton Randolph as the first president of Congress. Patrick Henry, George Washington, John Adams and John Jay were among the delegates. They met in secret and wore fake moustaches and glasses because they did not want the British to know that the colonies were uniting. The Congress was a response to the British Parliament's enactment of the Coercive Acts, called the "Intolerable Acts" by colonists, in 1774. The Coercive Acts closed Boston to merchant shipping, established formal British military rule in Massachusetts, made British officials immune to criminal prosecution in America required colonists to quarter British troops, forced the colonists to buy Spice Girls CDs, compelled the boiling of all food when cooking, and required daily viewing of the show Downtown Abbey.

              1847 –Sunday-  Jesse James was a man
And he killed many men
He robbed the Glendale train
And he took from the richer
And he gave that to the poorer
He'd a hand and a heart and a brain
Happy Birthday, Jesse James, famous American outlaw.  With his brother Frank James and several other ex-Confederates, including Cole Younger and his brothers, the James gang robbed their way across the Western frontier targeting banks, trains, stagecoaches, and stores from Iowa to Texas. James is believed to have carried out the first daylight bank robbery in peacetime, stealing $60,000 from a bank in Liberty, Missouri. On July 21, 1873 the James-Younger gang pulled off the first successful train robbery in the American West by taking $3,000 from the Rock Island Express in Adair, Iowa. Actors who have played Jesse James on film and TV include; Brad Pitt. Colin Farrell, Tyrone Power, James Keach, James Coburn, Roy Rogers, Rob Lowe, Clement Moore (aka TV’s Lone Ranger), Robert Wagner, Kris Kristofferson, Wendell Corey (twice), Audie Murphy, and Robert Duvall. Henry Fonda played Frank James twice.

            1850-Thursday-  Focal degradation
Bring the chaos into light
Cathode ray Sunshine
……Dark Tranquility……Alles Gute zum Geburtstag! Happy Birthday, Eugene Goldstein, German physicist born in born at Gleiwitz (now Gliwice in Poland).  He was an early researcher in X-rays who discovered and named canal rays.  Canal Rays have nothing to do with the Suez Canal or the Gowanus Canal but emerge through holes in the anodes of low-pressure electrical discharge tubes. These were later shown to be positively charged particles. Goldstein used a tube filled with hydrogen gas. The positive particle had a charge equal and opposite to the electron. It also had a mass of 1.66E-24 grams or one atomic mass unit. Why a child of five could understand this.  Someone fetch a child of five, Groucho Marx……This positive particle would eventually be named the proton by Ernest Rutherford.  In 1976 Goldstein coined the term "cathode ray" (he had had no success with “protestant rays”) emitted from a cathode. He was the first to see that cathode rays,like  ground hogs,  could cast a shadow, and were emitted at right angles to the surface

            1862-Friday-  The best way of travel, however, if you aren't in any hurry at all, if you don't care where you are going, if you don't like to use your legs, if you don't want to be annoyed at all by any choice of directions, is in a balloon. In a balloon, you can decide only when to start, and usually when to stop. The rest is left entirely to nature…..William Pene du Boi……, At at Stafford Road Gasworks, Wolverhampton, England, Meteorologist James Glaisher and pilot Henry Tracey Coxwell attained the greatest height that had been reached by a balloon carrying passengers. The object of this flight, and others was to carry out observations on the temperature and  humidity  of the atmosphere at high elevations and drop water balloons on the people below. As no automatically recording instruments were available, and Glaisher was unable to read the barometer at the highest point, mainly because he passed out,  so the precise altitude can never be known, but it is estimated at about 7 miles from the surface of the Earth.

            1877-Wednesday-  My lands are where my dead lie buried ……Victor over the hapless George Custer and th 7th Cavalry at the Battle of the Little Big Horn, in June of 1876, Oglala Sioux chief Crazy Horse (Tashunca-uitco)was  fatally stabbed with a bayonet by a U.S. soldier after “resisting” confinement in a guardhouse at Fort Robinson, Nebraska. Crazy Horse had been pursued by the forces of General Nelson Miles (who would accept the surrender of Geronimo in 1886 –see Sept. 4 above). Crazy Horse gave up  in May of 1877.  When he left the reservation without authorization, to take his sick wife to her parents, General George Crook ordered him arrested, fearing that he was plotting a return to battle. Crazy Horse did not resist arrest at first, but when he realized that he was being led to a guardhouse, he began to struggle, and while his arms were held by one of the arresting officers, a soldier ran him through with his bayonet.

            1882 –Tuesday- Did you know that Union people built the pyramids? It was originally designed as a cube. Each shift did a little less till the last said 'throw a rock on top and lets go home'. …….Peter J. McGuire, a carpenter and labor union leader  came up with the idea for Labor Day. He thought American workers should be honored with their own day. He proposed his idea to New York's Central Labor Union early in 1882, although believe that Matthew Maguire, a machinist, not Peter McGuire, came up with the idea. The holiday grew out of a celebration and parade in honor of the working class by the Knights of Labor. In 1884, the Knights held a large parade in New York City. The day  was also a testament to the strength of the burgeoning labor movement, which helped push the event onto the national stage. In 1898, Samuel Gompers, head of the American Federation of Labor, called it "the day for which the toilers in past centuries looked forward, when their rights and their wrongs would be discussed...that the workers of our day may not only lay down their tools of labor for a holiday, but upon which they may touch shoulders in marching phalanx and feel the stronger for it." Labor Day became an official holiday in 1894.

            1885-Saturday-  It puzzles me how they know what corners are good for filling stations. Just how did they know gas and oil was under there? …..Dizzy Dean ……..The first gasoline pump was bought by Jake Gumper of Fort Wayne, Indiana. The contraption  was manufactured by Sylvanus Bowser, also of Fort Wayne. The pump tank had marble valves and wooden plungers that would be used to push kerosene up through a pipe. It had a capacity of one barrel and was not designed for use with autos since the first modern one was invented that same year (see below). Not surprisingly, the pump was used to fill a  barrel of kerosene in Gumpter’s store. Gumpter also contributed to Bowser’s success.  Bowser formed the S.F. Bowser Company and patented his pump in 1887 and people would come to fill up containers with gasoline.  The Bowser pump soon became known as, yes, a "filling station,"

               1892-Monday-  When I was sixteen
All of my dreams
Revolved around one thing
All I wanted was a car
All I wanted was a car………………
Brad Paisley…..And continuing with our gas powered theme….the first gasoline automobile in the U.S. was built by Charles and Frank Duryea at Chicopee, Massachusetts.  Charles, the designer, asked his younger brother Frank, a trained machinist, to complete the prototype as he took care of  his bicycle business (the Wright Brothers were also in the bicycle business) in Peoria, Illinois. The first Duryea is now in the Smithsonian Institution.  Duryea Motor Wagon Company of Springfield, Massachusetts sold 13 identical gasoline-powered vehicles. The company would last only three years, however Charles and Frank  had become the first Americans to attempt to build and sell automobiles at a profit. This began the commercial period of the American automobile industry.  It may be available during the special Labor Day “Fall Tent Event” with O% interest, no money down, and  three years of gasoline at $2.99 a gallon.

            1905 –Tuesday- Won't you please surrender to me
Your lips, your arms, your heart, dear
Be mine forever
Be mine tonight…
..Elvis………..Continuing to perfect the Japanese tradition of surprise attacks on Naval bases, and following the Russian rejection of a Japanese plan to divide Manchuria and Korea into spheres of influence, Japan had  launched a surprise naval attack against Port Arthur, a Russian naval base in China. The Russian fleet was decimated. During the subsequent Russo-Japanese War, Japan won a series of decisive victories over the Russians. On this day The Russo-Japanese War came to an end brokered by President Theodore Roosevelt (who, like Barack Obama, would win the Nobel Peace Prize….except Obama didn’t really do anything), as representatives of the two nations signed the Treaty of Portsmouth in New Hampshire. Russia, defeated in the war, agreed to cede to Japan the island of Sakhalin, Russian port and rail rights in Manchuria, and several autographed pictures of a shirtless Vladimir Putin.

1906 –Wednesday  Walkin' along my merry way
Singin' a song I will be gay
Oh, happy day
I'm just walkin' along
…..The Solitaires…..Henry Mathewson of the New York Gians, Christy's brother walked 14 batters in game one of a doubleheader vs. the Brooklyn Superbas.  Now this is why we hate some date sites……and you know who you are History Orb which is easily the least reliable date /event site we’ve come across.  The item, walking 14 batters in a game and Christy Mathewson’s brother to boot, sounded interesting so we went with it, Even found that there was a double header vs. Brooklyn.  What gave us pause was the scores – 4-3 and 2-1. Fourteen walks?  Just a few runs? Even the 2012 Yankees were not that dismal hitting with runners on base. So the Editorial Board of the Gnus delved deeper into the dilemma.  Turns out, 19 year old Henry made his major league debut on Sept. 28th 1906 and his final major league appearance on May 4, 1907.  While he never won a game (lost one though) he did walk 14 batters during the total of 11 innings he pitched in his career.

            1914 –Saturday My centre is giving way, my right is in retreat: situation excellent. I shall attack…..Marshall Ferdinand Foch……… World War I had begun in August. On this day the Battle of the Marne began –just thirty miles northeast of Paris. The French 6th Army under General Michel-Joseph Maunoury attacked the right flank of German forces advancing on the French capital. By the next day, the attack was total. More than two million soldiers fought in the Battle of the Marne, and 100,000 of them were killed or wounded. On September 9, the Germans began a fighting retreat to the Aisne River. The Battle of the Marne was the first significant Allied victory of World War I. It saved Paris and thwarted Germany's plan for a quick victory over France.  There would be another Battle of the Marne in 1918  and the Second Battle of the Marne marked the turning of the tide in World War I. It began with the last German offensive of the conflict and was quickly followed by the first allied offensive victory of 1918.

1939 Tuesday They are in you and me; they created us, body and mind; and their

preservation is the ultimate rationale for our existence ... they go by the

name of genes, and we are their survival machines……..Richard Dawkins …Otanjōbi Omedetō Gozaimasu  お誕生日おめでとうございます, Happy Birthday, Susumu Tonegawa Japanese molecular biologist and immunologist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology in 1987 for his fundamental discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity in the body. Antibodies are produced by a special kind of white blood cells which are called B lymphocytes.            Tonegawa’s work how the immune system is capable of generating the enormous diversity (even more diversity than the hiring practices of multiculturally sensitive universities) of antibodies required so that whatever the nature of the invading organism or ‘foreign’ tissue a suitable antibody is available to bind specifically to it. This indicated that the immune system's antibody-producing cells – the B-lymphocytes – can potentially manufacture billions of different antibodies; yet, even in humans, these cells carry only about 100,000 genes on their chromosomes so they must be really shoe horned in there

1945 -Wednesday –Do not touch anything unnecessarily. Beware of pretty girls in dance halls and parks who may be spies, as well as bicycles, revolvers, uniforms, arms, dead horses, and men lying on roads -- they are not there accidentally.…….Soviet infantry manual, issued in the 1930's Igor Gouzenko, a Soviet Union embassy clerk, defected to Canada, exposing Soviet espionage in North America. This was yet another indicator of the beginning of the Cold War. Gouzenko was in fact KGB intelligence officer looking to steal the Maple Leaf defensive game plan vs. the Canadiens. Soviet spies were as common as roaches, enabled by the “useful idiots” of the American left.  After working as a clerk for a few years, Gouzenko had collected information on a number of Canadian officials and realized Joseph Stalin’s plan to steal nuclear plans, which of course he did, and on this day the Gouzster rushed into a newsroom claiming that he had evidence of a Soviet spy base in Britain. He brought 109 documents with him as sources of proof. After being investigated by Kim Philby (also a spy) and Roger Hollis of Section IX, he provided enough information to arrest and convict 22 agents and 15 Soviet spies in Canada such as Klaus Fuchs who did the major nuclear espionage contribution to Stalin.

1960 –Monday I said I was the greatest before I even knew I was……Eighteen year old American boxer Cassius Clay (later Mohammed Ali after he directed his feet to the Sunni side of the street) was awarded the gold medal for his first place in the light heavyweight boxing competition at the Olympic Games in Rome. The quicker Clay scored a unanimous decision over ponderous Polish pugilist Zbigniew Pietrzykowski

1969 –Friday Specification 1: In that First Lieutenant William L. Calley, Jr. ...did, at My Lai 4, Quang Ngai Province, Republic of South Viet-Nam, on or about 16 March 1968, with premeditation, murder an unknown number, not less than thirty, Oriental human beings, males and females of various ages, whose names are unknown, occupants of the village of My Lai 4, by means of shooting them with a rifle. Someone had to take the rap so U.S. Army Lt. William Calley was  charged with premeditated murder for the death of 109 Vietnamese civilians in My Lai.. Technically, Calley was charged with four specifications alleging premeditated murder in violation of Article 118 of Uniform Code of Military Justice.  Lt. Calley was the only person found guilty for the massacre. He was convicted and sentenced to life in prison which was later reduced to 10 years. In September 1974 his conviction was overturned and he was released. It was estimated that  347 unarmed Vietnamese civilians, mostly elderly civilians, women, and children were gunned down by U.S. soldiers

1972 – Tuesday If you are a terror to many, then beware of many. ….Ausonius….Tuesday At 4:30 a.m. Palestinian Islamic terrorists attacked the Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany. They assaulted the Olympic Village apartment of Israeli athletes, killing two and taking nine others hostage. The terrorists, known as Black September, demanded that Israel release over 230 Muslim prisoners being held in Israeli jails as well as two German terrorists for good measure. In an ensuing shootout at the Munich airport, the nine Israeli hostages were killed along with five terrorists and one West German policeman. The Munich operation was ordered by terrorist leader Yasser Arafat, who would be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 22 years later, and carried out by Fatah, Arafat's faction of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).  In July 2012, German magazine Der Spiegel reported that Germany had in fact been warned about the possibility of a Palestinian terrorist attack at the Games but took no actions to secure the Olympic Village.

            1975 –Friday-  Hit Me With Your Best Shot!
Why Don't You Hit Me With Your Best Shot!
Hit Me With Your Best Shot!
Fire Away!........
Pat Benetar……….In another episode of the slapstick presidency of the muddled Gerald R. Ford (it featured falling down frequently in public as well as setting free Soviet satellite states while engaging in debates, the Swine Flu scare and the immortal “Whip Inflation Now” [Win] campaign), Charles Manson roboid, Lynette (Squeaky) Fromme attempted to assassinate Ford  in Sacramento, California. The attempt was  foiled when a Secret Service agent wrestled a semi-automatic .45-caliber pistol from the Squeakster.  Fromme was pointing the loaded gun at the president when the Secret Service agent grabbed it. Seventeen days later, Ford escaped injury in another assassination attempt when 45-year-old loon Sara Jane Moore fired a revolver at him. Moore, a deranged leftist radical who once served as an informant for the Federal Bureau of Investigation, had a history of mental illness. She was arrested at the scene, convicted, and sentenced to life.

1976-Sunday I remember the night I first talked to Dean about wearing tuxedos in our act. He said, "Why a tux?" I said, "If you're on the Bowery and see a guy in a street suit, if he falls down, you'd just say he's drunk. But when you're in a $1,500 tux and you hit the floor and come up with the dirt off the dance floor -- that's funny." We never, either of us, performed again -- ever -- without a tux…….During Jerry Lewis' annual Muscular Dystrophy  Labor Day Telethon on NBC-TV, musical guest Frank Sinatra announced that he'd brought a friend along – surprise… was Dean Martin, Lewis' former comedy partner, who has not spoken to him since the duo's acrimonious dissolution twenty years earlier. Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis were THE comedy team of the late 1940s/early 1950s. Lewis greeted Martin with, So, you working?

            1977 – Monday-    The untold want by life and land ne'er granted,    Now, voyager, sail thou forth, to seek and find….Walt Whitman…..Getting it slightly backwards, Voyager 1 was launched.  Voyager 2 had already been launched on August 20. Like, “2”, Voyager 1 explored all the giant planets of our outer solar system, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune; 48 of their moons; and their unique systems of rings and magnetic fields.  Voyager 1  is now the most distant human-made object in the cosmos, having reached 100 astronomical units from the sun in 2006. That means the spacecraft, is 100 times more distant from the sun than Earth is. In more common terms, Voyager 1 is about 15 billion kilometers (9.3 billion miles) from the sun.  And why was Voyager 2 launched before Voyage 1?  Did it “jump the line”?  Pay off mission control so it could go first?  Was it a member of the “Elite Pass” Club?  Was it on the run from the law? No. Although Voyager 1 left Earth 16 days after Voyager 2, because Voyager 1’s  faster flight path allowed it to pass the slower craft and arrive at Jupiter more than four months ahead of Voyager 2.

            1980 –Friday-  ….Great Britain and France hold the tender for digging the tunnel beneath English Channel. Obviously, the Swiss did their usual competent job but others ……..Americans: - We will dig the tunnel from 2 sides within 2 years and guarantee the joint accuracy of 15 meters. Japanese: - We will dig the tunnel from 2 sides within 1 year and guarantee the joint accuracy of 5 meters. Russians: - Well... We also will dig the tunnel from 2 sides within two weeks and don't guarantee any joint accuracy. At worst you will have two tunnels………..The world’s longest auto tunnel, the 16.3 km (10.1 mi) Saint Gotthard Road Tunnel opened. The road tunnel runs through the Ticino Canton, a state of the Swiss confederation, connecting Göschenen (near Andermatt) with Airolo. It was completed after 11 years' work. The road tunnel  improved links between Switzerland and Italy and  accommodated more than 1,500 motor vehicles per hour. It is closed periodically due to horrific traffic accidents. The Gotthard Tunnel has since been surpassed by the Lærdal Tunnel in Norway as the world’s longest road tunnel, The 24.4 km.Lærdal Tunnel enables motorists to avoid both landslides, always a good thing, and weather-enforced road closures in winter.

            1984 -Wednesday And as we know now, and as I pointed out many times, the great plume of fire at the bottom of the Space Shuttle is actually dollar bills burning, and the most efficient method of destroying American dollar bills as has ever been devised by man……..Representative Dana Rohrabacher, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics,………The Space Shuttle Discovery  (STS-41-D:,landed after its maiden voyage. Launched on August 30, the Discovery deployed three communications satellites and its toilet failed.  Judith Resnik was a crew member.  She was the second American woman in space and  would be killed in the Challenger explosion of January 1986.  An unfortunate side effect of the flight would be intergalactic microbes that attached themselves to the outer skin of the shuttle and on contact with Earth’s atmosphere, mutated into a virus that causes the weak minded to suffer from gratitudinous shallowisia which is manifested by the host organisms saying “thank you so much” no matter how meaningless the gesture.

            1987 Saturday Some sunny day-hay baby
When everything seems okay, baby
Youll wake up and find out youre alone
Cause Ill be gone
Gone, gone, gone really gone
Gone, ga-gone, cause you done me wrong
…..Allison Krauss……….After
a full three decades on ABC, Dick Clark's American Bandstand was rendered kaput, largely due to MTV's influence on the younger generation. We note that in 1987 MTV actually played music.  Laura Branigan lip synching Shattered Glass was the fina lguest.  Two weeks later, a way beyond “jumped the shark” version of the show would limp along on the USA cable channel and in syndication, when David Hirsch  (the pre-Dick Clark host was Bob Thorn) took over for America’s Oldest Teenager,  for another three years, before finally leaving the dance floor. American Bandstand began as a local Philadelphia show called Bandstand. It debuted on October 13, 1952 on WFIL-TV Channel 6. It became "American Bandstand" on August 5, 1957 when ABC began broadcasting the series nationwide. For its first 6 seasons, American Bandstand aired Mondays through Fridays. On September 7, 1963, it became a once-a-week series airing Saturday afternoons. Note to lip synch nation - B.B. King was the only singer of so many that appeared that did not lip synch his songs.

2000 –Tuesday-  Tuvalu for the Almighty"Are the words we hold most dear. ;For as people or as leadersOf Tuvalu we all share……..Tuvalu  became the latest country that no one had ever heard of to join the United Nations. Tuvalu has an “about Tuvalu” website which informs us that Tuvalu is an independent constitutional monarchy in the southwest Pacific Ocean between latitudes 5 degrees and 11 degrees south and longitudes 176 degrees and 180 degrees east. Formerly known as the Ellice Islands, they separated from the Gilbert Islands after a referendum in 1975, and achieved independence from Great Britain on October 1, 1978. The population of 11,636 (est 2005) live on Tuvalu's nine atolls, which have a total land area of 10 square miles, or 27 square kilometerss. This ranks Tuvalu as the fourth smallest country in the world, in terms of land area.  The national anthem is Skip Tuvalu My Darling.  Other members of the United Nations that no one has ever heard of include:  Kiribati, Nauru, Vanuatu, and Sao Tome and Principe (which appears to be one place made of two islands).


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1492 –Tuesday- Following the light of the sun, we left the Old World…..Christopher Columbus sailed from La Gomera in the Canary Islands, his final stop before crossing the Atlantic for the first time on a five week voyage.  Remember, the Canary Islands are not named after canaries. Noooooooooo. When the Romans explored the islands they found a fierce breed of dogs (can, canis in latin), was called "Canaria"... Gran Canaria was inhabited by a tribe who called themselves the "canarii". During the 15th century, the island of Canaria became famous for the brave defense deployed by their natives against the landings of the conquistadores. They started to call all islands "the Islands of Canaria", from which they were later called "Canary Islands" (Canarias, in Spanish). At 2 a.m on October 12, land was sighted  by a sailor named Rodrigo de Triana (also known as Juan Rodriguez Bermejo) aboard Pinta. Columbus called the island San Salvador, the natives called it Guanahani. The indigenous people he encountered, the Lucayan, Taíno or Arawak, were peaceful and friendly. He wrote with such awe of the friendly innocence and beauty of the natives. "These people have no religious beliefs, nor are they idolaters. They are very gentle and do not know what evil is; nor do they kill others, nor steal; and they are without weapons."    

1522 (see Sept. 20) –Wednesday- We all were sea-swallow'd, though some cast again
(And by that destiny) to perform an act
Whereof what's past is prologue; what to come,
In yours and my discharge
……Antonio….The Tempest Act 2, scene 1, 245–254 ……..The big day for voyages of exploration continued as one of Ferdinand Magellan's five ships--the Vittoria—finally arrived at Sanlúcar de Barrameda in Spain, thus completing the first circumnavigation of the world. Of course Magellan did not complete the voyage having been slewn in the Philippines while foolishly interfering in local tribal disputes. The Vittoria was now commanded by  Basque navigator Juan Sebastián de Elcano, who had taken charge of the ship after the kaputing  of Magellan in April of 1521. Of the 270 men who originally sailed with Magellan in 1519, only Elcano, 17 other Europeans, and four Indians survived to reach Spain.   Professor Sy Yentz strongly recommends, Over the Edge of the World: Magellan's Terrifying Circumnavigation of the Globe by Laurence Bergreen. Great  history that reads like a novel.

         1628 –Wednesday- I know, I know. I'll use proper judgment. I haven't lost my temper in forty years, but pilgrim you could've gotten somebody killed today and somebody oughta belt you in the mouth, but I won't. I won't. The hell I won't! …….John Wayne in McClintock..A company of Puritans led by Roger Conant (indigenous people described him as “Conant the Barbarian), settled Salem, which would  later become part of Massachusetts Bay Colony. The name 'Salem' is related to the Hebrew word 'shalom' and Arabic word 'salam'. Puritans…..Pilgrims……the two have become confused over the years.  What’s the difference?  Glad you asked.  According to Richard Howland Maxwell in  the Pilgrim Society Note, Series Two, March 2003, Pilgrims who settled Plymouth were puritans seeking to reform their church, and the Puritans who settled Massachusetts Bay were pilgrims (with that lower-case "p") who moved to a whole new land because of their religious convictions. We apply the name Pilgrim (with a capital "P") to the small band of English people who came here in 1620 on the the Mayflower and settled in Plymouth. (John Wayne applied the cognum “Pilgrim” to James Stewart in The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance).  We use the name Puritan to refer to a much larger group of English immigrants, led by John Winthrop, who came here ten years later and started Massachusetts Bay Colony. Both groups were motivated by their religious convictions. Both groups wished to purify their church by applying the principles of the Protestant Reformation. Got it? There’s going to be a quiz.      

            1757 –Tuesday-  True republicanism is the sovereignty of the people. There are natural and imprescriptible rights which an entire nation has no right to violate…….Joyeaux Anniversaire, Happy Birthday, Marquis de Lafayette -Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier-, the very long named French soldier and statesman .  Lafayette was a general (at age 20) in the American Revolution and a leader of the Garde Nationale during the French Revolution. Yes, he was revolting. During the American Revolution, Lafayette served in the Continental Army under George Washington. While serving in that war, he was wounded at the Battle of Brandywine and organized a successful retreat. He served with distinction in the Battle of Rhode Island which apparently involved getting some of the limited seats on the ferry to Block Island on Labor Day. In the middle of the war, he returned to France to negotiate an augmented French commitment to the war. Upon his return, he blocked Cornwallis' troops at Yorktown, while the combined armies of Washington and Rochambeau arrived, thus surrounding the rather inept Cornwallis resulting in his surrender in 1781. During the French Revolution he move quickly from hero to “traitor”, ultimately supporting the Royal Family much to the chagrin of Robespierre and Danton.  This resulted in five years of exile in Austria which was much better than the guillotine.

            1766-Saturday-  I was introduced to Mr. Davy, who has rooms adjoining mine (in the Royal Institution); he is a very agreeable and intelligent young man, and we have interesting conversation in an evening; the principal failing in his character as a philosopher is that he does not smoke. Happy Birthday, John Dalton, English meteorologist who switched to chemistry when he saw the applications for chemistry in  his ideas about the atmosphere. He proposed the Atomic Theory in 1803. Dalton inferred proportions of elements in compounds by taking ratios of the weights of reactants. He set the atomic weight of hydrogen to be identically equal to the number 1 and developed the table of atomic weights for the other elements. Hence he is known as one of the fathers of modern physical science. In the extended atomic family, he is also  the uncle of elements, the cousin of atomic weights, brother-in-law of reactants and the second cousin, once removed of solutes.

1802-Monday-If death petrifies you, do something to ensure your likeness will survive in more than just photographs. Drown yourself in a swamp…..Bauvard, …….Joyeaux Anniversaire,  Happy Birthday, Alcide Dessalines D’Orbigny, French paleontologist and zoologist who founded the science of micropaleontology. Micropaleontology is that branch of paleontology which studies microfossils. Microfossils are fossils generally not larger than four millimeters, and commonly smaller than one millimeter. Microfossil brains have devolved over the years resulting a human version resulting in people who cover themselves with tattoos and body piercings.

            1811-Friday-  Blue, navy blue, I'm as blue as I can be
'cause my steady boy said "Ship ahoy"
And joined the Nay-ee-ay-vee…
.Diane Renay…..Happy Birthday, James Melville Gilliss, U.S. naval
officer and astronomer who founded the Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. In 1846 he  published Astronomical Observations, a pioneer work in the field. The Naval Observatory was the first U.S. observatory devoted entirely to research.  Next door, that cute little white 19th Century Superintendent’s house  with four bedrooms, 2 ½ baths, a formal dining room, a finished basement, granite countertops and a “man cave”, overlooking Massachusetts Avenue in Washington D.C. was built in 1893 for the superintendent of the United States Naval Observatory. The house was so attractive  that the chief of naval operations kicked out the superintendent and made the house his home in 1923. The house was "taken over" again in 1974 when Congress turned "Number One Observatory Circle" into the official residence of the Vice President. Other than housing the Vice Presidents, the Observatory’s primary use is to care for the United States Navy chronometers and navigational equipment.

            1847 –Monday- He enjoys true leisure who has time to improve his soul's estate. After living in a shack he built himself near Walden Pond for two years, writer Henry David Thoreau (hopefully, he bathed first)  moved in with Ralph Waldo Emerson and his family in Concord, Massachusetts.  There, he feasted on delivered pepperoni pizza, watched American Idol, and got into fights over who would hold the remote control for the TV.

       1885 –Sunday- Gorda Stara Planina,
Do nej Dunava sinej,
Sluntse Tkrakija ogr'ava,
Nad Pirina plamene

Proudly rise the Balkan peaks,
At their feet Blue Danube flows;
Over Thrace the sun is shining,
Pirin looms in purple glow….Bulgarian National Anthem…..A big day in Bulgarian history as Eastern Rumelia  (which only existed from 1879 to 1885) declared its union with Bulgaria. The Unification of Bulgaria was accomplished. The independent Kingdom of Bulgaria had been re-established by the San Stefano Treaty in 1878 after five centuries of Turkish domination. The Kingdom was down rated (like bonds or Pluto) to a Principality of Bulgaria and would not regain kingdom status until 1908  when the country gained full independence, changing its name into Kingdom of Bulgaria.

            1888-Thursday- Don't buy a single vote more than necessary. I'll be damned if I'm going to pay for a landslide……Happy Birthday, Joseph P. Kennedy, American business man, movie producer, swain of Gloria Swanson, serial adulterer, probable bootlegger, Nazi appeaser and possible sympathizer, ambassador and patriarch of the “Kennedy Clan”, father of priapic President John F. Kennedy and Senators Robert and lush, Ted.  After making his fortune through questionable (at best) business practices, , as chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission (193435), he outlawed the speculative practices, including insider trading and stock manipulation, that had made him rich. He was the first Irish American to serve as ambassador to Britain (193740).

            1891-Sunday-  The medication's wearing off
Gonna hurt not a little, a lot
Keep on tickin' you're not lickin' me
…..The Eels……..The first operation to suture the pericardium (the fluid sac surrounding the heart muscle) took place at the City Hospital in St. Louis. Henry C. Dalton, professor of abdominal and clinical surgery at the Marion Sims College of Medicine repaired a 2 inch  tear of the pericardium of a man stabbed during a fight. An unwillingness to pay medical bills resulted in patients being told “suture self”.

             1892 –Tuesday- You have debased my child.  You have made him a laughingstock of intelligence a stench in the nostrils of the gods of the ionosphere…. Lee De Forest …….Happy Birthday, Sir Edward Appleton, English physicist who won the 1947 Nobel Prize for Physics for his discovery of the eponymously named Appleton layer of the ionosphere. The ionosphere is region of the earth's atmosphere where ionization caused by incoming solar radiation affects the transmission of radio waves. It extends from a height of 70 kilometers (43 miles) to 400 kilometers (250 miles) above the surface.He began research into the strength of the radio signals received at Cambridge from the BBC station in London when he had difficulty receiving the latest American’s Top Forty on his radio He soon discovered that the strength of the signal was constant during the day but varied during the night, rising and falling in an almost regular manner. He suggested that, at night, the Cambridge apparatus was receiving not one but two waves, one traveling directly and the other being reflected by the atmosphere.  Appleton realized that the latter was the layer responsible for reflecting short wave radio round the world.  The Appleton layer that now enables communication  all over the world and causes some humans to leave their shopping carts in the middle of parking lots.

            1901 –Friday- McKinley hollered , McKinley squalled
Doc said A“McKinley I can't find the cause
You're bound to die, you're bound to die
Doc told the horse, he'd throw down his rein
He said to the horse you gotta outrun this train
From Buffalo to Washington
The doc came a-running, he took off his specs
Said A“Mr Mckinley better cash in your checks
You've bound to die, you're bound to die
Look here, you rascal, you see what you've done
Shot down my husband and I've got your gun
I'm carrying you back, to Washington
Well, Roosevelt's in the White House, doing his best
McKinley's in the graveyard taking his rest
He's gone, for a long time
 ………Bill Monroe…….Anarchist Leon Czolgosz shot and fatally wounded US President William McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. McKinley  had appeared at a public reception in the Temple of Music on the Exposition grounds. A large crowd assembled to shake hands with the president and possibly exchange a few words. Czolgosz stood near the front of the line with his right hand wrapped in a handkerchief to make it appear as if he were protecting an injured hand. When his turn came, Czolgosz extended his left hand toward the president while firing two shots from a .32 caliber revolver concealed behind the covering. Mckinley died on Sept. 14.  Czolgosz received a hasty trial, was found guilty of murder and was electrocuted in the state prison at Auburn, New York on October 29.  Vice President Theodore Roosevelt became President.

            1908 –Sunday- For thogh we slepe or wake, or rome, or ryde, Ay fleeth the tyme; it nil no [will no] man abyde.
c 1390 Chaucer -Clerk's Tale l. 118]…………. Happy Birthday, Louis Essen, English physicist who invented the quartz crystal ring clock and the first practical atomic clock. These clocks were the most accurate time measurements built thus far……and yet, people are still late for work and appointments….. He built a cesium-beam (“we have come to praise cesium, not barium”) atomic clock, a mechanism that would change the way time is measured. A major factor in Essen’s work was that the definition of the second of time had now become a major block to realizing the potential of his new clock.  Essen fought to change the way the second is defined. Finally, in 1967 it was agreed internationally that the second should not be linked to the duration of the day or year (both of which vary) but to the natural periodicity of an atom of cesium specifically, as exactly 9,192,631,770 oscillations or cycles of the cesium atom's resonant frequency. So in the time it takes you to read this, an atom of cesium has had a lot of oscillations.  It took a further 12 years before astronomical time ceased to exist replaced by atomic time.             

1919-Saturday-  Pacemakers put grandpa in the mainstream again….. Happy Birthday Wilson Greatbatch, born in Buffalo, NY and one of  America’s greatest inventors who described himself as a “humble tinkerer”.  Greatbatch patented more than 325 inventions, notably a long-life lithium battery used in a wide range of medical implants. He  even created  a solar-powered canoe, which he took on a 160-mile voyage on the Finger Lakes in New York to celebrate his 72nd birthday. His most famous invention, the cardiac pacemaker, keeps the rhythm of millions of heartbeats and helps people live longer and better. The pacemaker was the first electronic device ever surgically implanted inside human bodies. Of course as frequently happens in scientific discovery, the invention was serendipitous.  In an attempt to record the sound of a heartbeat,  Greatbatch inadvertently created something far more crucial—a device that emitted electricity pulses to the heart. It was this discovery that led to his implantable cardiac pacemaker

            1943 –Monday-  Dogbert: Scientists have discovered the gene that makes some people love golf.Dilbert: How can they tell it's the golf gene?
Dogbert: It's plaid and it lies.
Happy Birthday, Richard J. Roberts, English molecular biologist and co-winner of the 1993 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, with Phillip A. Sharp, for their discovery of  Eukaryotic "split genes." Yes, each of them, in separate places at different times bent over and split their jeans!  Actually, in 1977, each scientist independently discovered that genes could be discontinuous. Non-coding, intervening sequences of dNA that are transcribed, but are removed from within the primary gene transcript and rapidly degrade during maturation of messenger RNA that is, a given gene could be present in the genetic material (DNA) as several, well-separated segments. Why, a child of five could understand this.  Someone fetch a child of five……Groucho Marx.

            1954 Monday- And somewhere men are laughing, and somewhere children shout; But there is no joy in Mudville - mighty Casey has struck out.  Ermest Lawrence Thayer…….The New York Yankees beat the Boston Red Sox 6-5. Notable during the game was the Yankee manager Casey Stengel’s use of ten pinch hitters: Eddie Robinson, Jerry Coleman, Enos Slaughter, Joe Collins, Bob Cerv, Phil Rizzuto, Tommy Byrne, Woody Held, Bob Grim (a pitcher), and Tom Morgan (pitcher).  This was the first gave of  a double header.  We leave this item in as an example of the Xeroxian dangers of the internet.  When Professor Sy Yentz looked up the box score of the game, it turns out the Yankees used five pinch hitters. They used five again in the second game, which the  Red Sox won 8-7  so that’s probably where the “10” came from.  Only one of many services that the Gnus provides.    


1956 –Thursday-  The world premiere of the epic Fire Maidens from Outer Space. Starring no one we ever heard of, not even obscure character actors, ImDB summarizes the plot as “After landing on the 13th  moon of Jupiter, the men from Earth debark from their ship to find a forested area containing the last remnant of lost Atlantis: an old man named Prossus, a bevy of nubile young women eager for husbands, and -- The Creature. ‘The beast with the head of a man,’ laments Prossus. "It must be destroyed -- yet it is indestructible!"


            1958 –Saturday- There's something about my shaggy-dog eyes that makes people think I'm good ……The premier of Wanted, Dead or Alive, starring Steve McQueen. McQueen, one of several 50’s TV stars who would go on to movie stardom, starred as bounty hunter, Josh Randall.  Randall’s gimmick and the all had to have gimmicks was a sawed-off rifle as a holstered weapon . He called it "Mare's Laig." Guest stars on the first episode, The Martin Poster, included   Michael Landon (Bonanza, Little House on the Prairie and Nick Adams, The Rebel). As with most 50’s television westerns, the hero’s horse also had a name.  Randall’s was named Ringo.  


1959 -Sunday If Barbie is so popular, why do you have to buy her friends? …Steven Wright ….The first Barbie Doll was sold by Mattel Toy Corporation. The original Barbie, along with her pals, Ken and Skipper, are now collector’s items, although new versions are continually being produced including Divorced Barbie.  Divorced Barbie costs $250.  The cost is so high because with her you get Ken’s car, his house, his boat…….Barbie, who’s real name is Barbara Millicent Roberts, was created by American businesswoman Ruth Handler and the doll's design was inspired by a German doll called Bild Lilli.

            1968 - Look at you all see the love there that's sleeping
While my guitar gently weeps
I look at the floor and I see it need sweeping
Still my guitar gently weeps …..
Eric Clapton recorded the guitar solo for the Beatles' While My Guitar Gently Weeps. He and George Harrison were good friends, (Clapton wrote Layla about Harrison’s wife Patti.  In fact he later married her) but George had to convince him to come to the studio because Clapton was worried the other Beatles wouldn't want him there.

            1978-Wednesday-  Shawty you my insulin
Shawty you my insulin
I think I need I think I need
I think I need my medicine"…….Plies featuring Keri Hilson….. U.S. scientists announced the production of human-type insulin by a strain of E. coli bacteria, that had been genetically engineered after months of creative use of gene-splicing techniques. The genetically engineered E. coli also became a contestant on Dancing With the Stars, partnered with Hugo Chavez of Venezuela. Insulin is a hormone made by the islet cells of the pancreas. Insulin controls the amount of sugar in the blood

            1991 –Friday- Istanbul was Constantinople
Now it's Istanbul not Constantinople
Been a long time gone
Old Constantinople's still has Turkish delight
On a moonlight night …..
The Four Lads……..
The original name of Russia’s second largest city was restored on this day. The city of St. Petersburg, located on the Neva River (named after Russian national hero Alexander Nevsky)  at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, was founded in 1703 by Peter the Great, who eponymously, yet modestly,  named it after himself , St. Petersburg. In 1914, at the beginning of World War I, Russian leaders felt that Petersburg was too German-sounding (Peter the Great admired the Prussians). So they changed the name of the city to Petrograd -- to make it more Russian-sounding. Then, in 1924, the country’s Proletarian Paradise Communist leaders wanted to honor the founder of the Soviet Union, Vladimir I. Lenin. Petrograd became Leningrad and was known as Leningrad until 1991 when it reverted to St. Petersburg.  Future names may include Putingrad or Putinsberg.  

            1992 -Sunday Baboons cannot be infected with hepatitis B, so as sources for organs, they may offer a solution for these patients ….. Thomas E. Starzl ……A man who had received a transplanted baboon liver 10 weeks earlier went kaput at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The recipient of the cross-species transplant, also called a xenotransplant, was a patient with chronic, active hepatitis B, a liver disease that would lead to death as it progressed.  Before his death the patient enjoyed a diet of bananas and leaves, liked to groom the nurses and be groomed in turn and enjoyed swinging from tree to tree.  The surgery was performed by Satoru Todo, M.D., Andreas Tzakis, M.D., and John Fung, M.D., Ph.D.

            1995-Wednesday- To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow,
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day,
To the last syllable of recorded time;
………..MacBeth…… Macbeth Act 5, scene 5, 19–28 ……….Baltimore Orioles shortstop Cal Ripken Jr. played in his 2,131st consecutive game, breaking former New York Yankee great Lou Gehrig’s (The Iron Horse)  record for most consecutive games played.  Ripken went on to play in 2632 consecutive major league baseball games (he was switched to 3rd base later in the streak). The string ran from May 30 1982 to September 19, 1998, when Ripken voluntarily sat out a game so that he could participate in a Brighton Beach Mahjong Tournament.

            2008 -Saturday Space isn't remote at all. It's only an hour's drive away if your car could go straight upwards…..Fred Hoyle…….. A strange Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) was discovered orbiting the Sun in the wrong direction. The object, designated as 2008 KV42 but nicknamed Drac (after Dracula, as vampires are fabled to have the ability to walk on walls), has a highly inclined orbit of 103.5°. Drac is a rarity since very few objects in the Solar System have retrograde orbits; in fact this kind of orbit is usually exclusive to Halley-type comets that have orbits that take them very close to the Sun or Kardashians.. Drac on the other hand travels through the Kuiper Belt in a stable orbit at a distance of between 20-70 AU from the Sun. The Kuiper (pronounced Ki-Per) Belt has been called our Solar System's 'final frontier.' It is a disk-shaped region of icy debris is about 4.5 to 7.5 billion km (2.8 billion to 4.6 billion miles), 30 to 50 Astronomical Units (AU) from our Sun. No spacecraft has ever traveled to the Kuiper Belt.  Drac may provide clues as to where Halley-type objects originate or it may be a “death star”  with rays sent by Klingons to eliminate people who do not turn off cell phones in  theaters.  

Back to  Calendar


1251 BC –Thursday- According to legend, a solar eclipse on this date might have marked the birth of the legendary Hercules (Heracles, Steve Reeves, David Suchet as Hercule Poirot) at Thebes, Greece. Hercules was  the son of the god Zeus and Alcmene. It was the stuff of mythical soap opera as Alcmene was  the wife of Amphitryon, but the night she conceived Hercules and his twin brother Iphicles, Alcmene did the horizontal mambo with both Zeus, who had disguised himself as her husband, and Amphitryon. As a result, Zeus was Hercules' father, but Amphitryon was the father of Iphicles. Hercules’ gift was fabulous strength; he strangled two serpents in his cradle, and killed a lion before manhood. His main antagonist was Hera. She eventually drove him mad, during which time he killed his own children and  also his brother's. He was so grieved upon recovery that he exiled himself and consulted the oracle of Apollo and then the Oracle of Omaha.. The oracle told him to perform, yes, the twelve labors of Hercules. This also marks the artistic birthplace of the following cinematic masterpieces thanks to Video Hound: (1963)   The Fury of Hercules
(1961)  Hercules
(1997)   Hercules
(1958)    Hercules 2
(1985) Hercules against the Moon Men
(1964) Hercules and the Captive Women
(1963)   Hercules in New York
(1970)   Hercules in the Haunted World
(1964)  Hercules the Legendary Journeys, Vol. 1: And the Amazon Women
(1994)   Hercules the Legendary Journeys, Vol. 2: The Lost Kingdom
(1994)   Hercules the Legendary Journeys, Vol. 3: The Circle of Fire
(1994)   Hercules the Legendary Journeys, Vol. 4: In the Underworld
(1994)  Hercules Unchained
(1959)   Hercules vs. the Sons of the Sun
(1964)   Hercules, Prisoner of Evil
(1964) Jason and the Argonauts
(1963) The Loves of Hercules
(1960)  Samson and His Mighty Challenge
(1964)   The Three Stooges Meet Hercules
(1961)   The Triumph of Hercules
(1966)  Young Hercules

            1191 –Saturday-  For God's sake, do not drag me into another war! I am worn down, and worn out, with crusading and defending Europe, and protecting mankind; I must think a little of myself……Sydney Smith……….During the Third Crusade, Richard I (the Lion Hearted) of England defeated Saladin at Arsuf.  The victory of Arsuf allowed Richard to continue unimpeded down the Mediterranean coast. Though Richard believed he could take the city of Jerusalem, he knew that once most of the crusaders returned home, those remaining would be unable to hold it.  Naturally, King Phillip II of France decided to go home although Crusader Rabbit and Rags the Tiger stuck it out.   Dudely Nightshade sided with the Muslims. After several more actions, including the amphibious retaking of the port of Jaffa, and a proposed marriage between Richard's sister and Saladin's brother, the King of England concluded a peace with Saladin and left the Holy Land in 1192, bringing an end to the Third Crusade. The Third Crusade (1189-1192) had been a response to the overwhelming victories of Saladin in the previous years. Coeur de Lion went on to become the often referred to but never seen character in the Prince John, Sheriff of Nottingham, Robin Hood Stories.  Saladin changed his name to Paladin and starred in Have Gun Will Travel, a late 1950’s western series.

            1533 –Thursday-  Like a virgin
Touched for the very first time
Like a virgin
When your heart beats
Next to mine
Gonna give you all my love, boy
My fear is fading fast
Been saving it all for you
'Cause only love can last
…….Madonna………Happy Birthday, Queen Elizabeth I of England, daughter of Henry VIII and wife number two, the soon to be headless Anne Boleyn. Elizabeth, one of Britain’s greatest monarchs, came to the throne following the death of her half-sister, Mary daughter of Henry’s first wife Catherine of Aragon in 1558.  Mary had ascended to the throne (following a brief attempt to bestow the queenship on the hapless Lady Jane Grey)  following the death of Edward VI, Henry’s son by wife number three, Jane Seymour. Whew! After the Catholic Mary’s kapution in 1558, Elizabeth quickly consolidated power and returned the country to Protestantism, passing the Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity, although by Reformation standards Catholics fared well under these acts. With the help of advisors like Sir William Cecil and the spy-networks of Francis Walsingham, she ruled the country well and initiated an era of economic prosperity. In international affairs, she toyed with the hearts of monarchs of  Europe, using the prospect of marriage to her (and thus joint control over England) as a bargaining tool.  Called the “Virgin Queen” (wink, wink, nudge, nudge), she manipulated so much that  preferring the power that came with perpetual eligibility, she ultimately never married at all. She was, however, involved in a scandalous romance with Robert Dudley (later called the Earl of Leicester). The Tudor history site concludes, she was probably a virgin. It's difficult to imagine any secret affair remaining secret for long. And birth control was tricky and untrustworthy in the 16th century. She knew that any affair would risk a pregnancy - and that would destroy her life. Furthermore, it is worth noting Elizabeth's own strict and methodical character, and the disdain she showed for women who could not control their feelings or appreciate the consequences of their actions. She died childless and husbandless in 1603 to be succeeded by James VI of Scotland, son of her decapitated cousin, Mary Queen of Scots.

             1776 –Saturday-  Submarine life most of the time is hours and hours of boredom with intermittent terror thrown in to keep you on your toes!......Unknown……..During the Revolutionary War, the American submersible craft Turtle attempted to attach a time bomb to the hull of British Admiral Richard Howe's flagship Eagle in New York Harbor. It was the first use of a submarine in warfare. Large enough to accommodate one operator, the submarine was entirely hand-powered. Lead ballast kept the craft balanced. During the Battle of Fort Lee, (over who would pay for the E Z Pass at the George Washington Bridge)  the Turtle went kaput when the American sloop transporting it was sunk by the British.

            1812-Monday-  Napoleon at the battle of Borodino fulfilled his office as representative of power as well as, and even better than, at other battles. He did nothing harmful to the progress of the battle; he inclined to the most reasonable opinions, he made no confusion, did not contradict himself, did not get frightened or run away from the field of battle, but with his great tact and military experience carried out his role of appearing to command, calmly and with dignity. ……Leo Tolstoy, War & Peace, …………The Battle of Borodino, one of Napoleon’s great victories was fought between Napoleon's 130,000 troops, with more than 500 cannon, tlhe  Russian Imperial Army, led by Mikhail Kutuzov, near the village of Borodino, Russia. Napoleon’s Russian Campaign had begun in June 1812, when the French Great Army invadedRussian territory, heading towards Moscow. At the beginning, the Russians had avoided a direct encounter with the French as they pulled back, following a scorched earth policy. However, the Russian commander finally decided to set up a defensive line at Borodino. Napoleon's success allowed him to occupy Moscow. Oops! This, ultimately, was not so good as ahead lay the glories of Moscow in the fall,much of which was burned by the retreating Russians,  and ultimately a horrendous retreat from Russia that would kill most of his troops.

             1813-Tuesday- I 'm a Yankee Doodle Dandy
A Yankee Doodle, do or die
A real live nephew of my Uncle Sam
Born on the Fourth of July
…..George M. Cohan…….
Choosing from among, Cousin Elmer, Aunt Felicity, 2nd Cousin Once Removed Bob,  the United States got its nickname, Uncle Sam. The name is linked to Samuel Wilson, a meat packer from Troy, New York, who supplied barrels of beef to the United States Army during the War of 1812. Wilson stamped the barrels with "U.S." for United States, but soldiers began referring to the supplies as "Uncle Sam's." The local newspaper picked up on the story and Uncle Sam eventually gained widespread acceptance as the nickname for the U.S. federal government. Later, in the late 1860s and 1870s, political cartoonist Thomas Nast (who also popularized the image of Santa Claus) began spreading the image of Uncle Sam. Nast continued to evolve the image, eventually giving Sam the white beard and stars-and-stripes suit that are associated with the character today.

            1816 –Saturday-  I’ve got you under my skin
I’ve got you deep in the heart of me

So deep in my heart, that youre really a part of me
I’ve got you under my skin
…..Cole Porter…….Ois guade winsch i dia zum Gbuadsdog! Happy Birthday, Ferdinand von Hebra .Austrian physician who founded the New Vienna School of Dermatology, which became a basic foundation for modern dermatology. He described and named many diseases of the skin, among them lupus, pityriasis, rubra,  tinea cruris, the 21st century, botoxius execessius, and was the first to describe dermatitis herpetiformes.  Hebra emphasized local factors in skin diseases, maintaining that diseases of the skin were related to local irritation.  This was at odds with the previously held humoral doctrine that related them to a disease-producing condition of body fluids, that skin diseases were secondary to a general metabolic upset of blood poisoning or that some people were just born ugly. Hebra worried about his complexion  and used Clearasil regularly.

            1819-Tuesday-  One word sums up probably the responsibility of any vice-president, and that one word is "to be prepared….Dan Quayle…..Happy Birthday, Thomas Kendricks, 25th Vice President of the United States born in East Fultanham, Ohio.  Kendricks, as Governor of Indiana  in 1872,was  unsuccessful candidate for Vice President of the United States on the Democratic ticket with Samuel Tilden in 1876, (when Tilden was robbed of the Presidency in favor of Rutherford B. Hayes) and finally elected Vice President of the United States in 1884 on the Democratic ticket with Grover Cleveland.  Kendricks served only until November 1885 when he went kaput.  With his death, the Vice Presidency became vacant until Levi Morton became Vice President in 1889.  Speaking of kaput, how many Vice Presidents died in office? Seven vice presidents have died in office: George Clinton (served under James Madison) Elbridge Gerry (served under James Madison) William Rufus De Vane King (served under Franklin Pierce) Henry Wilson (served under U.S. Grant) Thomas Hendricks (served under Grover Cleveland) Garret Hobart (served under William McKinley) James Sherman (served under William Howard Taft) Two vice presidents resigned: John C. Calhoun (served under Andrew Jackson) and Spiro Agnew (served under Richard Nixon). And of course, eight Presidents died in office, one (guess who), resigned.

            1821 –Friday-  Flee the country where a lone man holds all power: It is a nation of slaves ….Simon Bolivar……The Republic of Gran Colombia (a federation covering much of present day Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador) was established, with Simón Bolívar as the President and Francisco de Paula Santander as vice president. The Republic of Gran Colombia was his initial attempt at creating a single South American state. Other South American politicians, however, were not thrilled with his idea and  so a disgruntled Bolívar resigned in 1828.  The federation went kaput in 1830, despite the efforts of General Rafael Urdaneta in Bogotá, due to internal strife between the different regions over key questions such as who would get Hugo Chavez, who would get credit for Tortas y Pasteles, and Bolivar’s comment, vas Uruguay y yo por el mío  which translate to you go Uruguay and I’ll go mine, which increased after Bolívar's resignation.

            1822-Saturday- Oh! We ain't got a barrel of money;
Maybe we're ragged and funny.
But we travel along, singing a song,
Side by side.
…Gus Kahn and music by Harry M. Woods.  When the American press began to circulate articles praising the use of a new invention in England that would instill fear in convicted felons and turn them into productive citizens, politicians, prison officials, and the press in America took notice according  to the site Early American Crime. And so   treadmill was completed to grind corn at the Bellevue County Penitentiary in New York City, located where 26th Street meets the East River. . It  employed the labor of 8 to 16 prisoners at a time walking on what looked like a very wide, 5-ft diameter paddle wheel. Prisoners held on to a bar and climbed the paddle boards, like endlessly walking up stairs. Their cholesterol was down, the body fat down, and they learned to smile the insane grin of fitness instructors everywhere as they developed it into the Walking on a Paddle Wheel Ab and Calf Builder program.

             1829-Monday-  Watson: Holmes! What kind of rock is this! Holmes: Sedimentary, my dear Watson……..Happy Birthday, Ferdinand Vandiveer Hayden, American geologist born in Westfield, Massachusetts.  Hayden explored the Great Plains and Rocky Mountain region.  His efforts provided the foundation for the U.S. Geological Survey and for the establishment of Yellowstone National Park.  Hayden generally gets credit for the first discovery of dinosaur remains (which turned out to be Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia) made in North America in 1854, during his exploration of the upper Missouri River in Montana and trip to the Montana Vortex and House of Mystery in Columbia Falls.

            1840-Monday-  The brown paper bag is the only thing civilized man has produced that does not seem out of place in nature. …..Tom Robbins……Happy Birthday, Luther Crowell, American inventor born in Harwich, Massachusetts.  Crowell obtained over 280 patents for printing press improvements as well as designing a machine for making the square-bottomed paper bag that you find in grocery stores and are coming back into vogue replacing plastic bags (which have a half-life of 400-1,000 years, Plastic never fully decomposes. Over time it goes through a process of photo degradation and breaks down into smaller and smaller pieces).  Anyway, Luther Crowell invented the machine. The way had been paved (bagged?) for Crowell by Margaret (Mattie) Knight was an employee in a paper bag factory when she invented a new machine part to make square bottoms for paper bags. Paper bags had been more like envelopes before. And so Knight (that old bag) can be considered the mother of the grocery bag,

            1876 –Thursday-  Just about the worst gun battle ever out on the western plains
When me and a bunch of cowboys went running with Jesse James
Come a cow-cow yicky, come a cow-cow yicky, yicky yea…
…Woody Guthrie, Leadbelly…….
The Great Northfield Minnesota Raid ended very badly for the Jesse James/Cole Younger Gang. While they were happily robbing the bank, a teller ran out and alerted the local (well armed) citizenry.  Eventually six members of the gang would be killed. Jesse's brother, Frank, was hit in the leg, while their criminal partners--Jim, Cole, and Bob Younger--were also badly wounded. Jesse James was the last one out of the bank. After pausing briefly to shoot the uncooperative teller (Joseph Lee Heywood) in the head, he escaped (we note that Cole Younger, on his death bed said that in fact it was Frank James that shot poor Heywood) . James would eventually be killed by Robert Ford “the dirty little coward who shot Mr. Howard” in 1882.

            1888 –Friday- Bom ba ba bom bab um dab um dab um wa wa wa
Bom ba ba bom bab um dad um dab um wa wa wa
Bom ba ba bom um dab um dad um dab um dab
….Jan & Dean, Baby Talk..……..
Edith Eleanor McLean became the first baby to be placed in an incubator. Little Edith weighed 2 pounds, 7 ounces. She was born at State Emigrant Hospital on Ward's Island, New York City. Originally, the incubator was called a "hatching cradle." It was constructed under the instructions of Drs. Allan M. Thomas and William C. Deming who were in charge of the maternity ward at the hospital. It was 3-ft square and 4-ft high. One of its two sections contained 15 gallons of water.  Why an incubator?  In infants born before 31 weeks gestation, evaporative water loss is the single most important channel of heat loss. This is due to inadequate keratinisation of the skin, which allows a high permeability of water to the skin. The permeability drops rapidly in the first 7 to 10 days after birth unless the skin becomes traumatized or secondarily infected. In that 7 to 10 day period, the absolute humidity must be monitored so that evaporative heat loss is kept to a minimum as well as water loss through the skin.  Got it?

           1908 –Monday- Heart, why are you pounding
Like a hammer
Heart, why are you beating like a drum
Heart, why do you make
Such a commotion
….Nick Lowe………Happy Birthday, Dr. Michael DeBakey, born Michel Dabaghi  in Lake Charles,Louisiana , American physician, and pioneer cardiovascular surgeon who invented or perfected many medical devices, techniques and procedures, including arterial bypass operations, artificial hearts, heart pumps and heart transplants. In 1964, Dr. DeBakey was the first to perform a successful aortocoronary artery bypass, using the large vein in the leg to bypass the blocked or damaged area between the aorta and coronary arteries, a life-saving operation now used throughout the world.  In 1968, he led a team of surgeons in a historic multiple transplantation procedure in which the heart, kidneys, and one lung of a donor were transplanted into four recipients. If you’re familiar with the old TV show M.A.S.H, set during the Korean War, DeBakey also played a key role in developing the Mobile Army Surgical Hospitals (M.A.S.H.) located only minutes from the battlefield to reduce the fatality rate for critically wounded soldiers

            1909 –Tuesday- Yes I will succeed and I'll make some money, unless I break my neck…………Eugene Lefebvre went kaput while test piloting a new French-built Wright biplane. He crashed at Juvisy France when his controls jammed. Lefebvre died and earned the dubious honor of becoming the first 'pilot' in the world to lose his life in a powered heavier-than-air craft.

             1912 –Saturday-  The best possible company management is one that combines a sense of corporate greatness and destiny, with empathy for, and fidelity to, the average employee. ……Happy Birthday, David Packard, American electrical engineer and entrepreneur  born  in Pueblo, Colorado. Packard, with William Hewlett,  co-founded the Hewlett-Packard Company, a manufacturer of computers, computer printers, and analytic and measuring equipment

            1914-Monday-  His discovery … was the first major scientific discovery of the Space Age.  It was unexpected, and that's what made it so exciting…..Ed Stone…Happy Birthday, James Van Allen, U.S. physicist born in in Mount Pleasant,  Iowa. Van Allen discovered the radiation belt around the Earth which he then eponymously named the Van Allen Suspenders, no, we’re just kidding, it was the Van Allen Radiation Belt. On January 31, 1958, a Geiger counter he designed  was on board the Explorer 1 satellite and over the following weeks the instrument measured for the first time layers of radiation found around the earth's atmosphere. Those layers were later named the Van Allen Radiation Belts. The Earth actually has two radiation belts, a third was discovered in 2013 so who knows how many there are.  The inner belt, the one discovered by Van Allen's Geiger counter, occupies a compact region above the equator and is a by-product of cosmic radiation. It is populated by protons……we’re positive about that.   Both manned and unmanned spaceflights tend to stay out of this region. The outer radiation belt is nowadays seen as part of the plasma trapped in the magnetosphere. 

            1914 Monday- Mister Postman, look and see
(Oh yeah)
If there's a letter in your bag for me
(Please, Please Mister Postman)
Why's it takin' such a long time
(Oh yeah)
For me to hear from that boy of mine…
..The Marvelettes............... On the same day that James Van Allen (see above) entered the world, the New York Post Office Building on 33rd St. and 8th Ave. in Manhattan opened to the public.  It’s the one with "Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds," inscribed above the door.  The original saying was actually "Neither snow, nor rain, nor heat, nor gloom of night stays these courageous couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds" and was originally said about 2500 years ago by the Greek historian, Herodotus. He coined the adage during the war between the Greeks and Persians about 500 B.C. in reference to the Persian mounted postal couriers whom he observed and held in high esteem. The New York Post Office is now is a national historic landmark, and occupies two full city blocks.

            1915 –Tuesday- Yes," said Raggedy Ann, "I have been thinking; our mistress gave us the nice dinner out under the trees to teach us a lesson ... we must never take without asking ... So let us all remember and try never again to do anything which might cause those who love us any unhappiness ….. Raggedy Ann Stories: Raggedy Ann Learns a Lesson……Former cartoonist, children's book writer and illustrator Johnny Gruelle (John Barton ) was given a patent for his Raggedy Ann doll.  One of at least three versions according to Raggedy Ann and Andy: History and Legend by Patricia Hall,  had found a faceless rag doll in his attic.  He drew a face on it, cleaned it up and gave it to his daughter as a gift. It became his daughter’s constant playmate.  The book Raggedy Ann Stories  was published in 1918 and the Raggedy Ann doll was marketed successfully with the book.  Raggedy Ann's name came from a combined reference to two poems by James Whitcomb Riley, The Raggedy Man and Little Orphan Annie

            1936-Monday- Few problems are less recognized, but more important than, the accelerating disappearance of the earth's biological resources. In pushing other species to extinction, humanity is busy sawing off the limb on which it is perched……Paul Ehrlich …………Extinct – Kaput - the last known Tasmanian Tiger (Thylacine) died at the Hobart Zoo. This dog-like marsupial, named from  its striped hind-quarters, was the first known mammal species to become extinct in Tasmania. The animal had been systematically exterminated by European settlers as an undesirable predator of farm animals. The thylacine was a unique marsupial carnivore found throughout most of Tasmania before European settlement in 1803. Between 1886 and 1909, the Tasmanian government encouraged people to hunt thylacines and paid bounties on over 2000 thylacine carcasses. Only a handful of animals were located after the bounty was lifted and the last known thylacine was captured from the wild in 1933. After it was eliminated in the wild, a few remained alive in zoos, but no effort was made to breed the species. See Science Gnus -

            1936 –Monday- Ooo-bop, wop-bop-bop)
(Ooo-bop, wop-bop-bop)
(Ooo-bop, wop-bop-bop)
(Ooo-bop, wop-bop-bop)
My love, a-bigger than the Cadillac
I try to show it 'n you drive-a me back
Your love for me, it got to be real
A-for you to know a-just how I feel
A love for real, not fade away
…..Tasmanian Tiger  faded awau  but Happy Birthday, Charles Hardin - Buddy Holly, American rock singer born in Lubbock, Texas. The hits of Holly (and his group the Crickets), Rave On, Peggy Sue, That’ll Be the Day, Oh Boy! and Maybe Baby had a profound influence on rock music and especially on the Beatles and Hollies (both of whom derived their names from  his…beatles-crickets). Even the Rolling Stones had their first major British hit with Holly’s Not Fade Away. Buddy Holly was killed on the “day the music died”, - February 3, 1959, as traveling to  Moorhead, Minnesota  with two other performers, Ritchie Valens and the Big Bopper, he chartered a plane that left the Mason City, Iowa, airport at one in the morning and crashed in a cornfield a few minutes later, killing all aboard. He was 22 years old.

            1949 –Wednesday-  Go on now, go walk out the door
Just turn around now
'Coz you're not welcome anymore
Weren't you the one who tried to hurt me with goodbye?
Did you think I'd crumble?
Did you think I'd lay down and die?
Oh no not I, I will survive
For as long as I know how to love, I know I'll stay alive
I've got all my life to live
And I've got all my love to give
I'll survive
I will survive
Hey hey 
 Happy Birthday, Gloria Gaynor (born Gloria Fowles) American singer, best-known for the disco era  anthem, I Will Survive which went to number 1 on the record (yes, they still had records then) charts in 1979.

            1955 –Wednesday-Don't know much trigonometry
Don't know much about algebra
Don't know what a slide rule is for
…..Sam Cook…..S dniom razhdjenia! Happy Birthday, Efim Isaakovich Zelmanov , Russian (formerly Soviet) mathematician, perhaps best known for his solution of the restricted Burnside problem  In 1994 he was awarded the Fields medal (the Mathematics equivalent of the Nobel Prize). The restricted Burnside problem came up when Burnside was restricted to just the living room of his house and he had to figure out how to get to the bathroom and also the kitchen when he was hungry and…….no,no,no Professor Sy Yentz has his restricted sense of humor….The restricted Burnside problem (formulated in the 1930s) asks another related question: are there only finitely many finite r-generator groups of exponent n, up to isomorphism? (An r-generator group is group which can be generated by r elements.).  If this holds for a given r and n, then consider subgroups H and K of B(r, n), where both H and K have finite index. The intersection of H and K then also has finite index. Let M be the intersection of all subgroups of B(r, n) which have finite index. M is a normal subgroup of B(r, n) (otherwise, there exists a subgroup g -1Mg with finite index containing elements not in M). We can then define B0(r,n) to be the factor group formed by B(r,n)/M. B0(r,n) is a finite group; and every finite r-generator group of exponent n is a homomorphic image of B0(r,n).  Why, a child of five could understand this.  Someone fetch a child of five….Groucho Marx.

            1958-Sunday- Queen Yllana: I'm going to allow myself the exquisite pleasure of watching you while I obliterate the Earth. ….The premiere of the epic, Queen of Outer Space (tag line - Mankind's first fantastic flight to Venus - the female planet!). This cinematic triumph, set in 1985,  starred  Zsa Zsa Gabor as, yes the Hungarian accented Venusian love interest of astronaut Eric Fleming, also Gil Favor to Clint Eastwood’s Rowdy Yates on TV’s Rawhide. It was directed by Edward Bernds who’s ouevre also includes: The Three Stooges in Orbit, The Three Stooges Meet Hercules, The Bowery Boys Meet the Monsters, Bowery to Bagdad, and Reform School Girl. Zsa Zsa did not play the Queen, that was the evil, man-hating Yllana.  Zsa Zsa, perhaps type cast, played the man loving, Talleah.  Subsequent probes to the planet by Russian and American spacecraft indicate that this movie was in fact a documentary and all events were true.

            1963 –Saturday-
You gotta be football hero
To get along
With the beautiful girls.
You gotta be
A touchdown getter,
You bet.
If you wanna get
A baby to pet……
. Al Sherman, Buddy Fields and Al Lewis.... The Pro Football Hall of Fame opened in Canton, Ohio with 17 charter members.  Why Canton?  Why it’s the mother (father?) of Pro Football. On December 6, 1959, the Canton Repository, a newspaper in Canton, Ohio, called for the National Football League (NFL) to create a football hall of fame in the community. The city had played an instrumental role in creating professional football. On September 17, 1920, the American Professional Football Association (APFA) formed in the city. This organization eventually became the National Football League. Who were the original members? Slingin’ Sammy Baugh, Bert Bell, Joe Carr, Earl (Dutch) Clark
Harold (Red) Grange (the Galloping Ghost), (Papa Bear) George Halas, Mel Hein
Wilbur (Pete) Henry, Robert (Cal) Hubbard (also a major league umpire), Don Hutson
Earl (Curly) Lambeau (Green Bay Packers), Tim Mara(New York Giants),
George Preston Marshall (Washington Redskins), John (Blood) McNally, Bronko Nagurski, Ernie Nevers, and Jim Thorpe

            1967-Thursday-  These creatures of mine seemed strange and uncanny to you . . . but to me, just after I make them, they seem to be indisputably human beings. It’s afterwards, as I observe them, that the persuasion fades. First one animal trait, then another creeps to the surface and stares out at me. But I will conquer yet! ….H.G Wells, The Island of Dr. Moreau….The first successful U.S. biological research satellite, Biosatellite 2,  was launched carrying 13 experiments to test the effects of cosmic radiation and the space environment on simple small animal and plant life. The life forms included millions of orange head mold spores, thousands of vinegar gnats, flour beetles and bacteria cells, hundreds of wasp and amoeba, 120 frog eggs as well as dozens of wheat seedlings and blue wild flowers, three French hens, two turtle doves, and a partridge in a pear tree. It was the first of a  series of three NASA satellites to assess the effects of spaceflight, especially radiation and weightlessness, on living organisms. Each was designed to reenter and be recovered at the end of its mission. Many of the vinegar gnats mutated, returned to earth and became the New York City Council. The orange head mold spores degenerated into the people open packages and eat the food in supermarkets before paying for them.   

          1977 –Wednesday  Isthmus be my lucky dayDitsy ….Buckwheat…..President Jimmy Carter and Panamanian dictator Omar Torrijos signed a treaty agreeing to transfer control of the Panama Canal from the United States to Panama at the end of the 20th century. The Panama Canal Treaty also authorized the immediate abolishment of the Canal Zone, a 10-mile-wide, 40-mile-long U.S.-controlled area that bisected the Republic of Panama. Fortunately, the loopy Carter was only in office for four years, otherwise he may have given back the Gadsden Purchase, Alaska and the Louisiana Purchase.  Next he was off to  asking his 13 year old daughter for advice on nuclear warfare and being stupid enough to quote her,

            1978 –Thursday-  People try to put us d-down (Talkin' 'bout my generation)
Just because we get around (Talkin' 'bout my generation)
Things they do look awful c-c-cold (Talkin' 'bout my generation)
I hope I die before I get old (Talkin' 'bout my generation)
…..The Village Voice headline would read, “Keith Moon Dies Before He Got Old”. Moon, the great drummer , and certified wacko rock star of The Who, died of a drug overdose.  Moon was taking alcoholic suppression pills and popped 32 of the suckers.  Keith and his Swedish girlfriend Annette Walter-Lax were living in Harry Nilsson's apartment  in Curzon Place, Mayfair, London. The building address is number 9. Previously, Moon’ s friend "Mama" Cass Elliot had lived and died in the same apartment. .

1979 –Friday-  You can't get Dick Vitale to say 15 words without Duke coming out of his mouthT…..John Chaney…………he Entertainment and Sports Programming Network (ESPN) made its debut. Originally designed to give sports highlights and updates, it has degenerated into doing flips on snow mobiles, doing flips on motor cycles , , log chopping, overkill and hyperventilation  of sports stories,  and endless highlights of “check me out” athletes doing silly dances, making angry faces during games when they should be happy,  or attempting to actually speak ya know.  The network sports readers are more interested in being pseudo clever and developing shtick than, gasp, actually being  knowledgeable about sports….sad.       

1998 –Monday O God, I could be bounded in a nutshell, and count myself a
king of infinite space……
Hamlet, Hamlet Act 2, scene 2, 251–259.     The search engine, Google was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, two students at Stanford University.  Gerard Salton, who went kaput August 28th of 1995, was the father of modern search technology. His teams at Harvard and Cornell developed the SMART informational retrieval system. Ted Nelson created Project Xanadu in 1960 and coined the term hypertext in 1963.  While an independent contractor at CERN from June to December 1980, Tim Berners-Lee proposed a project based on the concept of hypertext, to facilitate sharing and updating information among researchers.  Search engines consist of 3 main parts. Search engine spiders follow links on the web to request pages that are either not yet indexed or have been updated since they were last indexed. These pages are crawled and are added to the search engine index (also known as the catalog). When you search using a major search engine you are not actually searching the web, but are searching a slightly outdated index of content which roughly represents the content of the web. The third part of a search engine is the search interface and relevancy software.

Back to  Calendar

8.      70 –Monday We have certainly had God for our assistant in this war, and it was no other than God who ejected the Jews out of these fortifications; for what could the hands of men, or any machines, do towards overthrowing these towers! ….Titus…..Roman forces led by Titus, sacked Jerusalem. Son of the emperor, Vespasian, Titus had begun his siege during Passover on April 14.  The Zealots had begun the Jewish rebellion in 66 A.D. but they quarreled among themselves over the quality of the kviltefish, to the point of combat among themselves –never a good thing- and consequently,  but did little to prepare themselves for a war against Rome. They were rebels, not soldiers, and the leadership and discipline necessary to train and prepare did not exist.  Thousands of Jews were killed, sold into slavery, or kept prisoner to be sacrificed at the games for Roman sport. Jerusalem's fall certainly marked the beginning of the end of a Jewish homeland, for the Diaspora soon saw Jews spreading across the world as their political and religious capital was gone.

            1157 –Sunday- If I could have found a buyer I would have sold London itself….Happy Birthday, King Richard I of England, at Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England . We note that during his 10-year reign he spent only six months in England.  He didn't speak much, if any, English; but then, neither had any monarch of England since the Norman Conquest.  Henry V, 1415-1422 , was the first King to use English in his correspondence.  Richard the Lion Hearted,  was the 2nd son of King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, brother of King John (his successor).   He joined the Third Crusade in 1190, campaigning in the Holy Land whwere  he conquered Messina and Cyprus and then fought to a truce with the Muslim commander Saladin failing to capture Jerusalem. . Richard tried to return to England but shipwrecked and taken prisoner by Duke Leopold of Austria. Richard finally returned to England in 1194 to defeat  his brother John and regain control of the throne.  Foolishily, instead of “kinging”, Richard returned to France for more fighting and died after being shot by a crossbow while besieging the castle at Chalus-Chabrol. He was buried in assorted places as his body was entombed at Fontevraud, at the feet of his father; his heart was buried at Rouen, with his brother Henry; and his brain and entrails went to an abbey at Chattoux, on the border of Poitous and Limousin.


1504 - Thursday-  In every block of marble I see a statue as plain as though it stood before me, shaped and perfect in attitude and action. I have only to hew away the rough walls that imprison the lovely apparition to reveal it to the other eyes as mine see it .........Michelangelo Buonarotti’s  great marble sculpture of David was unveiled in Florence. In 1501, the City of Florence commissioned Michelangelo to create a statue to be placed  high above Florence on one of the Cathedral fortresses. Michelangelo produced "David" at the age of 26. The City of Florence deemed "David" a civic patriotic symbol and placed it in front of the Palazzo Vecchio.  Nowadays, you can find David in the Galeria dell'Academia in Florence (Firenze) although you’ll find a nice copy ouside the Palazzo Vecchio in the Piazza della Signoria. The David is a 17-foot statue of the biblical King David of the Old Testament. David is portrayed in the nude, with an uncircumcised penis that was conflicting with Jewish law but consistent with other Renaissance artworks of the time.


            1514 -Tuesday  Battles are won by slaughter and maneuver. The greater the general, the more he contributes in maneuver, the less he demands in slaughter. ….Winston Churchill……….The Battle of Orsha, one of the biggest clashes  of the century, as Lithuanians and Poles defeated the Russian army. The Battle of Orsha was part of a long chain of wars conducted by Russian tsars striving to gather all the Old Ruthenian (A Slavic people from Southern Russia, Galicia and Bukowina in Austria, and North-eastern Hungary) lands under their rule .The much smaller army of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Poland defeated the Muscovite forces, led by under Konyushy Ivan Chelyadnin and Kniaz Mikhail Golitsin capturing their camp,  commanders and autographed pictures of a shirtless Vladimir Putin.

            1565 –Wednesday My heart was leaping in the sun;
My friends all say that you're the one.
Let me get this one thing very clear:
There ain't enough going on down here.
Mainline Florida, oh say.
Mainline Florida, O.K.
…….Eric Clapton………….
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés settled St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest continually-inhabited city in the United States He purchased a nice waterfront condo three bedrooms, 21/2 baths, in a complex with a pool, tennis courts, hand ball courts, and a Bingo room.  He was so happy with St. Augustine that he promptly attacked the French colony at Fort Caroline and massacred its entire population, calling its members heretics. Aviles returned to Spain in 1567, and later died while fighting the British in a naval battle over  mahjong rights at Santander, Spain.


   1664 Monday - The Bow'ry, the Bow'ry
They say such things and they do strange things,
On the Bow'ry! The Bow'ry!
I'll never go there any mor
……Charles H. Hoyt, and  Percy Gaunt…….Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam, the capital of New Netherland, to an English naval squadron under Colonel Richard Nicolls.
 Stuyvesant had hoped to resist the English but found out that as Borg would say in Star Trek, “resistance is futile”.  Stuyvesant  was an unpopular ruler, and his Dutch subjects refused to rally around  him although the Editorial Board of the Gnus rallies around him
 because we grew up in Stuyvesant Town in Manhattan. Following its capture, New Amsterdam's name was changed to New York, in honor of the Duke of York,  James, (who would become the conspicuously incompetent James II) the brother of King Charles II,
who organized the mission in the context of the Anglo-Dutch War.  As for Stuyvesant?  He was called back to Amsterdam in an attempt by the Dutch East India Company to put the blame for the surrender of 1664 on him. When the shouting had died down,
he returned to Nieuw Amsterdam, which had now changed its name to New York and continued to live on his bouwerij or farm in Manhattan. He died there in 1672, but the Dutch name lives on as The Bowery 

            1828 –Monday In great deeds something abides. On great fields something stays. Forms change and pass; bodies disappear; but spirits linger to consecrate ground for the vision-place of souls...This is the great reward of service. To live far out and on, in the life of others; give life's best for such high sake that it should be found again unto eternal life..Happy Birthday, Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, American Civil War soldier and hero and of the great Americans in the country’s history. Most notably, Chamberlain, leading the 20th Maine Infantry Regiment, held the exposed Union end at Little Round Top on the 2nd day of the pivotal battle of Gettysburg against soldiers from General Law's Alabama Brigade, mainly Tte 15th Alabama Infantry, commanded by Colonel William C. Oates. , Had the 20th not held, the Confederates could have rolled up the Union line, the battle result and American history could have been very different.  Chamberlain  also led his troops through the bloody Overland Campaign in the spring of 1864 at the battles of the Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House, North Anna and Cold Harbor. After the war, he  returned to civilian life and was elected governor of Maine in 1866. But his true interest lay in education and in 1871 he was persuaded to accept the president's position at Bowdoin College where he restructured the college curriculum to include science and engineering.   The Editorial Board of the Gnus highly recommends, Michael Shaara’s Killer Angels, THE book to read about the Battle of Gettysburg.

            1831 -Thursday I have my view of things, and I tell them to my ministers. If they do not adopt it, I cannot help it. I have done my duty…..William IV was crowned King of Great Britain. William, who succeeded  what seemed to be an unending series of Georges (I-IV) was the 3rd son of George III.  He was a genial, frank, warm-hearted man, and a blundering, though well-intentioned prince.  He was known both as the 'Sailor King' and as 'Silly Billy' and his  reign saw the passing of the Reform Act of 1832.He was succeeded by his niece Queen Victoria.

            1854-Friday If everybody contemplates the infinite instead of fixing the drains, many of us will die of cholera………….John   Rich…….Dr. John Snow single handedly stopped a cholera epidemic in London when he  removed the handle of the Broad Street water pump.  This  effectively stopped further spread of the disease.  Snow  had mapped the outbreaks, and thus suspected contamination of this community source of water. He was correct in this, one of the most symbolic gestures in the history of public health. Within days after the pump handle was removed, new cases of illness had ceased. Site investigation showed  raw sewage from a leaking sewage cesspool that had contaminated the well water. This may have been the first “button down cholera”……no starch.  In 1959, American singer Connie Francis had a hit single, Lipstick on Your Cholera. In a March 2003 survey by Hospital Doctor magazine, John Snow was voted the "greatest doctor" of all time, with Hippocrates (460-370 BC) coming in second.  While the poll was likely biased with over-representation of John Snow supporters, the findings do point to the increased prominence of Dr. Snow among contemporary physicians.

            1857 –Tuesday Life is a whim of several billion cells to be you for a while. …..Unknown……….Happy Birthday, Ida H. Hyde  (sister of Formalde Hyde and Raw Hyde) , American physicist born in Davenport, Iowa who invented the microelectrode in the 1930's.  And just what is the microelectrode?  Glad you asked.  The  device stimulates a living cell either chemically or electrically, and records the electrical activity inside the cell. With the paucity of women scientists in the 19th century, her firsts include being the first woman to graduate from the University of Heidelberg in 1896, the first woman to do research at the Harvard Medical School (in the Department of Physiology.) and the first woman to be elected to the American Physiology Society. Her discoveries could be labeled  “Hyde and seek”……but then……………maybe not.

            1888-Saturday Strumming my pain with his fingers
Singing my life with his words
Killing me softly with his song
Killing me softly with his song
….Roberta Flack……….In
London, the body of Jack the Ripper's second murder victim, Annie Chapman, was found.  On Friday, August 31 1888, the body of Polly Nichols was discovered lying on the ground before a gated stable entrance on Whitechapel’s Buck’s Row – a narrow, dimly lit passage. She suffered a deep slash to her throat and severe cuts to her abdomen and womb. Polly was believed to be the first victim of Jack the Ripper. Annie Chapman, known as "Dark Annie," was a 47-year old destitute prostitute who roamed the streets and moved from one common lodging house to the next when could afford to pay for a room that is. On the morning of September 8, 1888 she was sent out of her current lodging house to earn money for her bed. Her body was found several hours later in the backyard of 29 Hanbury Street in the same condition as Polly Nichol’s.  There would be three more victims for certain and several for rumor.  Jack the Ripper’s identity has never been ascertained.

          1900 Saturday -Cause when the tears start flowin' and the wind starts blowin'
That's how you know it's comin' for you
When the rain start fallin' and you feel the pain comin'
That's how you know it's comin' for you
Just like a hurricane, just like a hurricane, the way you break everything that comes in your way
Just like a hurricane, Just like a hurricane, the way you broke my heart and now I'm left with the pain
After the hurricane
…….Jazmine Sullivan…..A Category 4 hurricane swamped Galveston, Texas, killing an estimated 6,000 to 8,000 people. A 15-foot storm surge flooded the city. The problem was that the city was only nine feet, above sea level. Numerous homes and buildings were destroyed. The hurricane remains the worst weather-related disaster in U.S. history in terms of loss of life. Under the leadership of Clara Barton, the American Red Cross helped establish an orphanage for storm victims and helped to acquire lumber to rebuild houses. The organization raised money by selling photographs of the storm devastation. No name for this hurricane.  The hurricane naming site of NOAA ( tells us For several hundred years, hurricanes in the West Indies were often named after the particular saint’s day on which the hurricane occurred. For example "Hurricane San Felipe" struck Puerto Rico onSeptember 13, 1876. Another storm struck Puerto Rico on the same day in 1928, and this storm was named "Hurricane San Felipe the second. (or Phil the Deuce)" Later, latitude-longitude positions were used. However, experience indicated that using distinctive names in communications is quicker and less subject to error than the cumbersome latitude longitude identification methods. Using women’s names became the practice during World War II, following the use of a woman’s name for a storm in the 1941 novel "Storm" by George R. Stewart. In 1951 the United States adopted a confusing plan to name storms by a phonetic alphabet (Able, Baker, Charlie), and in 1953 the nation’s weather services returned to using female names. The practice of using female names exclusively ended in 1978 in a politically correct diversity multicultural storm when names from both sexes were used to designate storms in the eastern Pacific. A year later, male and female names were included in lists for the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. The name lists, which have been agreed upon at international meetings of the World Meteorological Organization, have a French, Spanish, Dutch, and English flavor because hurricanes affect other nations and are tracked by the public and weather services of many countries. The Tropical Prediction Center in Miami, FL keeps a constant watch on oceanic storm-breeding grounds. Once a system with counterclockwise circulation and wind speeds of 39 mph or greater is identified, the Center gives the storm a name from the list for the current year. The letters Q, U, X, Y, and Z are not included because of the scarcity of names beginning with those letters. Names associated with storms that have caused significant death and/or damage are usually retired from the list.   Got it?

            1903- Tuesday What do you call a group of brains who form a singing group at school ?  Yes, a glia club……..Alles Gute zum Geburtstag! Happy Birthday, Marthe Vogt, German-born (Berlin)  British pharmacologist who left Nazi Germany (one of many) for Britain and became a leading authority on neurotransmitters in the brain. A neurotransmitter is chemical that permits nerve signals to bridge the gap, or synapse, between  nerve cells. You can access them by wearing funnel shaped hat made of aluminum foil on your head.   Her reserach showed the chemical transmission of nerve impulses across synapses in the brain and the work opened the way for research that has transformed the treatment of mental illness. In 1936 Vogt co-authored a classic paper proving that acetylcholine from nerves originating in the spinal cord triggers movement in muscles.

             1906 –Saturday I heard that if you locked William Shakespeare in a room with a typewriter for long enough, he'd eventually write all the songs by the Monkeys ….Unknown………..The automatic typewriter was invented by Christopher Latham Sholes in 1867. But 18 year old  Robert Turner invented  the automatic typewriter return carriage.  The carriage (the roller mechanism holding the paper) moves one space to the left, so when you hit the next key it doesn't obliterate the mark you've just made. The carriage continues to advance as you type, until you get to the right edge of the paper. Then a bell sounds and you have to press the carriage return lever . This turns the paper up and moves the carriage back to the start of the next line.

            1918-Sunday  Q: What do you do with a sick chemist? A: If you can't helium, and you can't curium, then you might as well barium. ……Happy Birthday, Derek Richard Barton, English chemist and the Father of Conformational Analysis in Organic Chemistry, which is a strange name for a child . In conformational analysis  he proposed that the orientations in space of functional groups affect the rates of reaction in isomers.  An isomer is a molecule or compound that has the same number of atoms as another but a different structure. The studies showed that organic molecules have a preferred three-dimensional form from which their chemical properties can be inferred. Barton shared the 1969 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Odd Hassell.

            1922-Friday  I didn't allow cue cards because, to my mind, when you're acting with someone you listen when they speak, ... Because then you can push off not just what they say but how they say it. You don't just hang around waiting for your cue……Happy Birthday, Sid Caesar, (Isaac Sidney Caesar) American comedian, 1950’s television star of Your Show of Shows, born in Yonkers, NY. Caesar was one of the superstars of the early 50’s along with Milton Berle who made television must see viewing.  He starred in such hits as Your Show of Shows (1950-1954), Caesar’s Hour (1954-1957) and Sid Caesar Invites You (1958). Many prominent comic actors and writers got their start writing the skits for Caesar’s shows, including Carl Reiner, Mel Brooks, Neil Simon, Woody Allen, Howard Morris, and the great Imogene Coca.  In fact, Your Show of Shows inspired such works as Laughter on the 23rd Floor (written by 'Neil Simon') My Favorite Year (produced by 'Mel Brooks (I)') and The Dick Van Dyke Show (created by Carl Reiner).

            1925 –Tuesday She killed him in a rit of fealous jage …..Speaking of great comedians, Happy Birthday, (Richard Henry) Peter Sellers, English comedic actor, famous as Inspector Clouseau in the (original, not the pathetic copies) Pink Panther movies. A Shot in the Dark was one of the funniest movies ever made.   Sellers initially gained public fame on The Goon Show, a pre Monty Python radio comedy revue of the 1950s. After much success  Britain (The Mouse That Roared), his film career blossomed worldwide in 1964, when he played three roles in the dark 1964 comedy Dr. Strangelove, directed by Stanley Kubrick and co-starring George C. Scott. (Sellers was meek President Merklin Muffley, stiff British Group Captain Lionel Mandrake, and ex-Nazi genius Dr. Strangelove.

            1930 –Monday My kids scotch tape worms to the sidewalk and watch the birds get hernias. ……….Unknown……….Scotch tape was developed by Richard Drew, an engineer at the 3M company.  The Xeroxian world of the internet all notes (over and over) that he played the banjo but surprisingly, his fingers did not stick to the strings. Scotch tape, the world's first transparent tape, added a nearly invisible adhesive, made from rubber, oils and resins, to a coated cellophane backing. The adhesive was waterproof and withstood a wide range of temperature and humidity, because it was designed to seal cellophane food-wrap. The  Great Depression  brought about other uses to a thrifty public , from sealing packages to mending clothes to preserving cracked eggs. The Scotch in Scotch tape is said to have come from workers complaining about the cheaply made original product.”take this back to your Scotch bosses”. Drew also invented masking tape, a two-inch-wide tan paper strip backed with a light, pressure-sensitive adhesive which he invented because of the difficulties auto body painters had keeping borders between two colors. And, in case you were wondering – and we know you were - John A. Borden, another 3M engineer invented the first tape dispenser with a built-in cutter blade in 1932.

            1932 –Thursday I could spit dust I'm so mad. He wants to put violins on my new session. I'll die before I'll go all the way pop. …..Happy Birthday, Patsy Cline, (Virginia Patterson Hensley)  American singer  born in Winchester, Virginia. Her hits began in 1957 with Donn Hecht's Walkin' After Midnight, Harlan Howard's I Fall to Pieces, Hank Cochran's She's Got You, Willie Nelson's Crazy and ended in 1963 with Don Gibson's Sweet Dreams just before a fatal plane crash  on March 5, 1963.

            1935 -Sunday Hit Me With Your Best Shot!
Why Don't You Hit Me With Your Best Shot!
Hit Me With Your Best Shot!
Fire Away!.......
Pat Benatar…….
Senator Huey Long, the “Kingfish” was shot in the Louisiana state capitol building. He went kaput  about 30 hours later. Eight U.S Presidents have died in office, seven Vice Presidents have died in office and three senators have been shot while in office.  Three United States Senators have died violent deaths while in office.  In 1859, the antislavery Sen. David C. Broderick of California was killed in a duel with the proslavery David S. Terry, a former justice on the California Supreme Court.  Murder charges against Terry for killing Broderick were dismissed, but Terry's career was rendered kaput.  In 1889, in a railway station restaurant in tiny Lathrop, Calif., Terry – yes, the same Terry, this guy definitely had anger management issues--attacked and struck in the face U. S. Supreme Court Justice Stephen Field.  A federal marshal assigned to protect Field shot Terry dead on the spot. In 1968, Sen. Robert Kennedy was shot to death.  Sirhan Sirhan, the Palestinian convicted of the murder, received a life sentence. Immediately after Long was shot, his alleged assassin, Dr. Carl Austin Weiss, a 29-year old local physician, was slain by Long's bodyguards, who pumped between 30 and 60 pistol bullets into the doctor's body as it lay on the corridor floor.

1935 -Sunday. Shine and sway your blue-sies
Why don't you shine
Start with your shoe-sies
Shine this place up
Make it look like new
Shine your face up
I want to see you wear a smile or tw
The  singing group called the Hoboken Four, one of whose members was named Frank Sinatra, made their first national
appearance, performing on WOR's radio show Major Bowes Amateur Hour singing Shine.The vocal quartet  - Jimmy Skelly , Patty Prince, and Freddy Tamby and
Frank Sinatra auditioned as "Frank Sinatra and the 3 Flashes," but was renamed, purportedly by Major Bowes himself. The act won the competition and
joined one of Major Bowes's traveling vaudeville units.

         1944 – Wednesday (Zoom)
Guided missiles
Guided missiles
(Zoom) Guided missiles, aim at my heart
Down to destroy me, tear me apart
Guided missiles, none of them true
Now I know the enemy is you…..The Cufflinks………
The first German V-2 rocket hit Great Britain.  The A-4, later called the V-2, was a single-stage rocket fueled by alcohol and liquid oxygen. It was  46.1 feet high and had a thrust of 56,000 pounds. The V-2  had a payload capacity of 2,200 pounds and could reach a velocity of 3,500 miles per hour.  The V-2 developed by German rocket scientist Wernher von Braun, was more technologically advanced than any other rocket of the era.  Herbert Morrison, Home Secretary, had claimed that Hitler had lost the battle of London. Morrison’s Rocket Consequences Committee giddily announced.  on  5th September 1944, “ the enemy is unlikely to be able to launch rockets or flying bombs against London on any appreciable scale…We have therefore directed that…plans…to meet the contingency of severe rocket attack should so far as possible be kept on a paper basis”  Lee Saunders on the Secret Weapons site notes, On Friday 8th September 1944, in a quiet picturesque road in Chiswick, west London W4, would be the Britain’s first recipient of Hitler’s silent, but deadly V2 rocket. Launched from occupied Holland just minutes earlier the V2 re-entered the earth’s atmosphere and hurtled towards London at supersonic speed. It was a drizzly Friday evening at 6.44pm when a ‘mystery explosion’ shattered the quiet surroundings of Staveley Road in Chiswick and killed three people.

 1951  - Saturday Because of you there's a song in my heart
Because of you my romance had its start
Because of you the sun will shine
The moon and stars will say you're mine
Forever and never to part
.Tony Bennett's  Because of You  hits #1.  Bennett’s hit replaced  Rosemary Clooney’s Come On a My House  in the top spot.   Bennett would replace himself at the top spot with Cold Cold Heart on November 3.

  1953 -Tuesday 99 bottles of beer on the wall, 99 bottles of beer.
Take one down and pass it around, 98 bottles of beer on the wall
. ……..Continental Trailways offered the first transcontinental express bus service in the U.S. The 3,154-mile ride from New York City to San Francisco lasted 88 hours and 50 minutes, of which only 77 hours was riding time. A one-way ticket cost $56.70. No word about whether the person you were stuck next to for the 77 hours had bathed  recently. Nowadays it’s almost guaranteed that they didn’t.

1960 -Thursday Alive With Thrills that Started a Million Years Ago………The premiere of Dinosaurus as undersea explosions near a Caribbean island, prehistoric creatures were unleashed on the unsuspecting population.   Surprisingly, it was not directed by Roger Corman but y Irvin S. Yeaworth Jr.. We looked at the full cast onIMDb and found no one we ever heard of.

1966-Thursday Mr. Spock: Miss Uhura, your last sub-space log contained an error in the frequencies column.
Lt. Nyota Uhura: Sometimes I think if I hear "frequency" again, I'll cry.
Mr. Spock: Cry?
Lt. Nyota Uhura: I was just trying to start a conversation.
Mr. Spock: Well, since it is illogical for a communications officer to resent the word "frequency"... I have no answer.

Lt. Nyota Uhura: No, you have an answer. I'm an illogical woman who's beginning to feel too much a part of that communications console. Why don't you tell me I'm an attractive young lady or ask me if I've ever been in love? Tell me how planet Vulcan looks when the moon is full.
Mr. Spock: Vulcan has no moon, Miss Uhura.
Lt. Nyota Uhura: I'm not surprised, Mr. Spock. …..Going where no man has gone before and inflicting William Shatner on an unsuspecting public, Star Trek premiered.  There would be seventy nine episodes, the last show would be June 3, 1969 but like a rash, it won’t go away and keeps coming back in different forms. In this first show, Kirk and his crew are at deadly risk from an alien creature that feeds on the salt in a human body and can take on any form. Starring in the first show were DeForest Kelley (Dr. Leonard Horatio "Bones" McCoy), Grace Lee Whitney (Yeoman Janice Rand), George Takei (Lt. Hikaru Sulu), Nichelle Nichols (Lt. Nyota Uhura).  We note that Leonard Nimoy was the only cast member from the pilot episode, The Cage, to advance to seriesdom.  The Captain was Pike, played by Jeffrey Hunter and Susan Oliver played Vina.

            1966-Thursday If people did not sometimes do silly things, nothing intelligent would ever get done ……Ludwig Wittgenstein ………Premiering on the same night as Star Trek got launched (see above), That Girl starring Marlo Thomas – daughter of comedian Danny Thomas- made its debut. In a typical sit-com plot inspired by  the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, we see the application of modern logic to metaphysics, via language, he provided new insights into the relations between world, thought and language and thereby into the nature of philosophy.  In this first episode, Ann meets Donald (who would be the boyfriend)- played by the whiney Ted Bessell)  in their office building, but their first days of getting acquainted include a clash over a rolltop desk they each want to buy and Donald unwittingly ruining Ann's role in a commercial. Plots like this kept us rolling in our chairs with laughter until March, 1971 when the show, mercifully, went off the air although it lasted longer than the original Star Trek.

             1967-Friday-  The moon is friend for the lonesome to talk to….Carl Sandberg…..The Surveyor 5 spacecraft was launched -landed on the moon Sept. 11- to photograph potential landing areas for Apollo. After 180,000 pictures of smiling craters, happy mountains, and moody mares, the Sea of Tranquility was selected for the July1969 landing site.  Surveyor 5 was the third spacecraft in the Surveyor series to achieve a successful lunar soft landing and the first mission to, as NASA slyly puts it,  obtain in-situ compositional data on the Moon.  The Surveyor program consisted of seven unmanned lunar missions that were launched between May 1966 and January 1968. Five of these spacecraft, Surveyor 1, 3, 5, 6, and 7 successfully soft-landed on the lunar surface. Surveyor 2 was craftnapped by the minions of the Queen of Outer Space, who lives on Venus (certified by the 1958 documentary, Queen of Outer Space starring Zsa Zsa Gabor and Eric Fleming) and Surveyor 4 amassed a vast collection of charmed quarks thus preventing a lunar landing but instead transmitting interstellar microbes to Earth where they triggered the disease Blockingium Aisleisea which causes victims to block the aisle of aircraft while they fiddle with baggage causing passenger grid lock behind them.

1973- Saturday I’ve been really tryin baby
Tryin to hold back this feeling for so long
And if you feel like I feel baby
Come on, oh come on, ooh
Let’s get it on, ow baby
Let’s get it on, let’s love baby
Let’s get it on, sugar
Let’s get it on, woo
Marvin Gaye's Let's Get It On" hit #1on the Billboard Chart.  Marvin replaced the whiny social statement, Brother Louie by Storie.   Let’s Get It On would be knocked out of the top spot by Helen Reddy, Delta Dawn (inexplicably so because the Bette Midler version was much better).

            1974 –Sunday I beg your pardon,
I never promised you a rose garden.
Along with the sunshine,
There's gotta be a little rain sometimes
…………Lynn Anderson….
Former President Richard Nixon burped, said “pardon me” and accidental, soon to be slapstick  President Gerald Ford said “O.K” and did. Ford pardoned Nixon for any crimes he may have committed or participated in while in office including excessive dourness. Ford later defended this action before the House Judiciary Committee, explaining that he wanted to end the national divisions created by the Watergate scandal. Ford had been Speaker of the House of Representatives when Nixon’s Vice President, the sleazoid,  Spiro T. Agnew, resigned in disgrace. Ford was appointed Vice President and assumed the Presidency when Nixon resigned in disgrace in August of 1974. Yes, Ford’s Vice President would be Nelson Rockefeller but then you  knew that.

            1986 –Monday Has there EVER been a more self-infatuated celebrity?......Review on IMDb……Twenty years to the day after Star Trek and That Girl premiered (see 1966 above) – we’re not sure about the symbolism here…..The Oprah Winfrey show premiered, as the first talk show hosted by a black woman. It is the highest-rated talk show in syndication history. And yes, if she married Deepak Chopra, she’d be Oprah Chopra. Winfrey perfected “confession culture” in which celebrities in the beginning or midst of a positive public relations campaign for some transgression would appear “first” on Oprah and be fed Twinkie (soft) questions thus improving their public image and improving Oprah’s ratings which is interesting considering that she  is not funny, she is dull and dry,  she has no personality and  lousy taste in books.

            1998-Thursday Your cheatin' heart,
Will make you weep,
You'll cry and cry,
And try to sleep,
But sleep won't come,
The whole night through,
Your cheatin heart, will tell on you
..........Hank Williams Sr……………
Steroid laden mutant, St. Louis Cardinals slugger Mark McGwire hit his 62nd home run of the year, breaking New York Yankee (steroidless)Roger Maris’ record for most home runs in a single season set in 1961 as the Cardinals beat  the Chicago Cubs (featuring the steroidically enhanced, recently muscualar,  Sammy Sosa) 6-3. .  McGuire’s record would be short lived as it would be broken in 1973 by gigantic headed chemically altered Barry Bonds.

1999 – Wednesday He was my mum and dad's best friend. He's a convicted murderer, but he's broken out of wizard prison and he's on the run. He likes to keep in touch with me, though...keep up with my news...check if I'm happy……..The fantasy novel Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban by author J. K. Rowling was published as a hardcover by Bloomsbury Publishing in the UK, Raincoast Books in Canada, and Scholastic Press in the U.S. (UK: ISBN 0-7475-4215-5 US: ISBN-10: 0-439-13635-0) It was the third novel in the Harry Potter series as Rowling was transitioning from children’s stories (Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone and Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets) to darker, more adult story lines. The novel would win both the 1999 Costa Book Awards and the Bram Stoker Award

2004 – Wednesday - Dr. T. Hallen: [on the phone] Kate? It's Dr. Hallen, I'm still at the office... something's come up. I need you back here right away. No, you've got to come back, Kate. There's a man here with some sort of a parasite on his arm, assimilating his flesh at a frightening speed. I may have to get ahead of it and amputate. No... I don't know what it is or where it came from. …..”The Blob”…….NASA's unmanned spacecraft Genesis crash-landed  when its parachute failed to open.  Instead, the capsule tumbled wildly as it fell to the desert floor where it buried itself in the ground. It landed on target, but without open parachutes, it crashed at 193 mph. Fortunately, the Genesis sample return capsule was designed to survive such a landing. Also, it came down in a remote area so nobody was injured and no structures were damaged.  However, after the crash, amorphous blob escaped and terrorized a small town, even eating people in a movie theater until it was frozen by Steve McQueen. Some good news though as researchers were able to salvage usable material from the Genesis mission, whose aim was to collect samples from the solar wind and bring them safely back to Earth.  The results, picked from millimeter-sized shards of the spacecraft's detectors, provided a snapshot of the early Solar System, and  fed  into models that outline how our planet’s atmosphere evolved.

2005 Saturday Help, I need somebody,
Help, not just anybody,
Help, you know I need someone,
…..The Beatles……..Two EMERCOM Il-76 aircraft landed  at a disaster aid staging area for Hurricane Katrina at Little Rock Air Force Base.  This was  the first time Russia had flown such a mission to North America.  The day before the levees of New Orleans gave way to the forces of Hurricane Katrina, the Russian Federation had offered humanitarian aid, 10 coordinators and 50 rescuers, as well as six tons of drinking water  plus autographed  pictures of a bare chested Vladimir Putin to the United States. 

Back to  Calendar


214 – Monday Reunited and it feels so good
Reunited 'cause we understood
There's one perfect fit
And, sugar, this one is it
Peaches & Herb……….Fortuna dies natalis! Happy Birthday, Aurelian, Roman emperor  270 -275  who reunited the empire, which had virtually disintegrated under the pressure of invasions and internal revolts, he earned his self-adopted title restitutor orbis (“restorer of the world”) which in summary meant that as one of the soldier emperors,  he defeated the Vandals when they invaded Pannonia (modern day - parts of Hungary, Austria, Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina) and defeated the Iuthungi when they invaded Italy. Aurelian put down a revolt of Roman mint workers, reformed the coinage and grain supply. He recovered Egypt, Asian territories and besieged and eventually sacked Palmyra, Syria in the Palmyrene War (272/273). He recovered Gaul in 274. Unfortunately, he was rendered kaput by some of his own generals in 275.

384 – Wednesday Incompetence - When you earnestly believe you can compensate for a lack of skill by doubling your efforts, there's no end to what you can't do…..Larry Kersten…….”Fortuna dies natalis! Happy Birthday, Honorius, Roman emperor  and and incompetent boob. By now the empire was split into East and West, the Honorster was emperor in the West from 393 to 423, a period when much of the Western Empire was overrun by invading tribes and Rome was captured and plundered by the Visigoths.  In August 410 the Visigoths, under Alaric, occupied Rome, and Honorius skedaddled to Ravenna. Honorius was one of the weakest of the Roman emperors a nd if he had been less obstinate in rejecting terms offered by Alaric before 410, Rome might have been spared the Gothic occupation.

1513 – Tuesday-  Dule and wae for the order
sent our lads tae the border
the English, for aince
by guile won the day
.Jean Elliot….Dule and wae (Sorrow and woe), certainly, but totally wrong. It wasn't “English guile” which won the day – it was the total and complete incompetence  of James IV (grandfather of Mary Queen of Scots) of Scotland , who was defeated and was then slewn fighting the forces of English King Henry VII  in the Battle of Flodden Field, in yet another of a series of devastating defeats for  Scotland.  Think of most Scottish armies as the 1962 Mets.  James’ son thus became king at the grand old age of one. The battle site is in the Cheviot Hills in Northumberland, England.  Few of King James's men survived the encounter with the English troops, led by the 70-year-old Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey. James had invaded England as the climax of a long quarrel with Henry VIII. Up until James VI became King of England following the death of Elizabeth, Jameses had not done very well.  James I was assassinated by his nobles, James II was blown up when one of his cannons exploded, James III was killed in battle with rebels who included his son….James IV, kaputed at Flodden, and James V died after yet another defeat, Solway Moss, at age thirty.  This brings us to…………………………..

            1543 –Thursday- It cam wi' a lass and it will gang wi' a lass',….James V……on his  deathbed, remembering how the crown had come to his family through Marjorie Bruce and fearing that no woman could ever rule his nation. Mary Stuart, at nine months old, was crowned "Queen of Scots" following in the kapution of the aforementioned James (James V) – see James IV above- and another yet devastating defeat at the hands of the English, this time it wa the Battle of Solway Moss  in the central Scottish town of Stirling. Six days later, he was kaput.  Since Mary was still a bairn, her mother, Mary of Guise ruled as regent aided by Cardinal Beaton. Mary was crowned at  Sterling Castle in the Chapel Royal.

            1585 -Monday  Artifice is allowable in deceiving a rival; we may employ everything against our enemies…….Joyeux Anniversaire! Happy Birthday, Armand Jean du Plessis, aka, Cardinal Richelieu, French statesman and macher (Yiddish - important person; big shot a 'mover")  . Richelieu was head of the Royal Council and prime minister of France. King Louis XIII was a rather mushy ruler and Richelieu filled the void, by running the French empire via his advice to the king. Richelieu expanded royal power, punished dissent harshly, and built France into a  European power. At the same time he supported the arts and learning and founded the famous French Academy. Novelist Alexandre Dumas made Richelieu a crafty villain in his 1844 book The Three Musketeers.  Richeliu  was both opposed to the Protestant minority, the Huguenots, but advised tolerance as long as they were loyal to the king.  He was willing to ally with other Protestant powers, notably in Germany and Sweden, against the Habsburgs. He set out to eliminate the power of the traditional aristocracy and build the first significant central government. Richeliu was a sponsor of Samuel de Champlain, who settled and governed Quebec, and established the Académie française, the literary society that is still the final authority on the French language.

            1737-Monday- Henry Frankenstein: Look! It's moving. It's alive. It's alive... It's alive, it's moving, it's alive, it's alive, it's alive, it's alive, IT'S ALIVE!
Victor Moritz: Henry - In the name of God!
Henry Frankenstein: Oh, in the name of God! Now I know what it feels like to be God! Happy Birthday, Luigi Galvani, Italian physicist, physician, born in Bologna. He established the premise that bioelectric forces exist within living tissue. Galvani was one of the first to investigate experimentally the phenomenon of what came to be named "bioelectrogenesis". While cutting a frog leg, (possibly preparing a meal of pattes de grenouilles) Galvani's steel scalpel touched a brass hook that was holding the leg in place. The leg twitched. In a series of experiments started around 1780, Galvani, working at the University of Bologna, found that the electric current delivered by a Leyden jar or a rotating static electricity generator would cause the contraction of the muscles in the leg of a frog and many other animals, either by applying the charge to the muscle or to the nerve. Science was galvanized by these discoveries. Charges could make frog legs jump even if the legs were no longer attached to a frog.  Following Galvani’s experiments, Bologna was overrun with little legless frogs rolling around in little wagons with little wheels.

            1739 –Wednesday- Those who deny freedom to others deserve it not for themselves……….Abraham Lincoln……The Stono Rebellion, the largest slave uprising in Britain’s mainland North American colonies prior to the American Revolution, broke out near Charleston, South Carolina. When the slave owners caught up with the rebels from the Stono River where  they engaged the 60 to 100 slaves in a battle. More than 20 white Carolinians, and nearly 40 black Carolinians, were killed. The slaves may have been hoping to reach St. Augustine, Fla., where the Spanish were offering freedom and land to any fugitive slave. As a result, South Carolina's legislators imposed a moratorium on slave imports and enacted a harsher slave code. This new code severely limited the privileges of slaves. They were no longer allowed to grow their own food, assemble in groups, earn their own money, learn to read or listen to James Brown records.

            1754 -Monday ..The ship was named the Bounty: I was appointed to command her on the 16th of August 1787……. Happy Birthday, William Bligh, misunderstood British naval officer. Bligh served as Captain of the Bounty during the infamous Mutiny. Bligh, having served as sailing master to Captain James Cook on H.M.S Resolution during his 3rd voyage, was commissioned by Sir Joseph Banks and the British Admiralty, to undertake a voyage in a small ship, HMS Bounty. The goal of the voyage was to obtain a large number of breadfruit plantings to be taken to the Caribbean where they would be transplanted to provide food for the slaves in those colonies. After the Bounty mutiny and his voyage in a lifeboat to safety, (Mutiny on the Bounty and Men Against the Sea – the novels by Nordhoff and Hall), Bligh commanded a number of scientific voyages. His naval career was distinguished. He was in the battle line with the great Horatio Nelson at Copenhagen in 1801. The wartime period ended in 1802, and Bligh again commanded a scientific voyage, this time a hydrological expedition. In 1805, he was appointed Governor of New South Wales. His success in the realm of politics, unfortunately, did not match his prowess as a Naval commander. His appointment lasted until 1808 when the colonists 'mutinied' and sent him back to England.

             1776 –MondayCome on everybody!
I say now let's play a game
I betcha I can make a rhyme out of anybody's name
The first letter of the name, I treat it like it wasn't there
But a B or an F or an M will appear
And then I say bo add a B then I say the name and Bonana fanna and a
….Shirley Ellis,……… The Second Continental Congress changed the name of our country from the United Colonies to the United States of America.  In the year before independence, many in the colonies went with the name used by Benjamin Franklin in his July 1775 draft of an Articles of Confederation: United Colonies of North America.  It appears that the name United States was first coined by John Dickenson of Pennsylvania on June 17, 1776.  Thomas Jefferson used the term in his June 21 draft of the Declaration of Independence.

            1789-Wednesday- The scientific theory I like best is that the rings of Saturn are composed entirely of lost airline luggage ….Mark Russell……..Happy Birthday, William Cranch (W.C) Bond, American astronomer who, with his son, George Phillips Bond, discovered Hyperion, the eighth moon of Saturn, (found independently in the same year by William Lassell) and an inner ring called Ring C, or the Crepe Ring…which was later cooked and turned into the crepe suzette ring. Hyperion is notable for its irregular shape, its chaotic rotation, and its unexplained sponge-like appearance………sort of like Congressman Henry Waxman….  The moon is named after Hyperion, a Titan in Greek mythology. Hyperion is also is an uncompleted epic poem by English Romantic poet John Keats. The days of peace and slumberous calm are fled… Hyperion. Book ii.  It is based on the Titanomachia, and tells of the despair of the Titans after their fall to the Olympians

            1828 –Tuesday-  Art is a microscope which the artist fixes on the secrets of his soul, and shows to people these secrets which are common to all……. S dniom razhdjenia! Happy Birthday, Leo Tolstoy, Russian novelist and author of War and Peace – which came to a climax during the Battle of Borodino – see Sept. 6, 1814 above-.He began War and Peace in 1862 and completed it (there were six volumes in all) in 1869. Tolstoy began Anna Karenina  in 1873 and had it published in 1878 with it’s opening line that alluded to his own life, Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way. In January of 2007, Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina (1878) and War and Peace were placed on Time Magazine’s ten greatest novels of all time, first and third place respectively.

            1830-Thursday-  The best way of travel, however, if you aren't in any hurry at all, if you don't care where you are going, if you don't like to use your legs, if you don't want to be annoyed at all by any choice of directions, is in a balloon. In a balloon, you can decide only when to start, and usually when to stop. The rest is left entirely to nature…..William Pene du Bois ……..Twenty eight year-old, Charles Durant of Jersey City  made the first American hot air balloon flight. He lifted off from New York's Castle Garden to drop leaflets that contained a poem he had written about the joys of flight.  He landed in South Amboy, New Jersey two hours later. The Gnus has actually found the poem that Durant distributed:  Freddie: Feeling's gettin stronger
Larry: Music's gettin longer too
Rose: Music is flashin me
Sly: I want to take you higher
Baby baby baby light my fire
All: Boom shaka-laka-laka Boom shaka-laka-laka
Freddie: Feeling's nitty-gritty
Larry: Sound is in the city too
Rose: Music's still flashin' me
Sly: Don't ya want to get higher
Baby baby baby light my fire.
The flight came to an abrupt end as an exceptionally long-armed squeegee man attempted to clean the balloon with industrial cleanser.  Modern hot air ballooning began in France in 1783. Two brothers, Joseph Michel and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier, launched the first successful hot air balloon in September of 1783 with an odd trio of passengers - a sheep, a duck, and a rooster…..sounds like the beginning of a joke – A sheep, a duck, and a rooster lift off in a hot air balloon and…………..

             1836 –Friday- When I have a particular case in hand, I have that motive and feel an interest in the case, feel an interest in ferreting out the questions to the bottom, love to dig up the question by the roots and hold it up and dry it before the fires of the mind. ….Abraham Lincoln received his license to practice law.  The Illinois Supreme Court examined Lincoln (“look up and cough”) and issued him a license to practice law in all of the courts in the state, which was the final step to becoming an attorney. Lincoln practiced law for nearly twenty-five years in the Illinois courts. Other than part-time service in the Illinois legislature and the United States Congress, law was his full-time occupation. Lincoln handled cases in almost all court levels: justice of the peace, county, circuit, appellate, and federal. He had three successive formal partnerships: junior partner to John Todd Stuart (1837-1841), junior partner to Stephen T. Logan (1841-1844), and senior partner to William H. Herndon (1844-1861). Like many of his colleagues at the bar, Lincoln was a general practice attorney and represented clients in a variety of civil and criminal actions including debt, slander, divorce, dower and partition, mortgage foreclosure, and murder.

He also advertised his law practice on TV with special emphasis on people injured in truck accidents and medical malpractice.

               1839 –Monday-  If you saw a man drowning and you could either save him or photograph the event...what kind of film would you use? …..Unknown……John Herschel, son of astronomer William Hershel, the discoverer of Uranus, took the first glass-plate photograph. It was a picture of his father's 40-foot telescope, which was now a half-century old. It is also to Herschel that we also owe the word "photography", a term which he used in a paper entitled "Note on the Art of Photography, or The Application of the Chemical Rays of Light to the Purpose of Pictorial Representation," presented to the Royal Society on  March 14, 1839. He also coined the terms "negative" and positive" in this context, and also the "snap-shot".

             1843Saturday- like ice cream. Yes I do!
One scoop for me?
No! Make it two!
Hmmm two scoops of ice cream,
I want more
How about three?
No, make that four!
1, 2, 3, 4,
Splat! "oh no! It's on the floor!"
…Unknown……One of the great inventions in history as Nancy M. Johnson ( (it is not certain where she was from - some say New Jersey, Washington D.C., and even Philadelphia) patented the hand-cranked ice cream freezer Her  basic design of the freezer is still used today. Johnson’s invention simplified the process of making ice cream. The development of this machine marked a revolution in the history of ice cream. From this time on, anyone could make the very best quality ice cream at home (especially since rock salt, which came to be commonly called "ice cream salt" until the early 20th century, had became a cheap commodity). Who invented ice cream? Ice cream appears to have evolved from chilled wines and other iced beverages during the 16th century but it can be traced back to the looney Roman Emperor, (A.D. 37-68) who ordered ice to be brought from the mountains and combined with fruit toppings.  Because of the difficulty in producing ices and ice cream, and the limited amount of ice during most of the year, they were still enjoyed primarily by the wealthy.

          1850 –Monday- I love you, California, you're the greatest state of all
I love you in the winter, summer, spring, and in the fall.
I love your fertile valleys; your dear mountains I adore,
I love your grand old ocean and I love her rugged shore.
Silverwood and Frankenstein…………California became the 31st state.  Though it had only been a part of the United States for less than two years, California achieved statehood without ever even having been a territory, sort of like skipping a grade in elementary school. As part of the Compromise of 1850,  California was admitted as a free state; Texas received financial compensation for relinquishing claim to lands east of the Rio Grande in what is now New Mexico; the Territory of New Mexico (including present-day Arizona and a portion of southern Nevada).  It's thought that the name California comes from a sixteenth century novel, Las Sergas de Esplandian by Garcia Ordonez de Montalvo. Spanish conquistadors Hernando Cortez and Ortuno. Ximenez were familiar with the work of Montalvo and probably named the territory after the gold filled island described in the novel. Some California symbols:  Animal California Grizzly Bear; Bird California Valley Quail; Dance West Coast Swing Dance
Fish California Golden Trout ;Flower Golden Poppy
Folk Dance Square Dance; Fossil Sabre-Toothed Cat;  Gemstone Benitoite 1985; Gold Rush Ghost Town Bodie; Insect California Dogface Butterfly; Marine Fish Garibaldi

Marine Mammal California Gray Whale; Reptile Desert Tortoise; Song "I Love You, California," words by F.B. Silverwood and music by A.F. Frankenstein (really) ;  Tree California Redwood

            1893-Saturday- Havin' my baby
What a lovely way of sayin' how much you love me
Havin' my baby
What a lovely way of sayin' what you're thinkin' of me
I can see it, face is glowin'
I can see in your eyes, I'm happy you know it
…..Paul Anka…….President Grover Cleveland's daughter, Esther Cleveland, became the first president's child to be born in the White House. She would have been better off named Typhoid Mary as She contracted measles when it spread through the White House, leading to a quarantine. Five years later, she contracted diphtheria. Inspite of it all, she lived to be 86.  Mom, Francis Folsum  married President Cleveland on  June, 2 1886. It was the first wedding held in the White House. Esther was their second child of five children.

            1898-Friday-  His range was such that he played second base, some of center field, and a slice of right field, too …Damon Runyon……Happy Birthday -  Frankie  Frisch ‘”The Fordham Flash’”. 2nd baseman for the New York Giants (you know them as the San Francisco Giants) and the St. Louis  Cardinals. Frisch was traded (by John McGraw) in 1927 to the Cardinals for another Hall of Fame 2nd baseman, Rogers Hornsby.  Frisch also uttered the timeless baseball quote “Oh those bases on balls!”.

            1926-Thursday-  The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) was created by the Radio Corporation of America (RCA), shortly after the purchase in May 1926 of the radio network operations of AT&T. AT&T had cleverly decided to withdraw from radio.  The purchase price was $1,000,000. (RCA's Chairman, David Sarnoff coined the phrase, "when life hands you a lemon, make lemonade"). At this point a new company was formed, the National Broadcasting Company, which took over the Broadcasting Company of America assets, and merged them with the radio group's fledgling network operations. AT&T's original WEAF c hain was renamed the NBC-Red network, with WEAF continuing as the flagship station, and the small network that the radio group had organized around WJZ became the NBC-Blue network.  Why a child of five could understand this.  Someone fetch a child of five……Groucho Marx…. In September, 1926 NBC's formation was publicized in full-page ads that appeared in numerous publications: Announcing the National Broadcasting Company, Inc. The new network's debut broadcast followed on November 15, 1926…….whew!  After seeing NBC fare such as B.J and the Bear , Manimal, Jekyll & Hyde, The XFL, Stars Earn Stripes, The Celebrity Apprentice, Hell Town, The Misadventures of Sheriff Lobo, Supertrain, Casablanca, Hello Larry, My Mother the Car and America’s Got Talent, AT&T refused to take back the network.

            1942 – A Proton, Neutron, and Electron walk into a bar…Japan Explodes …..A Japanese floatplane dropped incendiary bombs on an Oregon state forest. This was the first and only air attack on the U.S. mainland  during WW II. Leaving  from the Japanese sub I-25, Nobuo, Pilot Chief Warrant Officer Nobuo Fujita and his crewman Petty Officer Shoji Okuda,  flew over the state of Oregon and firebombed Mount Emily, starting a forest fire and ensuring his place in the history books as the only man to ever bomb the continental United States. After considering surrender (not really), President Roosevelt immediately called for a news blackout for the sake of morale. No long-term damage was done, and the U.S responded by sending Godzilla, Mothra, Paris Hilton and a series of monsters to attack Tokyo.

             1945 –Sunday- It's the latest, it's the greatest,
Mashed Patato, ya, ya ,ya
A Mashed Potato started long time ago
With a guy named Sloppy Joe,
You'll find this dance is so cool to do,
Come on baby, gonna teach it to you
. …..
Happy Birthday singer, Dee Dee Sharp, born Dione LaRue in Philadelphia. Her biggest hit Mashed Potato Time (1962) was released on Cameo/Parkway Records (sort of orange.creme colored label). Of course her follow up hit was Gravy, For My Mashed Potatoes, also 1962. She also contributed to Chubby Checker’s endless milking of The Twist with a duet with the Chubster entitled Slow Twistin’.

            1947-Tuesday-You know you're a geek when... You try to shoo a fly away from the monitor with your cursor. That just happened to me. It was scary …..Unknown….The first "bug" in a computer program was discovered by Grace Hopper, a moth (really) was removed with tweezers from a relay and taped into the log. When the machine was experiencing problems, an investigation showed that there was a moth trapped between the points of a relay. The operators removed the offending moth and affixed it to the log. The entry reads: "First actual case of bug being found." The word went out that they had "debugged" the machine and the term "debugging a computer program" was born. And remember, a myth is a female moth. Hopper is best-known contribution to computing was the invention of the compiler, the intermediate program that translates English language instructions into the language of the target computer. She did this, she said, because she was lazy and hoped that "the programmer may return to being a mathematician."

             1956 –Sunday- You know I can be found,
sitting home all alone,
If you can't come around,
at least please telephone.
Don't be cruel to a heart that's true
. On a Sunday night, 82.6 percent of the U.S. television audience turned their TV dials (remotes were very rare in those days)  to CBS to see and hear 21-year-old Elvis Presley. Elvis sang Don’t Be Cruel (with the Jordanaires) Love Me Tender, Ready Teddy and Hound Dog. Also on that show; - really, we don’t make these up – actor, Charles Laughton read limericks, poems & did a stand-up comedy routine titled "Little Girl And Wolf" (about the sadistic side of Little Red Riding Hood).  Presley returned on Oct. 28, 1956, continuing to provoke ecstatic screams- again- with  Don't Be Cruel, Love Me Tender and Hound Dog. In fact, these hip swiveling performances were so “suggestive” that Elvis was filmed above the waist during his final Sullivan show appearance on January 6, 1957.

            1963 Monday- A panda walks into a café and orders a sandwich and a drink. After he is finished eating, the waiter comes over to bring him the check. When the waiter arrives at the table, he just starts to ask 'Would you like any des...' Then the panda reaches into his fur, pulls out a gun, and shoots the waiter dead. The panda then wipes off his chin with his napkin, gets up, and starts to walk out. Just as he is about to go through the door, the manager grabs him. 'Wait a minute!' he yells, 'You just killed my best waiter! Besides that, you didn't even pay for your sandwich!'
The panda grasps the manager by the throat, jacks him up, and growls, 'Hey man! I'm a PANDA! Do you know what that means? Why don't you look it up!'
At this the panda out the door and ambles down the street. The manager, shaken, returns to his office and consults a dictionary.He reads:
'panda - a large mammal of the Asian mountain forests related to raccoons and true bears and characterized by bold black and white markings. Eats shoots and leaves.'
The first ever live birth in captivity of a giant panda in the world took place at Beijing Zoo, China, when a male cub, Ming Ming was born to the mother Li Li. The happy father passed out bamboo shoots to relatives and friends.  Attempts to breed pandas in captivity had begun in China in 1955. Yes, a baby panda is a cub. Some other babies: Antelope – calf Bear – cub Beaver – kitBirds - fledgling, nestling Cat – kitten Codfish - codling, sprat Cow – calf Deer - fawn, yearling Dog - pup, puppy Duck – duckling Eagle – eaglet Eel – elver Elephant – calf Elephant seal – weaner (our personal favorite name) Fish – fry Fox - cub, pup Frog - polliwog, tadpoleGoat – kidGoose – goslingGrouse – cheeper Guinea fowl – keetHawk – eyas Hen – pullet Hippo – calf Horse - foal, yearling, or colt (male), filly (female) Kangaroo – joey Owl – owlet Partridge – cheeper (in groups of twelve they are cheeper by the dozen)  Pig - piglet, shoat, farrow,suckling Pigeon - squab, squeaker Quail – cheeper (see partridge) Rabbit - bunny, kit Rat – pup Rhino – calf Rooster – cockerel Salmon - parr, smolt, grilse Seal – pup Shark – cub Sheep - lamb, lambkins Swan – cygnet Tiger - cub, whelp Turkey – poult Whale – calf Zebra - foal

            1971 –- Thursday- Attica! Attica Attica! Attica! Attica! Attica! Attica! Attica! [Yells To Cheering Crowd] Sonny: Attica! Attica! Remember Attica?.....Al Pacino, Dog Day Afternoon……….At Attica Prison, a maximum security prison, near Buffalo, New Yor , convicts, on the way to breakfast overpowered their guards and stormed down a prison gallery beginning a riot. They broke through a faulty gate and into a central area which gave them access to all the cellblocks. Many of the prison's 2,200 inmates then joined in the rioting, and prisoners rampaged through the facility beating guards, acquiring makeshift weapons, and burning down the prison chapel. One guard, William Quinn, was severely beaten and thrown out a second-story window.  . State police retook most of the prison, but 1,281 convicts occupied an exercise field called D Yard, where they held 39 prison guards and employees hostage for four days. After negotiations stalled, state police and prison officers launched a disastrous raid on September 13, in which 10 hostages and 29  criminals were killed. In the Bizarro World of NYS Courts, the criminals sued the state for injuries suffered during their riot.  Even more bizarre, they were awarded 8 million dollars.  Families of the slain correction officers lost their right to sue by accepting the modest death-benefit checks sent to them by the state. The hostages who survived likewise lost their right to sue by cashing their paychecks. Both groups attest that no state officials apprised them of their legal rights, and they were denied compensation that New York should have paid to them.

            1976 –Thursday-  What we have in excess is women. So if you want, we can give a few of those to you, some tens of thousands. Let them go to your place. They will create disasters. That way you can lessen our burden…..Mao Zedong kaput. At last Chairman Mao, Communist dictator and founder of the People's Republic of China, considered one of the most influential figures of the 20th century, with a predilection for sleeping with pre-teen girls. Mao joined Hitler and Stalin in Dante’s 7th Circle of Hell, Circle 1,   as the greatest mass murderers of all time, died of Parkinson’s disease.

1978- Saturday If you're thinkin' you're too cool to boogie
Boy, oh boy, have I got news for you
Everybody here tonight must boogie
Let me tell you are no exception to the rule………Get down boogie oogie oogie
Get down boogie oogie oogie
Get down boogie oogie oogie
Get down boogie oogie oogie
A Taste Of Honey's  deeply symbolic, elegiac tome, Boogie Oogie Oogie  hit #1.  Boogie Oogie Oogie replaced Grease by Jersey Boy, Frankie Valli.  In turn, Boogie Oogie Oogie would be knocked from the top spot by Kiss You All Over by Exile.

1982 – Thursday  Her lips touched his brain as they touched his lips, as though they were a vehicle of some vague speech and between them he felt an unknown and timid preasure, darker than the swoon of sin, softer than sound or odor….James Joyce…..The shuttle Columbia  was mated with SRBs & external tank in preparation for STS-5.  Some candlelight, wine, low lighting and Barry White on the stereo added to the mood. Keeping that in mind, the shuttle Columbia was put into a special harness, lifted high above the stacked ET and SRBs inside the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center, and lowered into place. The orbiter is then bolted to the ET and SRBs.

1982 – Thursday  Reporter 5#: Don't you think there is an inherent danger in sending unqualified, under trained civilians into space?
Homer Simpson: The only danger is if they send us to that terrible Planet of the Apes.
Wait a minute... statue of liberty... that was our planet. You maniacs, you blew it up. Damn you! Damn you all to hell!…..Deep Space Homer……….As the Columbia was getting busy with the external tanks, see above, Conestoga 1,  the 1st private commercial rocket, made a  suborbital flight. Constructed from rocket spare parts, with a  launch pad was a Texas cattle ranch, (it landed in the Gulf of Mexico) not NASA’s Cape Canaveral the Conestoga 1 and its  payload, 40 pounds of water, was carried 321 miles during a 10.5-minute, sub-orbital flight that reached an elevation of 195 miles.  Built by Space Services , he 36-foot rocket was launched a day behind schedule. The company  had only seven employees — but it didn’t hurt that one of them was Deke Slayton, a Mercury 7 astronaut who was company president and, on this day, mission director.  An unfortunate after effect involved the water which would be consumed by unwitting humans who then contracted Amplificasia Jeopardesia, a disease that causes the victim to call out the answers while watching Jeopardy.

1987 – Wednesday  Haven't you heard about the guy known as the cheater
he'll take your girl and then he'll lie and he'll mistreat her
it seems every day now
you hear people say now
Look out for the cheater
make way for the fool-hearted clown
….Bob Kuban  and the In-Men……Presidential candidate and stud muffin, Gary Hart admitted on Nightline, to cheating on his wife. Considered a possible front runner to oppose George Bush I, former  Colorado Senator Gary Hart had announced the beginning of his second presidential April  Less than a month later, the Miami Herald published a photo of a young woman leaving Hart's residence. The Hartster expressed outrage at the paper and claimed  he was helping her with her homework while they watched a tape of  Ishtar, but within a week the Herald received tips that Hart had visited Bimini with a woman who was not his wife, then published photos showing a 29-year-old model, Donna Rice, sitting on the idiot’s lap. Less than a week later, Hart announced he was dropping out of the race. Hart admitted the affair to Ted Koppel but stated that it was between his wife and himself, and was unrelated to his ability to govern.

1991 – Monday  Can’t anybody here play this game?.....Casey Stengel…..Only 1,695 fans watched  Boston Red Sox (73-64)-  play  the Cleveland Indian  (44-93) in Cleveland.  Of course the Red Sox won, 4-3 .  The Indians, managed by Mike Hargrove (The Human Rain Delay)  would finish the year with the sterling record of 57-105.

            2001 –Sunday- Now I’ve tasted martinis at flash city clubs,
Swallowed bad whiskey at waterfront pubs,
Mixed with the Knobs that are social, I do,
But I'd rather a bottle of Finny's
home brew.
Now Finney's a bushman, who lives all alone,
In a little tin hut in the hills on his own,
With only his horses, the possums and 'roos
And an ol’ black fermented powerful brews.
…Slim Dusty…..The dangers of drinking homemade liquor were highlighted in the Parnu Methanol Tragedy in Estonia. A few days earlier, ten 200-liter canisters of methanol were stolen from Baltfet (a company processing industrial fats, esters and animal feed). The thieves proceeded to sell the stolen methanol to one  Aleksandr Sobolev, a smuggler, claiming it was “technical spirit.” ….well, not quite, it’s actually a light volatile flammable poisonous liquid alcohol used as an antifreeze and solvent and fuel and as a denaturant for ethyl alcohol. Sobolev  happily  mixed the liquid with water and lemon flavoring agents at about 30 % by volume.  He then bottled the resulting liquid, attached fake labels of various well-known brands, and distributed it through a underground network. Hundreds of people ended up buying and then drinking the resulting product, thinking it was vodka. Naturally they  acquired methanol poisoning resulting in 68  dead,  and 40 suffering extreme disability including blindness or brain damage.

2003-Tuesday I'm just trying to keep my customer satisfied……Simon and Garfunkel announcd  plans for a reunion tour, the first in 20 years  (and the first of several reunions) and the first onstage reunion of any kind in a decade. They had originally broken up in 1965 but when Sounds of Silence (from Wednesday Morning, 3.A.M) became a hit, poof! They were back together again.  The next break up was in 1969. Before you could say “The Who have come out of retirement”, they were reunioning in 1972.  They were back again in 1975.  Then again for the free concert in Central Park in 1981.  Professor Sy Yentz was there and ……this is absolutely true…..had to answer a call of nature during the show.  There were an estimated 700,000 people there and it seemed that half of them were on line at the port-o-sans.  Being a guy, a tree would have to suffice.  He retreated to the area behind the port-o-sans only to find people waiting in line for various trees.  When the woman in front of him finished, he sought relief on a maple.  Just as he started, Simon and Garfunkle launched into Bridge Over Troubled Water.  This, the concert, not the urination, inspired a 1982/83 tour but they really can’t stand each other so back to solo they went until S& G were again renunionin g in 1990 . They reunioned again for a tour in 1993.  This led to the 2003 tour.  Then they were back again in 2009 for another go round…………

2006 - Saturday . …. Remember when we did the moonshot
And Pony Trekker led the way
We'd move to the Canaveral moonstop
And everynaut would dance and sway
We got music in our solar system
We're space truckin' round the stars
Come on let's go Space Truckin'
….Deep Purple……….The launch of Atlantis as the STS-115  ( the 116th shuttle mission ) crew delivered and installed the P3/P4 truss structure on the International Space Station.  At the time, the International Space Station was 350 kilometers (220 mi) (220 mi) above the northern Atlantic Ocean, between Greenland and Iceland.  Atlantis' flight marked the resumption of space station assembly after a three-and-a-half-year hiatus in the wake of the 2003 Columbia disaster.  The flight had originally been scheduled for May 2003.  The launch had been postponed from August 29 due to a lightning strike on the launch pad.  An unfortunate consequence of the combination of lightning strike and the dark matter of space resulted in mutant microbes attaching themselves to the shuttle tiles.  On exposure to Earth’s atmosphere, the microbes morphed into a virulent virus that caused an outbreak of  Cinematicesia Iphonities in which people film an entire concert on their Iphones.


1419 – Friday ….What they do)
(They smile in your face)
All the time they want to take your place
The back stabbers (back stabbers
)….The O’Jays….
J ohn the Fearless,  (how could the Editorial Board of the Gnus,not select item containing John the Fearless?)  aka, John sans Peur, Duke of Burgundy was rendered kaput by supporters of the Dauphin, the future Charles VII of France. John was the son of, naturally, Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. John had been negotiating with Henry V of England after his victory at Agincourt, but it did not  lead to a f Anglo-Burgundian alliance, and in the autumn of 1419  the Fearless One  turned instead to the Armagnacs, in the hopes of arranging a truce or even making a firm peace settlement with their leader, the dauphin Charles (the future Charles VII), in an alliance against the English. The two princes, each with 10 companions, met on the bridge of Montereau, some 50 miles southeast of Paris. As the diplomatic confab began, John the Fearless was struck down and killed during a dispute started by the Armagnacs, a political assassination that contemporary evidence shows was almost certainly carefully premeditated.

1509 –Friday  The safest place to be during an earthquake would be in a stationary store ….George Carlin…..An earthquake , originating in the Sea of Marmara and known as "The Lesser Judgment Day" struck Constantinople.  By today’s estimates it was 7.2 on the Richter Scale.  By any estimate it scared the daylights out of Constantinopleans.  The tsunami  that followed added to the merriment, as did 45 days of aftershocks.  Constantinople would fall to the Muslims in 1543.

1608 -  Wednesday Giving money and power to government is like giving whiskey and car keys to teenage boys. …P.J. O'Rourke……. Due to atrocious  government and ensuing chaos (some things never  change) , English adventurer John Smith was elected council president of Jamestown, Virginia--the first permanent English settlement in North America. He instituted a policy of rigid discipline, strengthened defenses, Friday night poker games, extensive karaoke experiences, and encouraged farming with this admonishment: "He who does not work, will not eat." Because of his strong leadership, the settlement survived and grew during the next year. Unfortunately, Smith was accidentally injured by a gunpowder burn and had to return to England for treatment in October 1609, never to return to Virginia again.  George Percy became interim president until new leadership could be sent by England. This winter is often called the “starving time,” when the population of Virginia shrank from about 300 to 90 (60 left at Jamestown). The Powhatan Indians placed the settlement under siege at this time. The siege warfare lasted about four years.

1624    Tuesday The doctor says to the patient, "Take your clothes off and stick your tongue out the window". "What will that do?" asks the patient. The doctor says, "I'm mad at my neighbor!" ……Henny Youngman……Happy Birthday, Thomas Sydenham, English doctor  born in Wynford Eagle, Dorset,  who became known as the "English Hippocrates." Sydenham e is recognized as a founder of clinical medicine since he emphasized bedside observation of disease, and kept a notebook of his clinical observations and (possibly) said “take two aspirin and call me in the morning”.  He named scarlet fever, recognized it was different from measles, and was among the first to describe it. Sydenham explained the nature of hysteria (probably after watching the one-day wedding dress sale at Vera Wang).  He invented laudanum (alcohol tincture of opium) for use in medical practice, was one of the first to use iron in treating iron-deficiency anemia.  He also helped popularize quinine in treating malaria

        1776 –Tuesday Me, me, me, ooh, ooh, ooh, pick me…….Whoops, might want to re-think that move Nathan, as General George Washington asked for a volunteer for an extremely dangerous mission: to gather intelligence behind enemy lines before the coming Battle of Harlem Heights. 21 year old Captain Nathan Hale of the 19th Regiment of the Continental Army stepped forward and subsequently become one of the first known American spies of the Revolutionary War.  The mission did not end well.  When Hale completed  his mission and  awaited his boat. …….he signaled…..oops! was the wrong boat.  Not only was it the wrong boat but it was was from an English frigate, which lay screened by a point of woods, and had come in for water. Hale attempted to escape  his steps, but was too late. He was seized and examined. Hidden in the soles of his shoes were his memoranda, written in Lain. . They compromised him at once. He was carried on board the frigate, and sent to New York the same day, and executed on orders of Lord William Howe on September 22.

            1797- Sunday Chicken fizz! O Lord, protect all of us who toil in the vineyards of experimental chemistry….Alan Bradley…… Grattis pŒ fšdelsedagen Happy Birthday, Carl Gustaf  Mosander,  Swedish chemist and mineralogist; who discovered several rare-earth elements with closely similar chemical properties. In 1839 he discovered lanthanum (La) which is used as a component of misch metal (used for making lighter flints) and which caused quite a mishegas. He also discovered erbium (Er) in 1842 and terbium (Tb) but neither of them caused a mishegas.

            1798 – Monday The poor cook he caught the fits
And threw away all my grits
And then he took and he ate up all of my corn
Let me go home
Why don't they let me go home
This is the worst trip Ive ever been on
….The Beach Boys…..Sloop John B…….The  Battle of St. George's Caye as  the Baymen of  British Honduras (currently Belize defeated Spain. People in Spain were probably saying “ o.k, o.k we can lose to France or England, maybe even Austria but British Honduras??? Yeesh”.   The  the Spanish had mustered a fleet of 32 vessels, manned by 500 seamen, together with some 2000 soldiers to effect the invasion.  They were opposed by 700 700 troops of all colors supplemented by 1200 slaves and ; two sloops of war, the Towser and the Tickler. In Armadaesque fashion, the Spanish fleet deteriorated into confusion and poof… In 1898, the 10th of September was declared a public holiday, in honor of the Baymen, to celebrate the Battle of St. George's Caye. 

            1801 – Thursday They call me the voodoo woman,
And I know the reason why,
They call me the voodoo woman,
And I know the reason why,
Lord if I raise my hand,
You know the sky begin to cry…
.Koko Taylor………
.Happy Birthday, Marie Catherine Laveau, the “Voodoo Queen of New Orleans.  Difficult to separate fact from fiction concerning Leveau but Ina Fandich of Louisiana State University, via seems to have come the closest. Laveau's power as a black spiritual figure of the 19th century - her magic potions sought by slaves and their master alike - has drawn strenghth from mystery about her life.  Voodoo in New Orleans was a blend of West African religion and Catholicism. Voodoo deities are called Loahs and they are closely paired with the Catholic Saints. All people in New Orleans were Catholic and slaves were baptized. Leveau was skilled in the practice of medicine and knew the healing qualities of indigenous herbs. She was the first commercial Voodoo Queen and she specialized in romance and finance….how could she go wrong? She was an astute business woman. People came to believe that she was all-knowing and all-powerful. Leveau could easily help you get a lover, keep a lover or get rid of a lover. To this day, people still visit her tomb in in Saint Louis Cemetery No. 1with the hope that she will grant their wishes.

 1813 – Friday I wish to have no connection with any ship that does not sail fast for I intend to go in harm's way……John Paul Jones……Commodore Oliver Hazzard Perry sent his famous message, "We have met the enemy, and they are ours," after defeating the British in the Battle of Lake Erie in the War of 1812. Nine small American ships  (armed with fifty four guns) defeated a British squadron of six ships (armed with sixty three cannons).  Perry composed his now famous message to William Henry Harrison – of later fame at the Battle of Tippicanoe, …..  Scrawled in pencil on the back of an old envelope, Perry wrote, "Dear General: We have met the enemy and they are ours.  Two ships, two brigs, one schooner and one sloop.  Yours with great respect and esteem, O.H. Perry".The Battle of Lake Erie proved to be one of the most resounding triumphs of the War of 1812 for America, which really didn’t do very well in the War at all.  The victory secured control of the lake, forcing the British to abandon Fort Malden and retreat up the Thames River.  Harrison's army pursued, and defeated the small British army and its allied Indian force on October 5, 1813 at the Battle of the Thames.  And later, during the peace talks, the dual victories of Lake Erie and the Thames insured that the states of Ohio and Michigan would remain the territory of the United States of America.        

            1823Wednesday I swear before you; I swear on the God of my parents; I swear on them; I swear on my honor and I swear on my country that I shall not give rest to my arm nor respite to my soul until I have broken the chains that oppress us by the will of the Spanish power…..Simón Bolívar was named President of Peru. In 1819, a great victory for Bolívar and the army of the revolution had  resulted in the creation the Angostura Congress which founded Gran Colombia (a federation of present-day Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador) which named Bolívar president.  Peru was the last bastion of Spanish dominance in South America (yeesh ! , they had already lost to British Honduras – see 1798 above), and in 1823 Bolívar took command of the invasion of Peru and in September arrived in Lima with Antonio José de Sucre to plan the attack. On August 6, 1824, Bolívar and Sucre jointly defeated the Spanish army in the Battle of Junín. On December 9 Sucre destroyed the last remnant of the Spanish army in the Battle of Ayacucho, eliminating Spain's presence in South America. …but at least they still had the Canary Islands.

            1846- Thursday Women derive a pleasure, incomprehensible to the other sex, from the delicate toil of the needle……Nathaniel Hawthorne…….Elias Howe, (brother of Some Howe, Any Howe and No Howe), patented the first sewing machine. Reaction on the part of some was "Sew What". Isaac Singer patented a sewing machine five years later. Singer built the first sewing machine where the needle moved up and down rather than the side-to-side and the needle was powered by a foot treadle. Previous machines were all hand-cranked.  Howe sued Singer for infringement and won...but by that time Singer was well ahead in the sewing machine business.  In 1834, Walter Hunt (who also invented the safety pin)  built America's first (somewhat) successful sewing machine. Hunt later lost interest in patenting because he believed his invention would lead to  unemployment for many workers. Hunt's machine could only sew straight steams and he  never  bothered to patent it so  in 1846, the thus first American patent was issued to Elias Howe for "a process that used thread from two different sources." The royalties for Howe ended when his patent ran out in 1867, but received money for all sewing machines produced in the United States. Howe’s sewing machine only went so far, but Singer is the man who made it a household name.

1855-Monday  An archeologist is a person whose career lies in ruins….Unknown…..Alles Gute zum Geburtstag!Happy Birthday, Robert Koldewey, German archaeologist born in Blankenburg am Harz who discovered the Hanging Gardens of Babylon (ca. 580 BC –described by Hippocrates in 460 B.C) – one of the original seven wonders of the world - in modern day Iraq, thus confirming its historical existance and it was not just a legend. Accounts indicate that the garden was built by King Nebuchadnezzar, who ruled the city for 43 years starting in 605 BC (There is a less-reliable, alternative story that the gardens were built by the Assyrian Queen Semiramis during her five year reign starting in 810 BC). Koldewey’s excavations from 1899-1917 at Babylon unearthed many of its features including the outer walls, inner walls, foundations of the ziggurat Marduk - A type of step-pyramid temple first built by the Sumerians 5,000 years ago in southern Mesopotamia, made of sun-dried mud bricks.-, Nebuchadnezzar's palaces, the wide processional roadway which passed through the heart of the city, a strip mall featuring Family Dollar, MacDonalds, an Ace Harware, and the Ishtar Gate. Among Koldeway's discoveries at the site were vaults and massive arches, which may have formed the base of the structure. He also uncovered spaces that were consistent with the functioning of an ancient hydraulic system similar to a chain pump.         

            1897 –Friday You see I'm in no shape for driving / Anyway I've got no place to go …The Gin Blossoms….On the heels of  the invention of the car by Karl Benz in 1885, came the first onslaught  of the drunk driver.  On this day a 25-year-old London taxi driver named George Smith initiated a long tradition of stupidity by becoming the first person ever arrested for drunk driving after slamming his cab into a building. Smith later pled guilty and was fined 25 shillings.  There were two reasons that led the Bobbies to conclude that Smith was loaded, 1 – he drove into a wall and 2- he admitted  it

          1898 – Saturday We are all telling bad chemistry jokes, becuase all the good ones Argon……Unknown……… Happy Birthday, Waldo Semon, American chemical engineer who invented plasticized PVC (vinyl).  Yes quiz show fans, it was his vinyl answer. Semon joined the chemical and rubber company BF Goodrich at Akron, Ohio in 1926 to research rubber to metal bonding and synthetic rubber.. The discovery of a method of plasticising poly(vinyl- chloride), usually known as PVC, was a by-product of this research.  Polyvinyl chloride was discovered late in the nineteenth century by in 1838, was by the French physicist and chemist Henri Victor Regnault and  in 1872 by the German Eugen Baumann.. Scientists observing the newly created chemical gas, vinyl chloride, also discovered that when the gas was exposed to sunlight, it underwent a chemical reaction (now recognized as polymerization) resulting in an off-white solid material resembling Barbara Walters.  But, the solid material was so difficult to work with that it was cast aside in favor of other materials. It was Semon who produced usable pvc.

         1918 Tuesday  The average dog is a nicer person than the average person…Andy Rooney……We’ve also seen this item as September 15….Introducing our animal theme for the day – see 1945 and Mike the Headless Chicken-   Happy Discovery, Rin Tin Tin, German shepherd dog.  The canine was discovered during World War I, September 15, 1918, by US Air Corporal Lee Duncan and his battalion in Lorraine, France. At a bombed out dog kennel Rin Tin Tin starred in twenty six movies for Warner Brothers studios during the 1920s.  Another Rin Tin Tin starred in a 1950’s television western. At the peak of his popularity, Warners maintained 18 trained stand-ins to reduce any stress on their dog star, while providing Rinty with a private chef who prepared daily lunches of tenderloin steak (consumed as live classical music was played to help ease the dog's digestion.) Rin Tin Tin died in 1932 at the age of 16, returned to his birthplace in France, and interred (but not stuffed) in "The Cimetière des Chiens in the suburb of Asnieres. Today, Rin Tin Tin's continuous bloodline carries on at a Texas kennel, where a litter of 8-11 pups are born each year.  Other famous dog stars include Lassie, Benji, Asta (The Thin Man), Terry (Toto in Wizard of Oz), Sandy (Annie) , and Petey (Our Gang).

             1931 –Thursday What's the difference between the Mafia and the Government? Only one of them is organized……..Unknown……….Mafia leader, Salvatore Maranzano was shot and stabbed (they left nothing to chance) to death in New York City.  Maranzano was born in Castellammare del Golfo, Sicily in 1868. He arrived in the United States after the First World War where he became involved in bootlegging. By the late 1920s Maranzano had become one of the important gang leaders in New York.  Maranzano was involved in bootlegging, prostitution and drug smuggling. In an attempt to hold on to his lucrative trade, in 1930 he declared war on his main rival, Joe (The Boss) Masseria. Over the next few months over sixty men were killed during this gang war, called the Castellammarese War.  The Boss (not Bruce Springsteen) was rendered kaput  on 15th April, 1931 probably by Albert Anastasia, and Lucky Luciano.  Six months later, gangsters hired by Luciano, walked into Maranzano's Park Lane office and wacked  him. With Maranzano and Masseria dead, Luciano was now the most important gang leader in New York.

            1932 – Saturday  Will I see you tonight on a downtown train
Where every night, every night it's just the same, oh baby
Will I see you tonight on a downtown train
All of my dreams just fall like rain, all on a downtown train
All on a downtown train, all on a downtown train
All on a downtown train, a downtown train
……Tom Waits……The New York City Subway's third competing subway system, the municipally-owned IND – not connected to the IRT and BMT lines, was opened.  The The Interborough Rapid Transit (IRT) subway opened in 1904. The BMT(Brooklyn – Manhattan Transit)  opened in 1915, and construction work began on a third subway in 1925. In 1932 New York City’s Board of Transportation completed the Eighth Avenue Line, creating the Independent -- independent from private interests -- City Owned Rapid Transit Railroad, or IND. The Sixth Avenue line, the last major piece of the IND system, opened in 1940. The city now had three separate, separately owned and operated subways -- forming the largest subway system in the world. Now it’s all numbers and letters and some are better than others (the worst are the N and W lines - The W line operates between Astoria, Queens and downtown Manhattan; the N runs between Astoria and Coney Island. but traditional New Yorkers miss the IRT and the BMT which are now fading from memory.

            1934- Monday Half the art of ballooning is to make your crashes so gentle that you can fool yourself into calling them landings…..Richard Branson…… Happy Birthday, Maxie Leroy "Max" Anderson, American aviator and  balloonist who (with fellow Albuquerque, NM, residents Ben Abruzzo and Larry Newman) made the first transatlantic balloon flight aboard their Double Eagle II balloon, 3108 miles from Presque Isle, Maine to Miserey, France thus escaping the crowds at boarding gates, being “number 14 in line for take-off”, and  flight attendant safety “ballet” for those geniuses who don’t know how to buckle or unbuckle a seatbelt. Sadly, Anderson died in 1983 when the Communist controlled East Germans would not let him fly across the the East German border and a faulty release clamp used at landing caused him to crash.

            1941 – Wednesday Science is an integral part of culture. It's not this foreign thing, done by an arcane priesthood. It's one of the glories of the human intellectual tradition……….Happy Birthday, Stephen Jay Gould American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and science writer  born in Queens in New York City.  Gould o wrote about paleontology and evolutionary biology in terms the understood by us "lay folks".   Gould was one of the founders of the school of evolution called "punctuated equilibrium." He argued that evolution proceeds quite rapidly at crucial points, with speciation occurring almost immediately. This could be due to quite sudden genetic changes. His favorite example was the panda's "thumb," (also the title of his book)  a modification (adjustment) of the wrist bone that allows pandas to strip leaves from bamboo shoots.

            1945There once was a farmer from Fruita
Whose chicken caused quite a hoopla.
     For what happened next,
     Made farmer Olsen quite perplexed!
And as for the chicken, no "clucks", just some "ooh-aahs".
For that farmer had wanted a snack.
So he went and grabbed his old axe.
     He took a big swing,
     And said, "this might sting".
And for Mike the Chicken there was no turning back……
Bradley Voytek, An Ode to Mike…….
Monday Mike the Headless Chicken  was decapitated; he survived for another 18 months before choking , yes choking, to death. Mike, a young Wyandotte rooster, was about to become the dinner of Fruita, Colorado, farmer Lloyd Olsen. Mr. Olsen swung his ax thereby lopping off poor Mike's head. Mike shook off the event, then continued trying to peck for food.    returned to his vocation of being a chicken. He pecked for food and preened his feathers just like the rest of his barnyard brethren. Note: it is unclear exactly when the headless chicken was named “Mike”.  When Olsen found Mike the next morning, sleeping with his "head" under his wing, he decided that if Mike had that much will to live, he would figure out a way to feed and water him. With an eyedropper ( a funnel might have been faster) Mike was given grain and water. It was becoming obvious that Mike was special. A week into Mike's new headless life Olsen packed him up and took him 250 miles to the University of Utah in Salt Lake City . The skeptical scientists were eager to answer all the questions regarding Mike's amazing ability to survive with no head. It was determined that ax blade had missed the jugular vein and a clot had prevented Mike from bleeding to death. Although most of his head was in a jar, most of his brain stem and one ear was left on his body. Since most of a chicken's reflex actions are controlled by the brain stem Mike was able to remain quite healthy.  See final guillotine execution 1977 below.

            1955-Saturday Good evening. My name's Wayne. Some of you may have seen me before. I hope so. I've been kicking around Hollywood a long time. I've made a lot of pictures out here. All kinds. Some of them have been westerns and that's what I'm here to tell you about tonight. A western. A new television show called Gunsmoke. When I first heard about the show Gunsmoke, I knew there was only one man to play in it. James Arness. He's a young fellow, and maybe new to some of you. But I've worked with him and I predict he'll be a big star. And now I'm proud to present Gunsmoke…..Gunsmoke, the quintessential television western in which Marshal Matt Dillon (James Arness – who played the “The Thing” in the original movie of the same name) was outdrawn by a the same villain every week during the opening credits, made its debut.  John Wayne playing Himself, made the introduction to the series which would last for twenty years starring Arness, Milburne Stone, Dennis Weaver – replaced by Ken Curtis-, Amanda Blake and at the end,  a young Burt Reynolds as Quint. Glen Strange, who played  the monster in the original Frankenstein movie, played Sam  in 228 episodes. Arness appeared in all 635 episodes.  And……….because the Board of the Gnus  deems it important – here are the other Westerns that were broadcast during the 1950’s; Hopalong Cassidy
The Lone Ranger
Gene Autry
The Cisco Kid
Wild Bill Hickok
Kit Carson
The Range Rider
Roy Rogers
Death Valley Days
Annie Oakley
Life and Legend of Wyatt
Broken Arrow
Tales of Wells Fargo
Have Gun Will Travel
Wagon Train
The Restless Gun
Tombstone Territory
Colt .45
Wanted Dead or Alive
The Texan
The Rifleman
The Deputy
Law of the Plainsman
The Rebel
Bat Masterson

1962 -    Monday   The depressing thing about tennis is that no matter how good I get, I'll never be as good as a wall……Mitch Hedberg……Defeating fellow countryman, Roy Emerson in four sets at Forest Hills, Australian Rod (The Rocket) Laver  won tennis’s  Grand Slam.  Laver would win it again in 1969.  He is the only player to have won it twice.  The Grand Slam  is The Australian Open, The French Open, Wimbledon, and the U.S Open and you have to win them all within the same calendar year.  There have been quite a few ¾ Grand Slam winners and several career Grand Slammers but only Laver and American Don Budge (1938)  have done it in a single year.  As for the fair sex?  Three women, Maureen Connelly – Brinker (1953), Margaret Smith –Court (1970), and Stefi Graf (1988) have completed the one year sweep.

1976   Friday   I am even
The natural fool of fortune
……Lear…..King Lear Act 4, scene 6, 190–191An
error by an air traffic controller caused  two passenger planes to collide over Zagreb, Yugoslavia. The controller on duty, was working his third straight 12-hour day and his assistant was not present. Two other factors were critical in this disaster: The British Trident jet was flying into the sunlight and thus had no opportunity to see the DC-9 directly and  the controller  was speaking Croatian to the Inex flight, leaving the English-speaking British pilot in the dark as to what was being said.  All 176 people on the two planes died.

            1977- Saturday  I put the scarf around her neck and she didn’t struggle when I began to choke her. … I choked her for a few minutes and then I asked for the flashlight so I could make sure she was really dead. At one point, for reasons I can’t really explain, I kicked the girl’s nose but she didn’t move…….Last execution by Guillotine in France, one Hamida Djandoubi, convicted for raping and torturing and then strangling his girlfriend, 21 year old Elisabeth Bousquet, after she complained to the police that he was forcing her into prostitution, some of the deeds of which took place in front of witnesses.. The Tunisian immigrant  also confessed to the deed..  He actually had a choice of deaths…either the guillotine or watching The View 24/7 with his eyes taped open like Alex in Clockwork Orange.  Some guillotine facts for you, Total weight of a guillotine is about 1278 lbs. The guillotine metal blade weighs about 88.2 lbs. The height of guillotine posts average about 14 feet. The falling blade has a rate of speed of about 21 feet/second Just the actual beheading takes 2/100 of a second The time for the guillotine blade to fall down to where it stops takes 70th of a second.  The first guillotining took place on April 25, 1792, when Nicolas Jacques Pelletie was guillotined at Place de Grève on the Right Bank. The most famous to lose their heads over this were King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinetee. Thousands of people were publicly guillotined during the French Revolution.

            1984- Monday I want you to remember me
I'm leaving my fingerprints
I'm leaving my fingerprints
I'm leaving my fingerprints on you…..
Katy Perry………..Attention CSI and all  the CSI spawn. Serendipitously,  DNA fingerprinting was discovered in Leicester, England, by Alec Jeffreys.  X-ray films of his tests first revealed the possibility.  The Helpme 123 site notes that Jeffreys of the University of Leicester in Great Britain was studying the gene for myoglobin, a protein that stores oxygen in muscle cells. He found that the myoglobin gene contains many segments that vary in size and composition from individual to individual and that have no apparent function. Jeffrey called these segments minisatellites because they were small and they surround the part of the gene that actually serves as a genetic bluprint. Jeffreys isolated several of these minisatellite genes and inserted each into bacteria, which produced large amounts of the DNA segments  and, also,  the cast of the Real Houswives show. These segments could then be purified and labeled with radioactive isotopes to produce genetic probes that are the key tool in producing genetic fingerprints. When he studied the image, at first what he saw seemed just a complicated mess, sort of like a CSIish TV show plot, then he realized this could be DNA-based biological identification since every person has a unique DNA profile.  According to the Xeroxian World of the Internet,the first crime conviction based on DNA fingerprinting, in Portland Oregon but that is the only citation as sites then get confused between DNA fingerprinting and DNA evidence.  We do know that In a 1987 case in England, Robert Melias became the first person convicted of a crime (rape) on the basis of DNA evidence.

             1985 Tuesday  On one occasion I forgot to buckle my daughter :( She was 19 months old, I had a newborn,  I threw her in the carseat, loaded groceries, buckled baby, and went to leave. As I backed out of the parking spot she yelled, "STOP THE CAR MOMMA, I am NOT safe!" It ws pretty funny. She then threw a fit cuz i buckled her lol …posting on BabyCenter website…..Karl Hassel of Plain City, Ohio was awarded a patent for his built-in child's car seat.  Actually, car seats for children have been manufactured since 1933. The Bunny Bear Company made several designs of children's car seats, but their purpose was not to protect the child in the event of an accident. Instead, these seats confined the children, raised them above the level of the passenger seat, and made them more visible to adults from the front seat. Built-in child-safety seats are a factory option on some vehicles, mainly minivans. This handy feature is integrated into the seatback and folds out when needed. Hassel’s patent described his invention as “a convertible seat for use by children in automobiles and other vehicles which is foldable and covered within the usual adult sized seating of the vehicle providing the usual appearance, and which is unfoldable and uncoverable to provide a simply constructed children's safety seat, upon and within the adult seating. The children's seat, when unfolded, has all of the presently considered necessary and advisable features to provide safety to a child seated therein.”

1991 -   Tuesday I was trying to write the ultimate pop song. I was basically trying to rip off The Pixies  ….Kurt Cobain………Nirvana's Smells Like Teen Spirit was released as a single,  The song started a run on flannel as it launched the grunge craze, which was characterized by loud guitars, angst-ridden lyrics, flannel and dirty hair. Grunge was a look and sound that was distorted and impassioned, led by bands coming out of the Northwest. Pearl Jam and Soundgarden were other top Grunge bands of the era. Cobain would often dismiss the term as a meaningless label when asked about it in early interviews, but their bass player Krist Novoselic explained that it was a growling, organic guitar sound that defined it. We prefer Cobain’s explanation. Cobain, would commit suicide three years later and join the “27 Club” of rock/blues stars who went kaput at age 27 – Robert Johnson, Jesse Belvin, Brian Jones, Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Jim Morrison,  and Amy Winehouse among others. 

2000 – Sunday …. Memory
All alone in the moonlight
I can smile at the old days
I was beautiful then
I remember the time I knew what happiness was
Let the memory live again
…….The Andrew Lloyd Webber musical Cats closed up its litter box and left Broadway.  The musical based on T.S. Eliot's Old Possum's Book Of Practical Cats was one of the longest running musicals in Broadway. Opening night was October 7, 1982 and this was performance number 7,485.  Phantom of the Opera, which opened on January 26, 1988 was still going strong after  10.423 performances.

2001 –Monday You cheated, you lied,
You said that you love me
You cheated, you lied
You said that you want me
….The Shields…….Charles Ingram cheated  his way into winning one million pounds on a British version of Who Wants to be a Millionaire.  Ingram Ingram, who reached the £1m prize, was guided to correct answers with the help of deliberately timed coughs from college lecturer, Teclan Whittock.  “After further review” of the show tapes, the suspicious producers (Ingram almost never used a “lifeline” phone call and every else used them)  started searching for evidence of flimflaming . They took all the tapes from the cameras and put them all up on a screen. Before long, they noticed that all the coughs were linked to the questions and finally figured out what was going on. Ingram didn’t get his money but he did get prison as did his wife and Whittock.  Other major cheats, but with the connivance of show producers were, Charles Van Doren and Herbert Stempel on 21 and Marie Winn on Dotto.

2002 –Monday  The Swiss have an interesting army. Five hundred years without a war. Pretty impressive. Also pretty lucky for them. Ever see that little Swiss Army knife they have to fight with? Not much of a weapon there. Corkscrews. Bottle openers. ‘Come on, buddy, let’s go. You get past me, the guy in back of me, he’s got a spoon. Back off. I’ve got the toe clippers right here…..Jerry Seinfeld……..Switzerland, traditionally a neutral country, joined the United Nations. Now you thought they were in all along didn’t you?  The country took a long time to warm to the idea, with three-quarters of voters rejecting membership in 1986. This reluctance, ironically disregarded the fact that the European headquarters of the UN is located in Geneva, which is in Switzerland in case you were wondering, along with a host of UN special agencies.  When the UN was founded in 1945, the Swiss government ruled out membership. It saw the organization as incompatible with neutrality as opposed to a bunch of gasbags specializing in a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing (apologies to Shakespeare). For other neutral states, including Sweden and Austria, their neutrality was not a barrier to taking part. Switzerland got in just ahead of Timor Leste, which joined the UN on Sept. 2002.  Tuvalu joined two years earlier.

2008 – This is a huge step toward unraveling Genesis Chapter 1, Verse 1—what happened in the beginning. This is a Genesis machine. It'll help to recreate the most glorious event in the history of the universe. ……Michio Kaku …….Wednesday  Amidst hand wringing over Black Holes and the end of the world, th=he Large Hadron Collider at CERN, described as the biggest scientific experiment in history was plugged into a really big surge suppressor  in Geneva, Switzerland.  Things looked good at first, until a helium leak caused the collider to shut down after less than two weeks. They would try again in 2009 The Large Hadron Collider (LHC to its freinds) is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator. The LHC consists of a 27-kilometre ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures to boost the energy of the particles along the way.  The The LHC's main targetfinding evidence of the ever-elusive Higgs boson, the so-called "God particle." Higgs, is a particle, or set of particles, that might give others mass. The Boson was postulated by British physicist Peter Higgs in the 1960s. In March of 2013,  the LHC found it!  However it was not in the Collider, it was stuck between the pillows of the couch in the intern’s lounge.

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1297 –Wednesday- 'Tell your commander that we are not here to make peace but to do battle, defend ourselves and liberate our kingdom. Let them come on, and we shall prove this in their very beards…..William Wallace…. In one of their rare victories during the wars with the English, basically, when it came to fighting the English, the Scots were the 1962 Mets, the Scots temporarily stopped their petty quarrels and the their battling amongst each other, united under the command of William Wallace and defeated the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. Oh for want of an alarm clock! At dawn the English and Welsh infantry started to cross the bridge only to be recalled due to the fact that their leader, John de Warenne, had overslept. Again they crossed the bridge and again they are recalled  as this time  Warenne believed the Scots might finally negotiate. Two Dominican friars were sent to Wallace to acquire his surrender.  No deal. Victory resulted in the collapse of English occupation. Wallace, became Guardian of Scotland, and went on to devastate the north of England in the hope of forcing Edward I to acknowledge defeat.  Anyone who watched the movie Braveheart (despite the numerous historical inaccuracies) knows that venture didn’t turn out so well.

             1609-Friday- We'll have Manhattan
the Bronx and Staten
Island too.
It's lovely going through
the zoo!.......
.Rogers and Hart……..
Henry Hudson, on board the Half Moon, discovered what we now know as Manhattan Island. His first words were “ $750,000 for a one-bedroom condo on the West Side?  That’s ridiculous!”. Hudson’s voyage was funded by the Dutch East India Company as a result of their interest in shorter routes to the east.  They commissioned a new ship for the English navigator’s use, the Halve Maen (Half Moon). Hudson and the gang spent four months exploring the east coast of North America, including Manhattan, Maine, and Cape Cod (didn’t like the prices of  summer rental time shares  there either). They were the first Europeans to describe these locations (although Giovanni da Verrazano explored the same coast in 1524) and sailed a distance up the Hudson River, (took one look at the hideous city of Albany and immediately left)  which bears his name. The Dutch would later claim the area and set up a colony as New Amsterdam. The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata so written earliest in the 1609 log book of Robert Juet, an officer on Hudson’s ship. He hoped the river would provide a passage west to the Pacific. Things got ugly for Hudson afterwards.  When he returned  to England on his way to Holland, he was arrested for sailing under another nation's flag, considered treason at the time. He and his crew stayed in England while the Dutch ship and the Dutch sailors in the crew went home, apparently with Hudson's record of the voyage. On his next voyage, he discoved Hudson Bay but his crew mutinied.  Led by the same Robert Juet who named Manhattan, they put the captain, his son and others they didn't like into a small boat and set it adrift while the Discovery sailed away. None of the abandoned crew, including Hudson,  were ever seen again

            1649 –Saturday-  I am persuaded that this is a righteous judgement of God on these barbarous wretches, who have imbrued their hands with so much innocent blood; and that it will tend to prevent the effusion of blood for the future, which are satisfactory grounds for such actions which cannot otherwise but work remorse and regret …..Olvier Cromwell……………The  Siege of Drogheda ended as Oliver Cromwell's English Parliamentarian troops took  the town –about 25 miles north of Dublin on the River Boyne.  Around 2,000 people died in the storming and massacre. A number of prisoners who surrendered before Cromwell gave the order for no quarter were murdered in cold blood. Surviving members of the garrison captured the following day were transported to Barbados. Parliamentarian losses were around 150. In the saga  of sectarian strife in Ireland, the massacre of Drogheda left an indelible stain on Cromwell's character. It has lived on in Irish folk memory – Catholics and Protestants alike, making his name into one of the most hated in Irish (Catholic) history. Cromwell had been sent to Ireland in August by Parliament.  The civil war in England had ended, and King Charles I had been executed seven months earlier. In Ireland, however, the Roman Catholics had been in revolt since 1641 and held much of the island.

            1777 –Thursday- I could have lodged half a dozen balls in or about him, before he was out of my reach, but it was not pleasant to fire at the back of an unoffending individual, who was acquitting himself very coolly of his duty—so I let him alone…….. Captain Patrick Ferguson, British sharp shooter who had a clear shot at George Washington during the battle…..............Another revolutionary battle (see Wallace and Sterling)  but another of George Washington’s losing battles, the  Battle of Brandywine  was a major American Revolutionary war victory for British in the Chester County, Pennsylvania. For Lieutenant-General Sir William Howe, commander of the British forces in North America, it was the first chance he had to come fully mano a mano  with General George Washington's army since the British victory of Long Island in August 1776. A  heavy fog which blanketed the area, providing cover for the approaching British troops.  In the confusion Washington persisted in the mistaken belief that the British were sending their entire force against his line at Chadds Ford.  Oops! Meanwhile, Howe and the majority of his force continued their approach. By mid-afternoon the British had crossed the river at the unguarded ford to the north of Washington's force and , well, the  official British casualty figure was 89 killed and 488 wounded, but was probably slightly higher. The American losses were estimated at 1,100, including 200 killed, 500 wounded and 400 captured. The  defeat would  lead to the loss of Philadelphia on September 26.

            1789 –Friday- Well, now give me money, (That's what I want)
A lotta money, (That's what I want)
Wo, yeah, You need money (That's what I want)
Gimme money, (That's what I want)
That's what I want (That's what I want)
That's what I want.
…..Barrett Strong………….President George Washington appointed Revolutionary War colleague  and stalwart Federalist Alexander Hamilton as the first secretary of the treasury. The move came a week after the official founding of the Treasury Department.  Hamilton was in favor  of a strong, centrally controlled Treasury, and did constant battle with Thomas Jefferson, then Secretary of State, and Albert Gallatin, then a Congressman, over the amount of power the Department of the Treasury would be allowed to wield.

            1792 –Tuesday-  A kiss on the hand
May be quite continental,
But diamonds are a girl's best friend
…….Marilyn Monroe……….The Hope Diamond along with other French crown jewels was pilfered when six men broke into the house used to store the jewels.  The first we know of the Hope Diamond  is when the French merchant traveler, Jean Baptiste Tavernier, purchased a 112 3/16-carat (A carat is a measure of weight used for gemstones, and is equal to 200 milligrams). diamond. This diamond, which was most likely from the Kollur mine in Golconda, India, was triangular in shape and crudely cut. Its color was described by Tavernier as a "beautiful violet."  Tavernier sold the diamond to King Louis XIV of France in 1668 .  In 1791, after an attempt by Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette to flee France during the Revolution, the jewels of the French Royal Treasury were turned over to the government. During a week-long looting of the crown jewels in September of 1792, the French Blue diamond was stolen.  After a long round of bought and sold and donated by sundry rich people and the Harry Winston company the diamond  is currently at the Smithsonian Museum in Washington D.C

             1816-Wednesday- We do not see the lens through which we look ….Ruth Benedict…..Alles Gute zum Geburtstag! Happy Birthday, Carl Zeiss, German industrialist born in Weimar, Thuringian States .  Zeiss gained a worldwide reputation as a manufacturer of fine optical instruments.  In 1846 Zeiss opened a workshop for producing microscopes and telescopes. He later  rolled the Zeiss and formed a partnership with the physicist and mathematician Ernst Abbe. Zeiss lenses are still used today. Some have been changed, you’ll know them as Uncle Ben’s Converted Zeiss.

            1847Saturday- I come from Alabama with my banjo on my knee,
I'm going to Louisiana, my true love for to see.
It rained all night the day I left, the weather it was dry
The sun so hot I froze to death, Susanna, don't you cry.
………Oh! Susanna, by Stephen Foster, (which described the awkwardness of travel with a banjo stuck to one’s knee) was performed for the first time. The song, which became Foster's first big hit, was played at a concert in a Pittsburgh saloon and soon became a standard for minstrel troupes. Foster wrote several other classic popular songs, including Old Folks at Home, Beautiful Dreamer, Camptown Races, Jeannie With the Light Brown Hair, Inna Gadda Da Vida, and Itsy Bitsy Teeny Weeny Yellow Polka Dot Bikini.

             1883-Tuesday- (Stop)
Oh yes, wait a minute Mister Postman
Wait Mister PostmanPlease Mister Postman, look and see
(Oh yeah)
If there's a letter in your bag for me
(Please, Please Mister Postman)
….The Marvelettes…….
Oh chute! The mail chute was patented (#284,951) by James G. Cutler, a former Mayor of Rochester, NY. The device was first used in the Elwood Building in Rochester.  The experiment was successful and chutes were installed in two New York City office buildings. The first mail chutes were limited to railroad stations and public buildings. By 1905, the postal service allowed mail chutes to be placed in hotels taller than five stories and in apartment houses with more than 50 residential apartments.  The Mail chutes can still be seen -- and sometimes, they still work -- in many old office buildings. A mail chute is a small shaft for dropping  letters from an upper floor to a post-box on the ground.

        1915 –Saturday-  Come on ride the train hey ride it woo woo
Come on ride the train hey ride it woo woo
Come on ride the train woo woo hey
Ride it woo woo
Come on ride the train
Woo woo hey ride it woo woo
…..Quad City DJs………
Pennsylvania Railroad began electrified commuter rail service between Paoli and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, using overhead AC trolley wires for power.  The Pennsylvania railroad, currently available for $200 , lies between Virginia Avenue and St. James Place.

             1921 –Sunday I don't weigh a pound over one hundred and eighty and, what's more, I never did …… 250-280 lb. RoscoeFatty”  Arbuckle, a silent-film comedic star was arrested in San Francisco for the rape and murder of aspiring actress Virginia Rappe during a wild party. There were two conflicting stories, that of one Maude Delmont, who had a history of attempts at blackmailing celebrities and surprise, Arbuckles.  The “yellow press” went bananas over this story. Some articles had Arbuckle crushing her with his weight and others had him raping her with a foreign object (the papers went into graphic details). In the newspapers, Arbuckle was assumed guilty and Virginia Rappe was an innocent young girl. The papers excluded reporting that Rappe had a history of numerous abortions, with some evidence stating she might have had another a short time before the party. After two mistrials, the jury in Arbuckle’s third trial found him not guilty and even issued him an apology. Arbuckle’s career (he had just been signed to a multimillion dollar contract) never fully recovered and he sought solace in a bottle.  The alcoholic Arbuckle went kaput at age 46 on June 29, 1933, in New York City. Nowadays, he would have gone into rehab for a few days, granted exclusive interviews to the Entertainment Network, written a biography, launched a series of comebacks, married a series of mutant celebrity parasites and starred in a reality series.  

              1935 –Wednesday-Dear Muscovites, there are no changes in the cabin. The pressure is normal, perfect pressure I am perfectly comfortable. I wish you the same…… S dniom razhdjenia! Happy Birthday, Gherman Titov, Russian cosmonaut born in the village of Verkhneye Zhilino.  Titov was pilot of the Vostok 2 spacecraft on its August 6-7 1961 orbital flight of 25 hrs 18 min. After Yuri Gagarin, Titov was the second man to orbit the Earth but was the first man to orbit more than once, the first to spend more than a day in space, and the first to sleep in space, and quite possibly, the first to poop in space since  Vostok 2 was the first to use an on-board toilet. He also suffered from the syndrome analogous to seasickness that would plague space travelers for decades to come. 

             1937 Friday-  Living inside the shuttle was a little like camping out. We ended up sleeping in our seats. You had to pay attention to housekeeping, not get things too dirty. ……A big day for astronauts.  Happy Birthday, Robert L. Crippen, U.S. astronaut  born in Beaumont, Texas, who piloted the first orbital test flight of the U.S. space shuttle program STS-1, Columbia in  Apr 1981. He was the commander of three additional shuttle flights, all on Challenger,  STS-7, Challenger,  June 18-24, 1983; STS-41C, Challenger,  April 6-13,1984; and STS-41G, Challenger, October 6-13,1984. With this fourth flight Robert Crippen logged a total of over 565 hours in space, completing 374 orbits of the Earth and traveling over 9,400,000 million miles. Note, Challenger would explode on take-off in January 1985.

            1946-Wednesday-  Cell phones are wonderful, they empower the obnoxious and amplify the ignorant …..Peggy Noonan……….A dark  day  for the normal since most of us who have to share the roads with these idiots. The first mobile long-distance car-to-car telephone conversation took place between Houston, Texas and St. Louis, Missouri.  The call was placed by a truck driver and the phone weighed 80 lbs.  We were unable to find his name but we do know that Richard H. Frenkiel and Joel S. Engel  at AT&T Labs divided wireless communications into a series of cells, then automatically switched callers as they moved so that each cell could be reused. This led to the development of cellular phones and made today’s mobile communications possible.   By 1948, wireless telephone service was available in almost 100 cities and highway corridors. Customers included utilities, truck fleet operators and reporters.

            1962 –Tuesday Love, love me do.
You know I love you,
I'll always be true,
So please, love me do.
Whoa ccc, love me do.
…..The Beatles recorded their first single, Love Me Do and B side, P.S. I Love You, at EMI studios in London . It was written by Paul McCartney but credits went to Lennon/McCartney. The song would be covered by: The Brady Bunch, The Chipmunks, Dick Hyman, Flaco Jimenez, Madooo, The Persuasions, Sandie Shaw, Ringo Starr, and Bobby Vee. Songfacts informs that The Beatles recorded versions of this with 3 different drummers. At their first Parlophone audition in June, 1962, Pete Best was still their drummer. When they recorded this on September 4, Ringo was their drummer, but when George Martin decided this would be the single, he had them record it again a week later. At this session, he used a session drummer named Andy White and stuck Ringo with the maracas. The version with Ringo drumming was released as the single, but the version released on the album had Andy White's drumming. Ringo didn't pitch a fit when he got bumped at the session, but was very upset and felt real insecure, especially since The Beatles had just fired a drummer.

1970 –Friday-  
               Bobby: (Jack Nicholson)“Wait, I've made up my mind. I want a plain omelette, forget the  tomatoes, don't put potatoes on the plate, and give me a side of wheat
toast and a cup of coffee.
WAITRESS (Lorna Thayer)
I'm sorry, we don't have side orders of toast. I can give you an  English muffin or a coffee roll.
BOBBY What do you mean, you don't have side orders of toast? You make sandwiches, don't you?
You have bread, don't you, and atoaster of some kind?
I don't make the rules.
BOBBY Okay, I'll make it as easy for you as I can. Give me an omelette, plain, and a chicken salad
on wheat toast -- no butter, no mayonnaise, no lettuce -- and a cup of coffee.
One Number Two, and a chicken salsan -- hold the butter, the mayo, the lettuce -- and a cup of coffee... Anything else?
Now all you have to do is hold the chicken, bring me the toast, chargeme for the sandwich, and youhaven't broken any rules.
(challenging him) You want me to hold the chicken.
  Yeah. I want you to hold it between  your knees…….The premiere of Five
Easy Piece
starring Jack Nicholson – red hot after Easy Rider, Karen Black, Fannie Flagg, Sally Struthers and a pre Waltons
Ralph Waite. Directed by Bob Rafaelson.  The five easy pieces referto to a book of piano exercises that Nicholson’s character owned as a child.

1972 Monday- I didn't get a toy train like the other kids. I got a toy subway instead. You couldn't see anything, but every now and then you'd hear this rumbling noise go by. …….Steven Wright………..On the same day as the Pennsylvania Railroad was electrified (see 1915), Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) in San Francisco, California began regular service.  The first segment of the system to open would be 28 miles between Fremont and MacArthur stations .  Note: Professor Sy Yentz suggests that should Fresno, CA. transit system should be called  the Fresno Area Rapid Transit.

1977 –Sunday- David Bowie (taking a break from his, at the time,  effeminate persona) and Bing Crosby taped  Bing's last Christmas TV special, performing  a completely ghastly version of Little Drummer Boy.  Bowie solidified his place in worst duets ever as he was back in 1985 with Mick Jagger committing a sacrilegious version of Dancing in the Street.  Other aural horrors include Bono and Frank Sinatra – I’ve Got You Under My Skin, Willie Nelson and Julio Iglesias – All the Girls I’ve Loved Before, Paul McCartney and Michael Jackson – The Girl is Mine, Paul McCartney (he’d be worst if it wasn’t for Bowie) and Stevie Wonder – Ebony and Ivory,  Diana Ross and Lionel Richie – Endless Love, Barbra Streisand & Kris Kristofferson – A Star is Born, and Elton John and Luciano Pavarotti - Live Like Horses.

1985-Wednesday-  Capturing particles from a comet as it whizzes by is a way of looking back in time……Chris Jones….. The International Cometary Explorer (ICE) flew relatively unscathed through the gas tail of comet P/Giacobini-Zinner, at a speed of 21 km/sec at its closest approach of some 7,800-km downstream from the nucleus of the comet. After successfully exploring the comet, ICE explored Drano, Tide, and Kaboom! With less successful results, as it was clogged by Drano, bleached by Tide, and wiped out by Kaboom!  ICE was shut down on May 1997. The spacecraft will return to the vicinity of the Earth in 2014, when it may be possible to capture it and bring it home. NASA has already donated it to the Smithsonian Institute in the event of a successful recovery. An unforeseen consequence of the encounter resulted in the unleashing of dorman t charmed quarks from the comet which reacted with Earth’s atmosphere resulting in the hitherto unknown disease, Caninus Accessoresia, which causes women to walk around with small dogs tucked under their arms everywhere they go.      

1997-Thursday-Mars is essentially in the same orbit. Mars is somewhat the same distance from the Sun, which is very important. We have seen pictures where there are canals, we believe, and water. If there is water, that means there is oxygen. If there is oxygen, then we can breathe…….Dan Quayle…….The Mars Global Surveyor, launched in Nov 1996, went into an elliptical orbit around Mars. After ten years of successful observations – four times longer than expected, Mars Global Surveyor last communicated with Earth on Nov. 2, 2006. Within 11 hours, depleted batteries likely left the spacecraft unable to control its orientation. It secretly returned to Earth carrying Martian pods who took over human bodies and we know them today as the people who bring more than 10 items to the express check out line in the supermarket.  

             2001-Tuesday-  Thou art unfit for any place but hell. ….Lady Anne, Richard III, Act 1, scene 2………Nineteen Islamic terrorists high jacked two United Airlines and two American Airlines commercial jet airliners.  Two were crashed into the towers of the World Trade Center in Manhattan, one into the Pentagon in Washington and one crashed – probably due to passenger heroism into a field near Pittsburgh.  Almost 3 thousand people were killed in what may have been the worst day in American History. As the years went by, many forgot who perpetrated the terrorist attacks. They are referred to as just attacks, the “events of” and “the tragedy.  The terrorists were Muslim.  In the Middle East, their Muslim brethren demonstrated their joy by dancing in the streets. In an address to the nation that evening, President Bush said, "Terrorist attacks can shake the foundations of our biggest buildings, but they cannot touch the foundation of America. These acts shatter steel, but they cannot dent the steel of American resolve." In a reference to the eventual U.S. military response he declared: "We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them."


2002 –Wednesday-  The fundamentalist seeks to bring down a great deal more than buildings. Such people are against, to offer just a brief list, freedom of speech, a multi-party political system, universal adult suffrage, accountable government, Jews, homosexuals, women's rights, pluralism, secularism, short skits, dancing, beardlessness, evolution theory, sex….Salman Rushdie…….Within 30 minutes of two planes hitting the World Trade Center twin towers,  one year earlier, American Airlines Flight 77 departed Dulles International Airport bound for Los Angeles. The Boeing 757 was hijacked and crashed, loaded with 10,000 gallons of fuel, at 345 mph into the west side of the Pentagon. The five-story Pentagon is made up of five pentagonal structures arranged in concentric rings. These rings surround a five-acre open courtyard and are connected by 10 spike-like corridors. The plane took out light poles in the parking lot, hit the ground just outside the outermost ring of the Pentagon, turned up on its wing, and penetrated the E ring (outermost) midway between corridors 4 and 5. On this day, the Pentagon was rededicated after repairs are completed, exactly one year after the attack on the building.  Years, corrupt, incompetent (we’re trying to be objective here) New York/New Jersey politicians, insurance companies, builders, and government agencies still squabble over the hole in the ground that is now called Ground Zero in New York.

2007 –Tuesday-  You dropped a bomb on me, baby
You dropped a bomb on me (But you turned me on, baby)
You dropped a bomb on me, baby
You dropped a bomb on me
…..The Gap Band……Peace loving, Putinesque,  Russia tested what it called “The Father of All Bombs”, which it described as the world's most powerful non-nuclear weapon.  Keeping it in the family, The Russians call the device the "Father of All Bombs," an homage to the American GBU-43 Massive-Ordnance Air Blast munition nicknamed "Mother of All Bombs."  While the BBC and other Western news outlets went into full blown hide in the closet mode, The site notes that t close analysis of the video revealed inconsistencies that had some U.S. experts to questioning the veracity of the Russian claims, (Russians lying?  Preposterous) and to downgrade assessments of the weapon. It's possible, they said , that the video was partially faked, and that the test was hyped for political reasons. "You've got to approach Russian claims with skepticism," said  John Pike, an analyst at the think tank in Alexandria, Virginia.

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490 BC -Tuesday  The Athenian generals were divided in their opinions, and some advised not to risk a battle, because they were too few to engage such a host as that of the Medes, while others were for fighting at once, and among these last was Miltiades……Herodotus…..Athens defeated Persia at the Battle of Marathon in one of history’s earliest recorded battles.  This was also the origin of the marathon long-distance race (attributed to Phidippides.......later disqualified for using PEDs). Facing the Persians on the flat plain of Marathon and outnumbered by the Persian cavalry, Greek commander, Miltiades ordered the Greek hoplites (A heavily-armed footed soldier. Greek hoplites often fought in large, disciplined groups called phalanxes) to form a line equal in length to that of the Persians. Then he ordered his Greek warriors to attack the Persian line at a dead run. In the ensuing melee, the middle of the Greek line weakened and gave way, but the flanks were able to engulf and slaughter the trapped Persians. An estimated 6,400 Persians were slaughtered while only 192 Greeks were killed.  The primary source is the writer Herodotus (born 484 BC - 6 years after the battle of Marathon) - who's 'Histories' is the authoritative account of the battle. He mentions Phidippedes as running to Sparta (145 km!!! plus Athens and Sparta were friends at the time) before the battle but mentions no messenger to Athens.  Anyway, Phidippedes, only won the Bronze medal for the marathon as he was passed by two Kenyan runners during the last three miles.

1213Thursday - None were humbler; none were more assiduous in prayer, more constant under persecution; none made more insistent claims to be "good men", and it was on those terms that they were received by many of the common people. …..Walter Wakefield & Austin Evans, Heresies of The High Middle Ages……..Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester, defeated  Peter II of Aragon at the Battle of Muret during the Albigensian (for Albi, a city  in which it flourished) Crusade which had been called by Pope Innocent III against the Cathars, a medieval descendant of Manichaeism in southern France in the 12th and 13th centuries; characterized by dualism (asserted the coexistence of two mutually opposed principles, one good and one evil) that the Roman Catholic Church had decided was heretical.  What else to do but burn them n’est pas? The war pitted the nobility of staunchly Catholic northern France against that of the south, where the Cathars were tolerated and even enjoyed the support of the nobles. The battle started as a siege of a Cathar Castle, Muret but ended in open battle much to the bad for the Peter II who was slewn during the conflict.

1575Friday- With regard to the northern passage, your majesty might undertake the search openly, and in your majesty's name, as a glorious enterprise ……Happy Birthday (sort of, historians are not sure of the exact date – nor are we sure of when he went kaput), Henry Hudson, English explorer, who had discovered Manhattan Island on the previous day and the Hudson River (of course then it wasn’t called the Hudson River –it was called the Mauritius River, which is the name given by Hudson in honor of Prince Maurice of Nassau. Verrazano, who had sailed to the same river in 1525 had called it “The River of the Steep Hills”.  Hudson made four voyages in all.  For the first,  in 1607, he was hired by the English Muscovy Company to lead the ship Hopewell on an expedition north of the European continent, in an effort to discover a northeastern sea passage to the spice islands of the South Pacific. Whoops, not quite, he reached Greenland and Spitzbergen before his path was blocked by ice. The last, in 1611 aboard Discovery (1610-11), was financed by English merchants, again,  seeking the Northwest Passage across America to the Far East. He made it as far as his eponymously named bay and then the crew mutinied. They put Hudson and eight others (including his son) adrift on a small boat in the bay in June of 1611 and he was never heard from again.

          1725Wednesday The report of my death was an exaggeration ….Mark Twain………..Joyeux Anniversaire! Happy Birthday, Guillaume-Joseph-Hyacinthe-Jean-Baptiste Le Gentil de la Galaziere, (his business card was 18 cm wide!), French astronomer.  La Gentil proved that some days it just doesn’t pay to get out of bed…..He attempted to observe the transit of Venus across the sun by traveling to India in 1761. He failed to arrive in time due to an outbreak of war so he stayed in India to see the next transit which came eight years later. This time, he couldn’t see it because of cloudy weather, and so returned to France. There, he found his heirs had assumed he was dead and taken  all of his property.

            1793- Thursday- Angela Vidal: [after witnessing Bernard be killed by a CDC Sniper] Scott... They're not gonna let us out of here alive, are they?
Scott Percival: No... I don't think so.
……….Quarantine………..Due to an outbreak of yellow fever in Philadelphia, the first quarantine in the U.S. on a city was declared when the governor of  Maryland, Thomas Sim, stopped commerce from Philadelphia to Maryland. Contemporary cities without yellow fever but which should be quarantined anyway include Newark, Detroit, and Cleveland.  At the end of the month, a frost…frosts had been  known to end previous epidemics, arrived. On October 31, a white flag flew over the city hospital, signifying that no yellow fever patients remained. The disease caused an estimated 5,000 deaths that year in Philadelphia, about a tenth of the residents of the city and its suburbs.  yellow fever is a virus spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. This mosquito has peculiar habits – it talks with its mouth full, it doesn’t wash its hands after using the bathroom (usually males), it whines and it gossips. Its most distinguishing feature from other mosquitoes is its preference for urban habitat. It breeds best in relatively clean standing water and cisterns were a prominent feature among many city houses in that day before indoor plumbing. It also feeds during the day, and so must have quite enjoyed the bustling scenes common at the quays of the major port cities of the 18th century.

          1812 –Saturday- The average newspaper, especially of the better sort, has the intelligence of a hillbilly evangelist, the courage of a rat, the fairness of a prohibitionist boob-jumper, the information of a high school janitor, the taste of a designer of celluloid valentines, and the honor of a police-station lawyer …H.L Mencken……….Happy Birthday, Richard March Hoe, American inventor and manufacturer born in New York City.  Hoe invented a high-speed printing press that helped revolutionize the newspaper industry in the United States. He got rid of  the old flat-bed model and placed the type on a revolving cylinder, a model later developed into what is now known as the  Hoe rotary or "lightning" press, patented in 1846Hoe's invention was first introduced to the printing industry in 1847 in the offices of the Philadelphia Public Ledger. The resulting eight thousand papers per hour revolutionized newspaper printing.. The New York Tribune was the first newspaper printed with this process. Hoe's continually refined presses were of critical importance to the spread of news throughout expanding America during the 19th century. A literate and informed citizenry, capable of making its own political and economic choices, depended upon cheap and abundant news. We note that the shrinking number of newspapers during the 21st century has resulted in the opposite effect on the citizenry.  

1818- Saturday- It occurred to me that if I could invent a machine - a gun - which could by its rapidity of fire, enable one man to do as much battle duty as a hundred, that it would, to a large extent supersede the necessity of large armies, and consequently, exposure to battle and disease [would] be greatly diminished……. Happy Birthday, Ricard J. Gatling, U.S. inventor, of yes, the eponymous Gatling gun  in 1861. It  was first successful machine gun and a crank-operated, six-barreled weapon .Gatling used the six barrels to partially cool the gun during firing. Since the gun was capable of firing – here is the math problem of the day –600 rounds a minute and it had six barrels, how many shots could each barrel fire? Did you say one hundred?  Very good. The gun many drawbacks, however,  and was so radical in design and purpose that Gatling was unable to interest the U.S. government. The army purchased none of his guns, but Union Gen. Benjamin F. Butler, after a field test, purchased 12 for $1,000 each. They were used on the Petersburg front in 1864 and were apparently considered successful. That, however, was the only active service the guns saw. However, it would become very popular in mid to late 20th century Western movies.

            1846 –Saturday- How do I love thee? Let me count the ways.
I love thee to the depth and breadth and height
My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight
For the ends of Being and ideal Grace.
I love thee to the level of everyday's
Most quiet need, by sun and candle-light.
I love thee freely, as men strive for Right;
I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise.
I love thee with a passion put to use
In my old griefs, and with my childhood's faith.
I love thee with a love I seemed to lose
With my lost saints, --- I love thee with the breath,
Smiles, tears, of all my life! --- and, if God choose,
I shall but love thee better after death…….
Elizabeth Barrett Browning….
On a social note, poets Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Browning eloped on this day. While her family was away, the thirty eight year old Barrett sneaked out of the house and met Browning at St. Marylebone Parish Church, where they were married. She returned home for a week, keeping the marriage a secret, then left with Browning to Italy where they lived for the next fifteen years until Barrett-Browning’s kapution in 1861. At the time of the elopement Barrett composed her Songs of the Portugese.  Elizabeth composed the poems for Robert's eyes only, but he was convinced they constituted the finest series of sonnets since Shakespeare, and persuaded her to publish them. She agreed, but referred to them as translations from the Portuguese, rather than her own works.

            1857 –Saturday-The bottom was carpeted with gold.  Gold everywhere, like a garden. The more you looked, the more you saw gold growing out of everything……Tommy Thompson…. Ship of Gold in the Deep Blue Sea……. The SS Central America sank during a hurricane about 160 miles east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, drowning a total of 426 passengers and crew. Bound for New York with 578 passengers and crew, and 38,000 pieces of mail, the Central America also held 15-18 tons of gold ingots, coins, nuggets, and dust (worth about $1.5 million)  mined  from the San Francisco Gold Rush.  The lost moolah  maintained interest for the next century. Fast forward to 1985 where an ocean engineer with Battelle Memorial Institute in Columbus, Ohio, Thomas G. Thompson, founded the Columbus-America Discovery Group to research and locate the Central America shipwreck. The 161 investors raised more than $10 million. In  1986 The group, based in Columbus, began exploring 1,400 square miles of the Atlantic Ocean and located the ship’s bell in 8,500 feet of water.  After successfully using state-of-the art technology to recover the treasure and other important artifacts, including the real O.J Simpson Killer, , Lindsay Lohan’s brain, Bill Clinton’s ethics and Barack Obama’s birth certificate, the Columbus-America Discovery Group began a decade of litigation to retain the historic find. Eventually, courts awarded approximately 92 percent of the treasure to the Columbus group with the remainder awarded to insurance companies. ·

1897 –Sunday- The farther the experiment is from theory, the closer it is to the Nobel Prize. …………Joyeux Anniversaire! Happy Birthday, Irene Joliot-Curie, French physical chemis born in Paris.  She went into the family business and  followed the example of her parents, Nobel Prize winners Pierre and Marie Curie.  In 1926 she  married Frédéric Joliot and took the name Joliot-Curie. As in so many other things she followed her mother in being awarded the Nobel Prize for distinguished work done in collaboration with her husband. Thus in 1935 the Joliot-Curies won the chemistry prize for their discovery in 1934 of artificial radioactivity.  They used their alpha bombardment technique on other elements, finding that when a nucleus of a particular element combined with an alpha particle, it would transform that element into another, radioactive element with a higher number of protons in its nucleus. Like her mother, contracted leukemia in the course of her work and  died on March  17, 1956, in Paris.

          1913-Friday- When I came back to my native country, after all the stories about Hitler, I couldn't ride in the front of the bus. I had to go to the back door. I couldn't live where I wanted. I wasn't invited to shake hands with Hitler, but I wasn't invited to the White House to shake hands with the President, either. ….Happy Birthday, Jesse Owens, born in Oakville, Alabama. African-American track-and-field athlete, who set a world record in the running broad jump (now called the  long jump) that stood for 25 years and who won four gold medals at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin. His four Olympic victories  - the 100- and 200-meter dash, the broad jump and the 4x100-meter relay.- knocked the stuffing out of  Adolf Hitler's goal of using  the Games to demonstrate Aryan superiority.

                1933 –Tuesday- A sip of wine, a cigarette,
And then it’s time to go.
I tidied up the kitchenette;
I tuned the old banjo.
I’m wanted at the traffic-jam.
They’re saving me a seat
….Leonard Cohen………Leó Szilárd, waiting for a red light on Southampton Row in Bloomsbury, England conceived the idea of the nuclear chain reaction. Professor Sy Yentz, while waiting at a red light conceives the ideas of hideous tortures on the cretins blocking the intersection. Szilárd, was a Jewish Hungarian-American physicist  born in Budapest, who worked on the Manhattan Project. Szilárd also was the co-holder, with Enrico Fermi, of the patent on the nuclear reactor.  I know you immediately thought Szilárd was in a car at the intersection but, no,  he was waiting to cross the street and he was annoyed after attending a lecture by Ernest Rutherford  during which Rutherford called the idea of a chain reaction “moonshine”.  What Szilard realized as he stepped off that curb, (this was London, so he had to look right as he stepped) was that if he found an element, say uranium,  that when bombarded by one neutron would release two neutrons, it could lead to a chain reaction that could possibly release vast amounts of energy.

            1940--Thursday - To reach the farthest chamber of Lascaux, it's likely a man had to snuff out his light, lower himself down a shaft with a rope made of twisted fibers, and then rekindle his lamp in the dark so as to draw the woolly rhinoceros, the half horse, and the raging bison there…..Jane Brox……Lascaux Cave paintings in, yes, Lascaux , France were discovered by four teenagers. Marcel Ravidat, Jacques Marsal, Georges Agnel et Simon Coencas were chasing a runaway dog. They chased it into a cave and…. Lascaux may be the most beautiful Paleolithic painted cave in the world.  It contains more than 1500 pictures of animals, all of them are 17,000 years old The caves contained prehistoric paintings of horses, cows, deer, bison, cats and Barry Manilow. You can’t really visit the original paintings any more due to environmental problems so the Lascaux complex was enhanced in 1983 by the construction of "Lascaux II", an exact replica of the Great Hall of the Bulls and the Painted Gallery, a few hundred meters from the original caves. Paint brushes? Spray paint? No brushes have been found at Lascaux, thus one presumes that the paint was applied with moss or fur pads, or crude crayons made from solid lumps of pigment. Reeds and hollowed horns might also have been used as paint-sprayers.

            1953 –Saturday- The secret of a happy marriage remains a secret…..Henny Youngman……On a social note, Massachusetts  priapic Sen. John F. Kennedy married Jacqueline Lee Bouvier   at St. Mary's Church in Newport, R.I.. The bride was resplendent in an ivory silk gown made by Ann Lowe, an African-American designer. The mass was attended by 750 guests and an additional 450 people, , including Owen Wilson and Vince Vaughn,  joined the wedding reception at Hammersmith Farm. The couple danced to the Meyer Davis Orchestra's version of  Rogers and Hart’s I Married an Angel. 

             1956Wednesday Christine Penmark: Rhoda, what happened to old Mrs. Post in Witchita?
Rhoda: There was ice on the steps and I slipped and fell against her, and that was all.
Christine Penmark: That was all?
Rhoda: No. I slipped on purpose.
The premier of The Bad Seed. Starring Patty McCormack. This rather scary movie (sans ax murders and torture) was the story of a mother  (Nancy Kelly) who begins to suspect her loving adolescent daughter may be a heartless killer. Also in the cast were William Hopper who would play Paul Drake on Perry Mason and Jesse White, the original Maytag Repairman.  The movie laid the groundwork for many child killers to come; Damian in the Omen, The Village of the Damned,  Pet Sematary, Firestarter, Orphan, The Brood and The Ring. 

1958 –Friday Well, the thought that everybody might have a personal computer at their desk or their home was certainly not on the mainstream of anybody's activity at that time. ……….Jack Kilby demonstrated his invention of a miniaturized electronic circuit at Texas Instruments. It is now recognized as the first integrated circuit to be built and operated. On  Feb . 6, 1959, he applied for a patent, which was eventually issued one June 23,  1964. Prior to Kilby’s breakthrough a problem was the size of the circuits. A complex circuit, like a computer, was dependent on speed. If the components of the computer were too large or the wires interconnecting them too long, the electric signals couldn't travel fast enough through the circuit, thus making the computer too slow to be effective sort of like the New York State legislature. Basically,  there was a problem of numbers as advanced  circuits contained so many components and connections that they were virtually impossible to build. This problem was known as the “tyranny of numbers”.  Your laptop would weigh 100 pounds.. Next time you use a desk top or lap top computer, thank Jack Kilby.

            1959 –Saturday Adam Cartwright: You been to a lotta places and you've seen a lotta things, Pa, but you never seen or been to heaven.
Ben Cartwright: Well, maybe I never been to heaven... but heaven is gonna have to go some to beat the thousand square miles of the Ponderosa.
Adam Cartwright: As long as it's ours, as long as we keep it in Cartwright hands...
Ben Cartwright: Know anyone that could take it away from us, son?  
Bonanza premiered.  It was the first regularly-scheduled TV program presented in color. Starring, initially, Lorne Greene, Dan Blocker, Michael Landon, and Pernell Roberts (who left to be a movie star and we all know how well that worked out). Set in Nevada, and filmed near Lake Tahoe (although a lot of it was indoors made to look like outdoors) in the 1860s, Bonanza chronicled the adventures of the Cartwright family who owned a large ranch - The Ponderosa. The first episode starred Yvonne de Carlo who went on to fame as Lily Munster in the Munsters. Bonanza would last until 1973. After Pernell left for stardom he was replaced by David Canary and then in the last year, Tim Matheson (before he starred in Animal House). Professor Sy Yentz remembers the show for what he calls “Bonanza Disease”.  Bonanza disease occurred whenever one of the Cartwrights fell in love with a woman…as sure as commercials and Lorne Greene’s toupee, she would be kaput by the end of the show.  “Bonanza Disease” has since spread to many shows and many defunct love interests.

            1959-Saturday- There was an Old Man of the Hague,
Whose ideas were excessively vague;
He built a balloon to examine the moon,
That deluded Old Man of the Hague
……Edward Lear…………
On the same day that Bonanza premiered, the Soviet Union celebrated by launching Luna II. It was the first spacecraft to impact the Moon and scattered Russian medals on the Lunar surface. The Russian medals are still there…..the Russians are still in Georgia. Refraction from the medals resulted in lunar beams bouncing back to Earth, hitting people in the ear, entering the pre-frontal lobe and causing them  the dread disease Alertium Failuritis, the  fail to signal when changing lanes in their cars.  

            1962 – Wednesday- Well, it's a marvelous night for a moondance
With the stars up above in your eyes
…Van Morrison….
In a fitting preface for Gemini XI and the space shuttle Endeavour (launched this day in 1966 and 1992- see below), President John F. Kennedy delivered perhaps the most famous space speech ever given. He spoke at Rice University in Texas and said, "We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win………… And win we did – see July 1969, Apollo 11 moon landing.

          1963 –Thursday  Eddie Haskell: Wally, if your dumb brother tags along, I'm gonna - oh, good afternoon, Mrs. Cleaver. I was just telling Wallace how pleasant it would be for Theodore to accompany us to the movies………Seminal cultural icon, the Leave it to Beaver show came to an end with the last telecast. tells us that the one thing that most people don't know, is that Leave it to Beaver was the first American television show that was broadcast, behind the Iron Curtain. That, explains why Ward always wore a suit to dinner. Why, June, was always dressed perfectly. Even when she was doing housework. It also explains, why there are so many references, to God, Sunday School, Breaking Bread, etc. This series, was trying to show the Russians, that life was better here than in the U.S.S.R. In several episodes, there are subtle references to the Soviet Union. In episode #31 ( New Doctor ): Wally, has a model plane. Look close, it’s a Russian bomber complete with  the red star decals. In episode #119 ( Beaver's House Guest ), the two boys are wearing their camp sweatshirts with the name Camp Chekov on it.  Leave It to Beaver debuted in October of 1957 and aired on CBS. In the fall of 1958, CBS dropped the series and ABC, having faith in it, picked it up and ran it for an additional 5 years. Beaver was seven years old when the show began – it just seemed like he was thirty five when it ended and we never did find out what Ward did for a living.  The cast, - Jerry Mathers “as the Beaver”, Tony Dow, Barbara Billingsly and Hugh Beaumont. Notable recurring roles included, Ken Osmond as  Eddie Haskell,  Frank Bank as Clarence "Lumpy" Rutherford and Rusty Stevens as Larry Mondello.

             1966-Monday .. There's a (moon out tonight) whoa-oh-oh ooh
Let's go strollin'
There's a (girl in my heart) whoa-oh-oh ooh
Whose heart I've stolen
There's a moon out tonight (whoa-oh-oh ooh
……..The Capris……Gemini XI astronauts Charles Conrad and Richard Gordon made 44 orbits of Earth and docked with an Agena Module as part of the preparation for the manned Moon landings of 1969-72.  These missions would be based on separation and docking maneuvers (sort of like the social lives of contemporary celebutards and models. The flight lasted 2 days 23 hours 17 min 8 seconds and set a Gemini record altitude of 1,189.3 km (739.2 mi) while reaching and using the Agena propulsion system after first orbit rendezvous and docking. Gordon made a 33-minute EVA (space walk) and two-hour standup EVA. During the second space walk, Conrad refused to let Gordon back in unless he promised to stop showing slides of his summer vacation visiting the world’s largest ball of wool.  The final Gemini flight would be  November 11-15 of the same year. 

1966-Monday  Here we come, walkin'
Down the street.
We get the funniest looks from
Every one we meet.
Hey, hey, we're the Monkees
And people say we monkey around…
……The premiere of The Monkees.  The Americanized homoginized made for TV knock off imitation of the Beatles , Hard Day’s Night, starring former TV “Circus Boy” Mickey Dolenz, English musical hall and Broadway (Oliver) performer, David Jones, talented song writer Michael Nesmith (stuck with a silly watch cap so he could be billed as Woolhat), and the apparently talentless Peter Tork, the made for TV quartet received the full benefits of  an all out radio, and television publicity campaigns.  We note that a pre-Monkee, David Jones, then starring in Oliver on Broadway, appeared on the same Ed Sullivan Show in which the Beatles made their American television debut. The show would last two years but the Monkees, in various incarnations – sometimes two, sometimes three- rarely four, just keep reappearing…sort of like bad Chinese food.  Songs on the first episode were, This Just Doesn't Seem To Be My Day and Take A Giant Step

1974 – Thursday Throughout history, it has been the inaction of those who could have acted; the indifference of those who should have known better; the silence of the voice of justice when it mattered most; that has made it possible for evil to triumph ……..Emperor Haile Selassie  (born born Tafari Makonnen) of Ethiopia, 'Messiah' of the Rastafari movement, was  deposed following a military coup by the Derg, (Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police, and Territorial Army t) ending a reign of 58 years. The new government suspended the constitution and the legislature and executed 60 former government officials. The new head of government was Aman Andom, but he was soon replaced by Teferi Benti who executed Andom.  The Derg were replaced by the People’s Democratic Republic if Ethiopia in 1987.  The People’s Democratic Republic if Ethiopia was replaced by The Transitional Government of Ethiopia in 1991.  The Transitional Government of Ethiopia was replaced by the  Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in 1995 .

1977 – Monday You are either alive and proud or you are dead, and when you are dead, you can't care anyway South African anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko was  killed in police custody.  As his nose grew longer and longer,  commissioner of police, General Gert Prinsloo claimed Tte 30-year-old's death was the result of hospitalization following a a seven-day hunger strike.  Later five  South African policeman claimed that Biko had attacked them when they ordered him to stand during interrogation.  He sustained massive brain injuries and was then driven 750 miles to a hospital. On October 7,  2003, the South African justice ministry announced that the five policemen accused of killing Biko would not be prosecuted because the time limit for prosecution had elapsed and because of insufficient evidence.

1979 – Wednesday On the way, I shared the backseat of Feyerabend's little sports car with the inflatable raft he kept there in case an 8-point earthquake came while he was on the Bay Bridge …..Lee Smolin……….Indonesia was hit with an earthquake that measured 8.1 on the Richter scale.  Fifteen people were  killed, many injured, and there was extensive damage on  Yapen. A localized  tsunami reported on the islands of Biak and Yapen.  The Editorial Board of the Gnus counted and the U.S Geological Survey cisted 58 major earthquakes worldwide during 1979.

1983 Monday Two lawyers are in a bank, when, suddenly, armed  robbers burst in, waving guns and yelling for everyone to freeze.While several of the robbers take the money from the tellers, others line the customers, including the lawyers, up against a wall, and proceed to take their wallets, watches, and other valuables.While this is going on, one of the lawyers jams something into the other lawyer's hand. Without looking down, the second lawyer whispers, "What is this?" The first lawyer replies, "It's the $100 I owe you." A Wells Fargo depot in West Hartford, Connecticut, United States,was  robbed of approximately $7 million by Los Macheteros. A violent Puerto Rican pro independence group.  We note that Puerto Rico has been offered the opportunity to vote for independence several times with a “no” vote each time. In 2012 a non-binding referendum actually came out in favor of statehood.  Nevertheless, back in ‘83” the robbery was carried out by a self-described Marxist revolutionary group which claimed responsibility in the 1970s and '80s for armed attacks — with Cuban support — on federal interests in Puerto Rico. Federal authorities have linked the group to two rocket attacks on federal buildings in Puerto Rico, the bombing of nine National Guard airplanes at an airport in Puerto Rico, and an armed assault on a U.S. Navy bus in Puerto Rico that killed two sailors and wounded 10 others. After the robbery, some thieves were captured and Juan Segarra Palmer, one of the leaders of the group, was sentenced to 65 years in prison. In 1999, he was one of the FALN members whose sentences were commuted by Presidential Stud Muffin, Bill Clinton. Filiberto Ojeda Rios was was shot and killed in a shootout when the FBI raided his hideout in Puerto Rico in 2005.  In 2010, Avelino González-Claudio was sentenced for his part in planning the robbery to seven years in prison and "ordered to pay back the money", according to The Hartford Courant.

           1992 -Saturday Yesterday I got a space shuttle
Time I was gone
Tell me for my sanity
How do I get out of here? ….INXS……..
The crew of the shuttle Endeavour (STS 47) included the first African-American woman  in space, Mae C. Jemison, as a Science Mission Specialist. During the eight-day mission, she conducted space-sickness experiments and conducted research on bone loss in zero gravity. The first married couple, Mark Lee and Jan David, (who argued over who would handle the remote control) along with the first Japanese citizen, Mamoru Mohri, on a U.S. space mission were also members of the same crew.  The flight lasted 7 days, 22 hours, 30 minutes, 23 seconds and  3,271,844 miles. Note the crew applied to have these added to their frequent flyer miles and received free round trip tickets to Dayton, Ohio.

            2005 – Monday- Disneyland: A people trap operated by a mouse. ….Unknown……Hong Kong Disneyland opened in Penny's Bay, Lantau Island, Hong Kong. Featured rides included the Chairman Mao Coaster, the Red Brigades House of Horrors, The Great Leap Forward Bumper Cars, and the Little Red Book Ferris Wheel. The Happiest Place on Earth (or at least close to Red China) had some  glitches during the opening process as management managed to enrage local singing stars, antagonized labor leaders and earned a rebuke from its own partner in the theme park, the Hong Kong government.  In August, a disgruntled, fired employee climbed atop Space Mountain and threatened to kill himself until he was talked down when he was promised he could go to the front of the line all day and a date with Tinker Bell.

2011 –Monday A memorial fulfills a different need; it’s about remembering and evoking feelings in the viewer, and that function is antithetical to what museums do …. James Gardner  speaking about the oxymoronic name of the site.  The 9/11 Memorial Museum  finally opened to the public after ten years of disgraceful behavior by politicians and eight years of planning with every step muddied with contention. There were bitter fights over the museum’s financing, which delayed its opening,  as continuing arguments over its location, seven stories below ground; which relics should be exhibited; and where unidentified human remains should rest.


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122 –Sunday-  All in all it's just another brick in the wall.
All in all you're just another brick in the wall.
……Pink Floyd……The building of Hadrian's Wall began. One of the four great emperors of the Pax Romana – think THAM – Trajian, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius (Marcus egotistically broke the streak by nepotism, his son followed him while the others had “adopted” the most qualified as their “son”). Hadrian had the wall built to keep Roman Britain safe from hostile attacks from the Picts. It was the northernmost boundary of the Roman empire until early in the fifth century.  The wall, stretching from the North Sea to the Irish Sea (from the Tyne to the Solway), was 80 Roman miles (about 73 modern miles) long, 8-10 feet wide, and 15 feet high.

            1475 –Monday- Most Illustrious and most Excellent Lady, our very dear Sister,- Confident of the circumstance that there can be no more efficacious and salutary medicine for the indisposition from which you are at present suffering than the announcement of good and happy news, we advise you that at this very moment we have received sure tidings of the capture of Camerino. We beg that you will do honour to this message by an immediate improvement, and inform us of it, because, tormented as we are to know you so ill, nothing, not even this felicitous event, can suffice to afford us pleasure. We beg you also kindly to convey the present to the Illustrious Lord Don Alfonso, your husband and our beloved Brother-in-law, to whom we are not writing to-day ….Cesare's letter to Lucrezia (July, 1502), as quoted by Rafael Sabatini….Buon Compleanno!Happy Birthday, Cesare Borgia, Italian aristocrat, son of “the Borgia Pope”, Alexander VI and brother of Lucretia Borgia. Cesare’s reputation for violence and murder, unlike Lucretia’s reputation for violence and murder, was well deserved. In 1497 his brother Giovanni, duke of Gandia, was murdered, the deed was attributed, in all probability, to Cesare. Keeping the theme of murders all in the family, in July 1500 occurred the kaputing of the Duke of Bisceglie, Lucrezia Borgia's third husband (she was now twenty) . The Duke was attacked by assassins on the steps of St. Peter's. When it appeared that he was recovering from his wounds, Cesare had him murdered. Meanwhile,   he was made archbishop of Valencia (1492) and cardinal (1493). After his brother's murder , he took command of the papal armies. In 1498 he resigned his cardinalship and married the sister of the king of Navarre.  This was designed to win French support for a campaign to regain control of the Papal States by his father, Alexander VI. Acting in concert with his father, Cesare won a series of military successes in the Papal States (while  gaining a reputation for ruthlessness and assassination. His political astuteness led Niccolò Machiavelli to cite him as an example of the new "Prince." When Alexander went kaput in 1503, so did Cesare’s career. The new pope, Julius II, an implacable Borgia enemy, demanded that he give up his lands. He escaped from prison in Spain and died fighting for Navarre.  While besieging the castle of Viana, held by the rebellious count of Lerin, he was rendered kaput , with a slapstick comedic subtext – leading a charge, he arrived in the courtyard of the castle after the defenses had been breached- only to discover that none of his soldiers had followed him on the charge.  He was chopped up like a liverwurst sandwich on March 12, 1507. Cesare Borgia was 31 years old.

            1503 –Sunday- “In every block of marble I see a statue as plain as though it stood before me, shaped and perfect in attitude and action. I have only to hew away the rough walls that imprison the lovely apparition to reveal it to the other eyes as mine see it… The Florentine sculptor and artist, Michelangelo began work on his statue of David. David was commissioned in 1501 by the Cathedral Works Committee (Opera Del Duomo) of Florence . At the age of 26, Michelangelo was given a leftover block of marble that came from the mountains of Carrara. This  was a “pre owned” block, one which had previously been worked on by various other artists. The piece was intended as a monumental work, a testimony to the city's republican pride, not one for close confinement, but it was moved to the Accademia in 1873 (from outside the Palazzo Vecchio, where a replica now stands ) to protect it from the ravages of time and the weather.  In 1527 during an uprising, someone threw a chair out of a window in Palazzo Vecchio. The chair broke David’s left arm in three places. Michelangelo’s biographer, Vasari claims that he personally picked up the pieces. David is tall – exactly 14 feet and 3 inches high. His right hand is disproportionately large compared to the body. Why? Because in the Middle Ages, David was commonly said to be of “manu fortis” – strong of hand.

            1759 -Thursday The formidable Heights of Abraham are now surmounted and the city of Quebec, the object of all our toils, now stands in full view before us….James Wolfe……Battle of the Plains of Abraham: British defeated the French near Quebec City in the Seven Years' War, better  known in the United States as the French and Indian War.  The British, led by James Wolfe, had successfully crossed the St. Lawrence river above Quebec, where Louis de Montcalm, in charge of the French defenders of the city, had felt to be secure, protected by the Heights of Abraham, high cliffs that appeared to block any attack. However, Wolfe had scouted out a route up the cliffs, a narrow track that led to the top, where a weak French guard had been overwhelme. . By dawn, Wolfe and 4,828 men had tiptoed (imagine 4,829 men tiptoeing)  onto the cliff tops west of the city. Wolfe was shot in the chest, which was eventually to kill him, but the charge itself was a success, turning the French retreat into a total rout. Montcalm also took a fatal wound while attempting to rally the troops. Wolfe survived long enough to know he had won the battle. However, almost 400 years later, Quebec still speaks French.

             1814-Tuesday To Anacreon, in Heav'n, where he sat in full glee,
A few sons of harmony sent a petition,
That he their inspirer and patron would be;
When this answer arriv'd from the jolly old Grecian—
"Voice, fiddle, and flute,
No longer be mute;
I'll lend ye my name, and inspire ye to boot;
And, besides, I'll instruct ye, like me to intwine
The myrtle of Venus with Bacchus's vine."………
During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key, was  being held on the British frigate Surprise, in Baltimore harbor. He witnessed the attack on the American Fort Henry, and the flag was distinctly seen through the night by the glare of the battle, but before dawn the firing ceased, and he anxiously watched to see which colors (British or American) floated on the ram­parts. Key's feelings when he found that the stars and stripes had not been hauled down found expression in The Star-Spangled Banner, a poem which later set to music (which he wrote the next day – Sept. 14) and in 1931 became America's national anthem (in a close vote over Rednex, Cotton-Eyed Joe).  The poem was originally titled "The Defence of Fort McHenry," and  reflected in the now-famous words of the Star-Spangled Banner: "And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there." The original tune was To Anacreon in Heaven, an English drinking song (see opening quote)  written by John Stafford Smith with words by Ralph Tomlinson, Esq.  This was the song of a popular London gentlemen's club, the Anacreontic Society, honoring an ancient Greek poet who lyricized life's joys.


            1826- Wednesday A Rhinoceros? Preposceros! ….Elva Robinson…..The first rhinoceros to be exhibited in the U.S. was shown at Peale's Museum and gallery of the Fine Arts in Baltimore, Md. According to Today in Science History, an advertisement described, "its body and limbs are covered with a skin so hard and impervious that he fears neither the claws of the tiger nor the proboscis of the elephant. It will turn the edge of a scimitar and even resist the force of a musket ball." This is similar to what rhinoplasty feels like today.

            1847 Monday Brave rifles! Veterans! You have been baptized in fire and blood and have come out steel! ….. General Winfield Scott won the last major battle of the Mexican-American War, storming the ancient Chapultepec fortress at the edge of Mexico City.  General Gideon Pillow launched an attack at 8 a.m. Mexican troops on the western slope of the castle held for a while, but gave way in the face of mounting U.S. pressure. Pillow’s men followed, having no doubt by capturing a redoubt below the castle, and then gained its walls while disarming several powder mines as they advanced, avoiding a potential disaster. By 9:30 Chapultepec had fallen. In February 1848, representatives from the United States and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, formally ending the Mexican War, recognizing Texas as part of the United States, and extending the boundaries of the United States west to the Pacific Ocean.

             1851- Saturday You give me fever
When you kiss me
Fever when you hold me tight
Fever, in the morning
Fever all through the night
….Peggy Lee…….H
appy Birthday, Walter Reed, (brother of Donna), American surgeon and bacteriologist who discovered how to eliminate yellow fever.
In 1848 Josiah Nott , a physician in Alabama, proposed the mosquito as the vector of yellow fever between humans. In 1881, Carlos Juan Finlay (1833-1940) suggested that the Aëdes species specifically was involved. The mosquito finally confessed after a withering cross examination by Perry Mason.  Reed demonstrated that the mosquito is responsible for transmitting yellow fever from infected humans to uninfected humans and in the process, he disproved the bacterial theory, demonstrating that the causative organism is non-filterable--what we now know to be a virus In its emphasis on sound scientific methodology, his work set the standards for twentieth-century experimental medicine.

         1853Tuesday- A man goes into a drugstore and asks the pharmacist if he can give him something for the hiccups. The pharmacist promptly reaches out and slaps the man's face."What did you do that for?" the man asks.
"Well, you don't have the hiccups anymore, do you?"
The man says, "No, but my wife out in the car still does
Tillykke med fodselsdagen! Happy Birthday, Hans Christian Joachim Gram, Danish pharmacologist and pathologist, who invented the Gram stain. His mother tried everything to get the stain off his pants but nothing worked.  Professor Sy Yentz has continued to master the art of getting permanent stains in one clothes.  The Gram stain is  the best known and most widely used bacteriological staining method that is almost always the first test performed for the identification of bacteria  While examining lung tissue from patients who had died of pneumonia, He followed the method of Paul Ehrlich, using aniline-water and gentian violet solution. After further treatment with Lugol's solution (iodine in aqueous potassium iodide) and ethanol he found that some bacteria (such as pneumococcus) retained the stain (Gram positive) while others did not (Gram negative).

1857 - Sunday …..You need some chocolate, soft creamy chocolate
Some chocolate ice cream, and chocolate mousse
Some chocolate cheesecake, Bavarian chocolate
Bring on the chocolate, you need a boost.
They say it gives us pimples, it's addictive and it stains
It makes us fat and hyper, and clogs up all our veins
It puts migraines in our noggins and it's worse than cigarettes
But all those things are easier than having a chocolate fit.
Now there's lots of medical evidence to support our point of view

Buddy Wasisname ..The Chocolate Song…. Happy Birthday, Milton S. Hershey, American manufacturer who founded……go ahead……take a guess………no, not Cadbury’s…………. the Hershey Chocolate Corporation.  While running a caramel business, Hershey visited the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago and learned about chocolate machinery  In 1894, aware of the growing demand for chocolate, he started the Hershey Chocolate Company. In 1900  he sold his caramel company for $1 million, and devoted his attention to making chocolate and discovered the right formula of milk, sugar and cocoa that enabled him to introduce the Hershey bar. Hershey’s company has since extended its confectionary tentacles to include: Almond Joy and Mounds candy bars, Cadbury (we note Cadbury was much tastier when it was an English-owned company)  Creme Eggs candy, Hershey's Cookies 'n' Creme candy bar, Hershey's milk chocolate and milk chocolate with almonds bars, Hershey's Nuggets chocolates, Hershey's Kisses and Hershey's Hugs chocolates, Jolly Rancher candy, Kit Kat wafer bar, Milk Duds candy, PayDay peanut caramel bar, Reese's crunchy cookie cups, Reese's NutRageous candy bar, Reese's peanut butter cups, Sweet Escapes candy bars, TasteTations candy, Twizzlers candy, Whoppers malted milk balls, and York peppermint patties. Your cholesterol just went over 200 while you were reading that.

        1863 – Sunday My mum always said that the things we lose always come back to us in unexpected ways…..Luna Lovegood …….Whoops! Union soldiers Sergeant John Bloss and Corporal Barton W. Mitchell found a piece of paper wrapped around three cigars. The paper was addressed to Confederate General D.H. Hill. Its title read, "Special Order No. 191, Headquarters, Army of Northern Virginia." Confederate General Robert E. Lee's orders detailing the Confederates' plan for the Antietam campaign near Frederick, Maryland. It was the infamous “Lost Order” and it set the stage for the bloody battle at Antietam. But Union General George B. McClellan, as ever, was slow to act, and the advantage the intelligence provided was lost  and while after Antietam, Lee had to retreat to Virginia, aggressive  Union leadership may have severely crippled the Army of Northern Virginia.

             1877- Thursday I have never been lost, but I will admit to being confused for several weeks …….Daniel Boone……..Alles Gute zum Geburtstag!  Happy Birthday, Wilhelm Filchner, German scientist born in Bayreuth.  Filchner  led the German Antarctic expedition of 1911-12. Then, from 1926-28 he went to Tibet where he conducted cartographic surveys and magnetic observations. Filchner also made a magnetic survey of Nepal from 1939-40.  However with all his travels, he was always disappointed that he never got to visit the Paul Bunyan statue near Brainerd, Minnesota, The World's Largest Ball of Twine at Cawker City, Kansas, or Lucy the elephant  in  Margate, New Jersey

            1898 - Tuesday -The most expensive habit in the world is celluloid, not heroin, and I need a fix every few years…..Steven Spielberg….Hannibal Goodwin, an Episcopalian minister,  patented celluloid photographic film. - Photographic Pellicle and Process of Producing the Same….Patent No. 610,861-He  was inspired to invent this film when he was unable to find suitable Bible pictures for use in his Sunday-school classes. The film was flexible and could be rolled up.  Celluloid is derived from cellulose and alcoholized camphor. John Wesley Hyatt  invented celluloid as a substitute for the ivory in billiard balls in 1868. Both Hyatt and Goodwin were working on celluloid film but in the meantime, George Eastman had already started production of roll-film using his own process. In 1900, Goodwin set up the Goodwin Film & Camera Co. but before film production had started he was trampled  by a horse cart (don’t you hate when that happens?) and died. His patent was sold to Ansco who successfully sued Eastman Kodak for infringement of the patent and were awarded $5,000,000 for Goodwin’s family.

             1899 –Wednesday I'll go you one better if you've got the nerve
let's race all the way to dead man's curve.
Dead man's curve
Dead man's curve
Won't come back from dead man's curve
 ….Jan and Dean……The first American automobile fatality resulted when H.H. Bliss was run over as he got out of a streetcar in New York. Bliss was knocked to the pavement, and two wheels of the cab passed over his head and body. His skull and chest were crushed……other than that, he was o.k. Dr. David Orr Edson, son of ex-mayor Edson, of Boston was the passenger in the auto. He tried to treat Bliss at the scene.  Bliss, 68, was taken to hospital, where he went kaput. The driver, Arthur Smith was arrested and held on $1,000 bail.

            1909 – Monday The base paths belonged to me, the runner. The rules gave me the right. I always went into a bag full speed, feet first. I had sharp spikes on my shoes. If the baseman stood where he had no business to be and got hurt, that was his fault …….Detroit Tigers outfielder, Ty Cobb clinched the American League Home Run  title with his 9th HR.  All were inside the park homeruns.  Wahoo Sam Crawford of the Cincinnati Reds  had hit 12 inside the park home runs and a total of 16  in 1901 .

             1912 –Friday The bright sun was extinguish'd, and the stars
Did wander darkling in the eternal space….Byron…Darkness…..Happy Birthday, Horace W. Babcock, American astronomer, who with his father, Harold Babcock, was first to measure the distribution of magnetic fields over the Sun’s surface. How did they do it considering the heat of the Sun?  Yes, they went at night. In the early 1950s, Babcock was the first astrophysicist to propose adaptive optics, a methodology that provides real-time corrections for atmospheric disturbances of wavefronts.  For his doctorate Babcock determined the rotation curve of the Andromeda Galaxy M31. Much later his measurements would be considered an early indication of the existence of dark matter.

              1922- Wednesday We're having a heat wave,
A tropical heat wave,
The temperature's rising,
It isn't surprising,
She certainly can can-can……..
Irving Berlin…….The highest recorded shade temperature anywhere in the world, 138 F. (58 C) south of Tripoli, Libya.   In second place is 134˚ in Death Valley, California July 10, 1913.    Official temperatures are recorded in the shade and in the open, because scientists need the air temperature .When sun shines on the thermometer, the infrared radiation, artificially raises the surface temperature of whatever it shines on ( the thermometer in this case ) and this gives false/higher  reading.

         1935 –Friday – A  bi gezunt: So long as you're healthy. Expression means, "Don't worry so much about a problem, whatever it is. You've still got your health." Well, that was it for the International Railway from New York to Ontario as as five thousand tons of rock fell approximately 150 feet north of the Whirlpool Bridge, destroying more than 200 feet of track and rail bed. This was that largest rock fall to plague the Great Gorge Route. And it forced the Great Gorge Route to close for business. The Great Gorge Route line along the base of the Niagara Gorge on the American side was never repaired and was never reopened.

            1952-Saturday See the pyramids along the Nile
Watch the sun rise on a tropic isle
But just remember, darling, all the while
You belong to me……..
Jo Stafford's  Y
ou Belong To Me landed at  #1 on the Billboard Charts replacing the unforgettable, Auf Wiederseh'n Sweetheart by the Vera Lynn.  You Belong to Me would in turn be replaced in the top spot by I Went to Your Wedding by Patti Page.

1953 –Sunday  The main difference for the history of the world if I had been shot rather than Kennedy is that Onassis probably wouldn't have married Mrs Khrushchev. Nikita Khrushchev was appointed secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Khruschev became a member of the Central Committee in 1934 and of the Politburo in 1939. After the monstrous Joseph Stalin's death in 1953, Khrushchev became the Party's First Secretary in the collective leadership that emerged after it had eliminated (kaputed)  Lavrenti Beria (of the secret police) and his faction. Subsequently, the Kruschster used Stalin's established technique to divide and conquer his rivals, replace them with his own people, and emerge as the undisputed leader of the Soviet Union, with the difference that he did not engage in as much mass murder. He had them assigned to such faraway and harmless posts as Ambassador to Mongolia, if they were lucky and the gulag if not.

            1956 – Cars and trucks
Fly by me on the corner
But I'm all right
Standin' proud before the signal
When I see the light
I know I'm more than just a number.
And I stand before you
Or else we just don't see the other
Computer age computer age
Computer age.
…..Neil Young……..IBM introduced the first computer disk storage unit, the RAMAC 305. Prior to this magnetic computer storage had consisted of core memory, tape, and drums. The magnetic disk was seen as a replacement for the magnetic drum for the same reason 78 RPM Records eventually replaced Edison cylinders….. more storage with less space. The 350 Disk File consisted of a stack of fifty 24" discs. The capacity of the entire disk file was 5 million 7-bit characters, which works out to about 4.4 MB in modern parlance. This is about the same capacity as the first personal computer hard drives that appeared in the early 1980's, but was an enormous capacity for 1956. IBM leased the 350 Disk File for a $35,000 annual fee.

            1959 - Sunday The Soviet Union  launched  Luna 2. Luna 2 was the second of a series of spacecraft launched in the direction of the Moon. The first spacecraft to land on the Moon, it impacted the lunar surface east of Mare Serenitatis near the Aristides, Archimedes, and Autolycus craters.       Luna 2 microbes resulted in facial twitches called luna tics in infected people in Moscow.  Elsewhere, particularly in the U.S, the microbes caused an outbreak of oralius profanesia, people unable to speak without peppering the conversation with profanity.  

            1968 –Friday-  United around the flag,
With one desire and one goal,
Let us pledge our word of honour
To fight for our salvation

Only he who is a born traitor
Averts from the struggle.
He who is brave is not daunted,
But falls - a martyr to the cause
 or……. Rreth flamurit të përbashkuar,
Me një dëshirë dhe një qëllim,
Të gjithë Atij duke iu betuar,
Të lidhim besën për shpëtim.

Prej lufte veç ay largohet,
Që është lindur tradhëtor,
Kush është burrë nuk friksohet,
Po vdes, po vdes si një dëshmor.

Në dorë armët do t'i mbajmë,
Të mbrojmë Atdheun në çdo vend,
Të drejtat tona ne s'i ndajmë,
Këtu armiqtë s'kanë vend.

Se Zoti vet e tha me gojë,
Që kombe shuhen përmbi dhè,
Po Shqipëria do të rrojë,
Për te, për te luftojmë ne…
……….National Anthem.........Albania left the Warsaw Pact.  Russia would have stopped it but A: No one could find Albania and B: When they did, they decided  it wasn’t worth keeping.

            1969 – Saturday - Yoko Ono is suing the makers of the movie "Expelled" over the illegal use of the song "Imagine." She's even threatening to date the director and break up the production company…..old joke……John Lennon and Yoko Ono's Plastic Ono Band made their live debut at the Rock 'n' Roll Revival Concert at at Varsity Stadium, at the University of Toronto Eric Clapton was on guitar as Lennon inflicted the unaccomplished, dreadful, terrible, appalling, unpleasant, horrific, negatively talented, screeching, parasitic Ono on the listeners. And besides, her art is meaningless, her films are  weird and her songs are  tuneless. Also on the bill for the 20,000 spectators were; Bo Diddley, Chicago, Junior Walker and the All Stars, Tony Joe White, Alice Cooper, Chuck Berry, Cat Mother and the All Night News Boys, Jerry Lee Lewis, Gene Vincent, Little Richard, Doug Kershaw and The Doors. 

            1970 – Sunday I only signed up 15 minutes before the race started. I hadn't trained for three weeks because of a leg injury, but I felt O.K., so I decided to run. I didn't think it was going to be much of a race. Basically it was kind of 'the race of the week.If you were a road runner back then, every Sunday you raced …….The first NYC Marathon was won by fireman,Gary Muhrcke in 2:31:38. The first race had a total budget of $1,000 and the 55 finishers were rewarded with recycled bowling trophies. Now the New York City Marathon has grown into a monstrous to become a weeklong, celebration with 30,000 runners, 12,000 volunteers, thousands of city employees, 2 million spectators lining the course, and tens of millions more watching on TV.   The counterclockwise 26.22-mile course consisted of a small loop near the south end of Central Park, followed by four laps around the winding, hilly six-plus miles of the park's main drive picking up speed at the north end of the park to avoid muggers. It began and finished near the currebt finish line next to the Tavern on the Green.  The the present course, covering all five boroughs, was first run in 1976.

            1971 – Monday   Sonny: [to the other officers moving toward him] What's he doing? Go back there man! He wants to kill me so bad he can taste it! Huh? ATTICA! ATTICA! ATTICA! ATTICA ATTICA! ATTICA! ATTICA! ATTICA! ATTICA! ATTICA! [yells to cheering crowd]
The A four-day riot at Attica Prison came to a violent denouement as law enforcement officials open fire, killing 29 inmates and 10 hostages and injuring many more. Convicts complained about inhumane treatment by guards.  Of course if they had not committed crimes such as murder, robbery and rape, theywouldn’t have been in prison in the first place.  In the Bizarro World of the  NYS Courts and criminal justice system, the criminals sued the state for injuries suffered during their riot.  Even more bizarre, they were awarded 8 million dollars.  Families of the slain correction officers lost their right to sue by accepting the modest death-benefit checks sent to them by the state. The hostages who survived likewise lost their right to sue by cashing their paychecks. Both groups attest that no state officials apprised them of their legal rights, and they were denied compensation that New York should have paid to them.  Also, in the Bizarro World of popular culture, the bad guys have become the good guys and the good guys (the law) have become the bad guys. 

1977-Tuesday- - Carpe Ductum!... "Seize the tape!"General Motors introduced the first diesel powered auto. A salesman predicted "diesel sell like hotcakes". While they sold well, the engine was a disaster. The cars started breaking down almost immediately and the repair record over the next five years was dismal.  Lawsuits proliferated. Lawyers were orgasmic. There were individual lawsuits, group lawsuits, a New York Attorney General's lawsuit and several class actions, covering all consumers who have had problems with the V-8 diesel and type THM 200 transmissions, which were used in the diesels as well as many other G.M. cars. At one point, G.M.'s potential liability exceeded $1 billion. In a masterpiece of understatement as a reply, G.M. said the cases are ''wholly without merit.''

            1988 –Tuesday Do you know why hurricanes have names instead of numbers? To keep the killing personal. No one cares about a bunch of people killed by a number. '200 Dead as Number Three Slams Ashore' is not nearly as interesting a headline as 'Charlie kills 200.' Death is much more satisfying and entertaining if you personalize it. Me, I'm still waitin' for Hurricane Ed. Old Ed wouldn't hurt ya, would he? Sounds kinda friendly. 'Hell no, we ain't evacuatin'. Ed's comin' ….George Carlin……….. Based on barometric pressure readings, Hurricane Gilbert became  the strongest recorded hurricane in the Western Hemisphere. The minimum central pressure of the cyclone plummeted to 888 millibars, which represented a 70-millibar drop in only a 24-hour period.  A millibar is a unit of pressure which is most commonly seen in meteorology, where atmospheric pressure is sometimes given in millibars. As the name would suggest, a millibar is equal to one thousandth of a bar. The bar is a unit of measurement introduced in the early 1900s, based on a system of measurement which uses dynes. Dynes are part of the now-outdated centimeter-gram-second (CGS) system of measurements.  Why a child of five could understand this.  Someone fetch a child of five…….Groucho Marx……Gilbert crossed the northeast coast of Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula on September 13 th, becoming the first Category 5 hurricane in the Atlantic basin to strike land since Camille in 1969.

1991 – Friday  Oprah Noodlemantra (played by Johnny Depp: All right. Once again. This is your brain.
[Cracks egg]
Oprah Noodlemantra: This is your brain on drugs. Questions?
[Freddy hits him with the frying pan]
Freddy Krueger: Yeah! What are you on? Looks like a frying pan and some eggs to me.
 Freddy's Dead: The Final Nightmare  premiered. Well, he wasn’t but in movie number six of the Freddy Saga, the irrepressible Mr. Kruger once again takes advantage of teens in repose.  Robert Englund once again played Freddy and somehow, Yaphet Kotto, Tom Arnold and Roseanne Barr ended up in the cast.  In case you were wondering,  along came Wes Craven's New Nightmare (1994), Freddy vs. Jason (2003) and then we started all over again with a remake of the original 1984 film,  A Nightmare on Elm Street (2010)         

            1994 –Tuesday The  Ulysses probe passed the Sun's south pole.  They actually had to “fling” the probe out near Jupiter to get it near the Sun.  The Shuttle Discovery launched the Ulysses spacecraft on October 6, 1990. To reach high solar latitudes, the spacecraft was aimed close to Jupiter so that Jupiter's large gravitational field would accelerate Ulysses out of the ecliptic plane to those high latitudes.  The spacecraft, lasted more than 17 years or almost four times its expected mission lifetime before finally going kaput in 2008. Extra -terrestrial microbes from the voyage following Ulysses path back to Earth are believed to be the cause of the epidemic of  Womanosis Manlesia, the epidemic of effeminate men on television.

1999 – Monday  Ale tseyn zoln bay im aroysfaln, not eyner zol im blaybn oyf tsonveytung……All his teeth should fall out except one to make him suffer…..Yiddish saying…………..On the heels of the Sept. 9 terrorist boming A powerful early-morning blast leveled an apartment building on Kashirskoye Street, Moscow, killing 118 people. Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin and Moscow’s mayor Yuri M. Luzhkov blamed  Chechen terrorists.   The History Commons site notes that Later in the month, explosives would  be found in an apartment building in the nearby city of Ryazan. The Putinistas would initially declare it a foiled bombing until the suspects arrested turned out to be FSB (Federal Security Service) agents. The government would  then claim it was merely a training exercise. For some reason, this would lead some to suspect that all three apartment bomb incidents this month were false flag attacks by the FSB.  Former KGBster Putin wouldn’t do that. Would he?

2000-Wednesday I'm a bitch, I'm a bitch. - Elton John, The Bitch Is Back  Elton John had a hissy fit at the Estoril Casino in Portgual.  Stamping his high heels he flew back to England in a rage because of the supposedly sell-out crowd for his concert, only half had  arrived. Turns out  the legions of the self-entitled were they were merely lingering at a VIP dinner  looking at each other instead of going to the show.

2004- Monday   Everybody gets a car! Everybody gets a car!  .. The Opster surprised her fans by giving each of her 276 audience members a new car to celebrate the premiere of her show's 19th season. The talk show host told the audience that everybody will get a new Pontiac G-6 midsize 2005 sports sedan. She then led the audience into the parking lot to check out their new cars. Winfrey told the proto Pontiackers that  they would  get to choose their own color, and the car would include special features such as satellite radio, OnStar Safety heated leather seats, rubber dice to hand from  the rear view mirror and “foxy lady” decals for the rear window.  Winfrey said the audience members were specially chosen, because family and friends had told the show's producers they needed new wheels. The cars, priced at $28,400 fully loaded, were donated by Pontiac.  Pontiac officially went out of business on October 31, 2012.

    2012 – Thursday  Gravity is a contributing factor in nearly 73 percent of all accidents involving falling objects….Dave Barry…….19 people were killed after a freight elevator crashed from 100 meters – 30 floors-  in Wuhan, Chin, the capital of central China's Hubei Province. An eyewitness at the scene reported that  the elevator, which was full of plasterers for the construction site, was suddenly out of control during its way up. The steel rope of the elevator snapped, and the car fell directly to the ground.

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 81Sunday -The reason I talk to myself is because I’m the only one whose answers I accept…..George Carlin…….Domitian became Emperor of the Roman Empire following the death of his brother Titus.  Ever modest, Domitian  had a bit of an inferiority complex as he was overshadowed by the achievements of his father, Vespasian and his brother.  He insisted on being addressed as "master and god".  Historians have described Domitian as "crazy and unbalanced". In 93 he instituted a reign of terror. Seeing conspiracies everywhere, he cracked down on all perceived threats. Domitian executed senators and Imperial officials who opposed his policies and had their property confiscated. Suetonius estimated the casualties among former consuls alone at no less than twelve. Domitian erred when he replaced his Praetorian Prefects. Worried that their career would be brief, too, the new Prefects recruited a former slave to kill the Emperor. Domitian's wife Domitia Longina was also involved in the plot. The assassination turned into a Laurel and Hardy movie as the first blow was not fatal and a hand-to-hand struggle followed until the other conspirators had to burst into the room and everyone merrily hacked the Emperor to death. Domitian would be succeeded by Trajan, the first of the “four great emperors”…the others being Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurellius

            1180 – Sunday- Summer grasses,
All that remains
Of soldiers' dreams
…..Matsuo Bashō…….
During the Gempei War in the Battle of Ishibashiyama  - a “Spartanesque” – three hundred warriors vs. 300 warriors over the best shoyu  for dipping sushi, in Japan. Minamoto no Yoritomo ( aka 頼朝), was a warrior and clan leader who founded the bakufu, a system of feudal lords which governed Japan for seven centuries, and became the first shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate. Yoritomo was defeated in this,  his first major battle,  by the forces of Taira no Kiyomori but he continued to consolidate his power over the warrior aristocrats in the Kanto area, most of whom  eventually accepted his authority peaceably.

            1486 –Tuesday-   Do you believe in magic in a young girl's heart
How the music can free her, whenever it starts
And it's magic, if the music is groovy
It makes you feel happy like an old-time movie
I'll tell you about the magic, and it'll free your soul
……Lovin’ Spoonful … Alles Gute zum Geburtstag! Happy Birthday,Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa, German alchemist born in Cologne.  Agrippa was the author of the most comprehensive and most widely known book on magic and all occult arts, De occulta philosophia libri tres / Three Books of Occult Philosophy.  He also found the time to be court secretary to Charles V, physician to Louise of Savoy,  an irksome theologian within the Catholic Church, military entrepreneur in Spain and Italy, acknowledged expert on occultism, and philosopher. He also cooked a mean omlet.

            1607 –Friday-   I'm broken-hearted now
Since we have parted now
My mind wanders now and then
pyramid Remember then, then, then, then, then
…….After the success of their hit Remember Then, the Earls went on tour for the flight of the Earls….. and also ………The Flight of the Earls (Imeacht na nIarlaí / Teitheadh na nIarlaí )from Lough Swilly, Donegal, Ireland. After failing in a fight, with their Spanish allies against the forces of Queen Elizbeth I at Kinsdale,  Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, and Rory O'Donnell, Earl of Tyrconnell, together with more than ninety of their family and followers left on a ship bound for Spain.  Thereafter they made their way to Rome, where they remained in voluntary exile, and where O'Neill died in 1616. With O’Neill the “Great Earl”  gone, Ulster had lost its Gaelic aristocracy. In 1607, the English government took the opportunity to confiscate six of the nine Ulster counties. The subsequent plantation of Ulster, introducing Protestant settlers from England and Scotland, laid the foundation of today's divided island.

             1716 –Monday - Lighthouses are more helpful than churches …..Benjamin Franklin……The first lighthouse in America was built in Boston on Little Brewster Island. The first keeper was George Worthylake who, unfortunately,  was drowned, along with his wife and daughter, when returning to the island in 1718. The original tower was destroyed by the British and eventually reconstructed in 1784.  The first known lighthouse was the Pharos of Alexandria, Egypt. Ptolemy I and his son Ptolemy II constructed it between 300 and 280 B.C. It stood about 450 feet high. This lighthouse was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was destroyed in stages by invaders and earthquakes, being destroyed in the 1300s. The oldest existing lighthouse in the world is considered to be La Coruna in Spain that dates from ca. 20 B.C. A Roman lighthouse is located on the Cliffs of Dover in the UK that was constructed in 40 A.D.

             1741-Thursday-  Here is a different fellow ……Ludwig Beethoven……Composer Frederick Handel, having worked for 23 straight days, finished The Messiah. Or course some of the notes were "Handel Bars". A wealthy friend, Charles Jensen, gave Handel a libretto based on the life of Christ, taken entirely from the Bible. He also received a commission from a Dublin charity to compose a work for a benefit performance. Handel set to work composing on August 22 in his house on Brook Street in London. He grew so absorbed in the work that he rarely left his room, hardly stopping to eat. Within six days part one was complete. In nine days more he had finished part two, and in another six, part three. The orchestration was completed in another two days. In all 260 pages of manuscript were filled in the remarkably short time of 24 days.

           1769- Thursday I shall collect plants and fossils, and with the best of instruments make astronomic observations. Yet this is not the main purpose of my journey. I shall endeavor to find out how nature's forces act upon one another, and in what manner the geographic environment exerts its influence on animals and plants. In short, I must find out about the harmony in nature ….Alles Gute zum Geburtstag! Happy Birthday, Alexander Von Humboldt,  born in Berlin, one of the founders of modern geography. The Humboldt oceanic current off the Peruvian coast in the Pacific is named for him.  Charles Darwin described Humboldt as "the greatest scientific traveler who ever lived." From 1799, using redeemed frequent sailor miles for his expenses,  he explored Central and South America, traveling in the Amazon jungles and the Andean highlands. During these journeys he discovered the connection between the Amazon and Orinoco river systems as well as lots of insects, all of whom bite.  In 1829, obviously sick of the heat and humidity and the insects,  he traveled to Russia and Siberia where he could enjoy snow and cold, and made geographic, geologic, and meteorologic observations of Central Asia. During the 1830s he investigated magnetic storms. Amidst all this traveling, he and deduced that altitude sickness was caused by lack of oxygen. Humboldt’s principal regret in life was not being able to visit the World’s Largest Ball of Twine in Kansas. The Humboldt Current is a cold, low-salinity ocean current that flows north-westward along the west coast of South America from the southern tip of Chile to northern Peru. It is an eastern boundary current flowing in the direction of the equator, and can extend 1,000 kilometers offshore.

           1804 –Friday-  A-well-a everybody's heard about the bird
B-b-b-bird, bird, bird, b-bird's the word
A-well-a bird, bird, bird, the bird is the word
A-well-a bird, bird, bird, well the bird is the word
A-well-a bird, bird, bird, b-bird's the word
A-well-a bird, bird, bird, well the bird is the word
A-well-a bird, bird, b-bird's the word
A-well-a bird, bird, bird, b-bird's the word
A-well-a bird, bird, bird, well the bird is the word
A-well-a bird, bird, b-bird's the word
A-well-a don't you know about the bird?
Well, everybody knows that the bird is the word!
A-well-a bird, bird, b-bird's the word
.The Trashmen……Happy Birthday- John Gould, British ornithologist born at Lyme Regis, Dorset.  Called the Bird Man, Gould was the enterprising genius behind the creation of 2999 (couldn’t he have done just one more for a nice even number?) different hand­colored lithographic plates of birds and animals. He is most famous for his hummingbirds, but he did well with toucans and birds of paradise.  Like Humboldt (see above), Gould had lots of stamps in his passport (if they had passports in those days).  In his pursuit of new and different birds, he  traveled to Asia, Australia and the East Indies. His series of natural history plates is considered by many as the finest works of bird illustrations ever presented.

            1812 –Monday- Because you had a bad day
You're taking one down
You sing a sad song just to turn it around
You say you don't know
You tell me don't lie
You work at a smile and you go for a ride
You had a bad day
The camera don't lie
You're coming back down and you really don't mind
You had a bad day
You had a bad day
Daniel Powter……..One week after winning a great victory over the Russian army at the Battle of Borodino, Napoleon Bonaparte's Grande Armée entered the city of Moscow.  As they were entering, Moscow’s population was leaving. Poor Napoleon found  the population evacuated and  since the Russian had army retreated and there was no one to drive the “hop on, hop off” tour bus.  Moscow was the goal of the invasion, but there was no one left with which to negotiate a peace…not even Vladimir Putin… More alarmingly there were no great stores of food or supplies, refridgerator magnets, Moscow Shot glasses or t-shirts that said “Napoleon went Moscow and all I got was this lousy t-shirt”,  to reward the French soldiers for their long march and nourish them on the long march back to France. To make matters worse, just after midnight, fires broke out across the city, apparently set by Russian patriots, leaving Napoleon's massive army with no means to survive the coming Russian winter.

                 1849 – Friday Thus, the purposeful relationship of phenomena is based on the specificity of the stimuli, that correspond to similarly specific reactions. We’ve been drooling at the prospect of wishing a S dniom razhdjenia! Happy Birthday, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, born in Ryazan, Russia, who was a pioneer in psychology. Pavlov is most famous for his dogs. He performed a series of experiments on dogs to show how digestive secretions are regulated.  Pavlov saw that dogs began to salivate if they were able to see, smell, or taste food. Pavlov suspected that digestion must be partly controlled by sensory stimuli. In 1903 he published his results calling this a "conditioned reflex.” This is different from an “innate reflex”, such as yanking a hand back from a flame, in that it has to be learned. He received the 1904 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged".

       1879 –Sunday-  The most merciful thing that a large family does to one of its infant members is to kill it."…..Happy Birthday, Margaret Sanger (sister of Opera Sanger and Country Western Sanger)  American birth-control advocate who founded the first U.S. birth-control clinic in Brooklyn, New York in 1916.  In Brooklyn,  she had witnessed the interaction of poverty, uncontrolled fertility ( a result of  apparent rampant “boffing” between the sexes) , and deaths from botched abortions, together with high rates of infant and maternal mortality. Sanger became an international leader, and is credited with originating the term "birth control." In 1927 she helped organize the first World Population Conference in Geneva. In 1942, after several organizational mergers and name changes, Planned Parenthood Federation came into being.  Sanger was also a proponent of eugenics. Sanger espoused the thinking of eugenicists -- similar to Darwin's "survival of the fittest" -- but related the concept to human society, saying the genetic makeup of the poor, and minorities, for example, was inferior.

            1886- The pen is mightier than the sword, but a well-aimed typewriter packs good punch too….Unknown………..Once upon a time, before the computer there was a machine called a typewriter………The first U.S. patent for a typewriter ribbon was issued to George Kerr Anderson of Memphis, Tennessee.  This was not the first typewriter ribbon.  the Sholes and Glidden, which reached the market in  1874, used a ribbon. Christopher Latham Sholes had first used an inked ribbon on one of his earliest prototypes, in 1867, almost two decades before the Anderson patent was granted. Subsequent early typewriters, such as the Remington 2, Caligraph, Crandall and Hammond, all used ribbons, all in the years before Anderson’s patent. But the ribbons didn’t work very well. Anderson’s break through was to provide portions near the ends of a ribbon with a color contrasting from that of the body of the ribbon. This was intended to notify the operator of the machine to manually change the direction of the ribbon feed.  Cotton, silk, nylon, rayon, and others all have been used for typewriter ribbons. Naturally, some fabrics perform better than others. Velcro, not so good.  Before the  1930s, cotton was generally the only fabric available for typewriter ribbons.

            1901 Saturday- Bang bang you shot me down
Bang bang I hit the ground
Bang bang that awful sound
Bang bang my baby shot me...down…
..Cher………. President McKinley kaput.  William McKinley had been shot by lunatic anarchist, Leon Czolgosz on September 6, while standing in a receiving line at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo.  A local gynecologist, Doctor Matthew Mann, had to perform the quick surgery in a vain attempt to save the President's life which also resulted in some relief of the President’s PMS.  The bullet had entered the stomach and exited out the back wall of the stomach. Mann sewed both holes but was unable to retrieve the bullet. The operation seemed to be a success. McKinley looked like he was going to recover, but, whoops, gangrene set in his intestines and his health declined. There was intense controversy about McKinley's medical care Some thought that McKinley could have been saved had renowned surgeon Roswell Park performed the operation. More recent commentators believe, however, that McKinley died from pancreatic necrosis, a condition which is still difficult to treat today, and which the surgeons of McKinley's time could not have treated or prevented. Czolgosz, proud of his deed, went to trial only nine days after McKinley's death.  When asked his motive, he replied, "I am an Anarchist-a disciple of Emma Goldman. Her words set me on fire." Czolgosz was pronounced guilty and sentenced to death by the new form of execution; electrocution. On  October 29, 1901 he was kaput.

            1909 - Tuesday – The conservationist's most important task, if we are to save the earth, is to educate …….Happy Birthday -Peter Scott, British naturalist and explorer born in London.  He was the only child of Antarctic explorer Robert Falcon Scott and sculptor Kathleen Bruce.  Peter Scott founded the World Wildlife Fund and designed its panda logo.  He is also remembered for giving the scientific name of Nessiteras rhombopteryx to the Loch Ness Monster so that it could be registered as an endangered species. The name, based on Greek, means "the wonder of Ness with the diamond shaped fin" but is also an anagram of "Monster hoax by Sir Peter S".

            1914 – Monday – Who was that masked man?  Happy Birthday, Jack Carlton Moore better known as Clayton Moore, in Chicago, Illinois. Moore was television’s Lone Ranger. A fiery horse with the speed of light, a cloud of dust and a hearty "Hi Yo Silver!, the Lone Ranger  (and Tonto – Jay Silverheels) was a Thursday night  must see TV from 1949-1957. Moore starred in 169 Lone Ranger episodes (frequently fighting that nasty old Butch Cavendish Gang) and two Lone Ranger movies – The Lone Ranger and The Lone Ranger and the Lost City of Gold. He loved the character so much that he continued presenting himself as the Lone Ranger. In 1979 the producers got a court order against Moore's use of the character. They were planning a new Lone Ranger movie and he didn't want Moore representing the role. In 1980 Moore filed a suit against the producers to retain the mask. The battle went on until 1984 when they gave up the fight and allowed Moore to wear the mask which Moore did until his death in 1999. And, according to Christmas Story, the name of the Lone Ranger’s nephew’s horse was Victor.    Mr. Parker: What is the name of the Lone Ranger's nephew's horse?Mother: Ah... Victor! His name is Victor.Mr. Parker: How the hell did you know that? Mother: Everybody knows that!

            1915 – Tuesday- My skull is soundproof. And thank God too, or else you’d be able to hear all the horrible things I’m thinking about you ….Jarod Kintz…..Carl G. Muench received a patent for Insulit, a rigid insulating board and  the first sound-absorbing material to be used in buildings. So, in the Xeroxian world of the internet, that’s the sole description of insulit.  The Editorial Board of the Gnus, in its quest for more than just Xeroxian cut and pastes found a French site with the following: La gamme Insulit pour l'isolation acoustique des bruits entre plancher béton comporte 3 produits pour 3 niveaux d'isolation. L'Insulit 3+ est la solution standard, l'Insulit 5+ la solution pour le moyen gamme et l'Insulit 7+ pour le haut de gamme. Or…..The range Insulit for soundproofing noise between concrete floor has 3 products for 3 levels of insulation. The Insulit 3 + is the standard solution, the solution Insulit 5 + in the medium range and Insulit 7 + for premium That should clear it up very nicely for you.

            1927 – Wednesday  I have the right to choose the father of my own children, she declared, and then wrote to George Bernard Shaw: Will you be the father of my next child? A combination of my beauty and your brains would startle the world,  but he replied: I must decline your offer with thanks, for the child might have my beauty and your brains….Nadine Dreyer…..This is alsofamous people kaputing in car accidents in France Day” .  The first was eccentric dancer Isadora Duncan, who self- strangled in Nice, France, when the one of her trade mark enormous silk scarves that she was wearing got  tangled in the rear wheels of her open car. She had taken her seat in the car and neither she nor the driver noticed that one of the loose ends fell  of the gigantic diaphanous scarf was outside over the side of the car and was caught in the rear wheel of the machine. The automobile was going at full speed when the scarf of strong silk suddenly began winding around the wheel and with terrific force dragged Duncan, around whom it was securely wrapped, bodily over the side of the car, tossing her onto a  cobblestone street. She was dragged for several yards before the chauffeur halted. The second French site death was Grace Kelly.  See 1982.

                 1936 –Monday -  I thought of that old joke: This guy goes to a psychiatrist and says, 'Doc, my brother's crazy, he thinks he's a chicken.' And the doctor says, 'Well why don't you turn him in?' and the guy says, 'I would, but I need the eggs……Woody Allen……..Happy Birthday, Ferid Murat, born in Whiting, Indiana , American co-winner of the 1998 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discovering that a gas, nitric oxide (not to be confused with nitrous oxide that old favorite commonly known as "laughing gas,") acts as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system. Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by many cells in the body; however, its production by vascular endothelium is particularly important in the regulation of  blood flow.  Nitric oxide is a gas naturally found in the body; its function is conveying information between cells Because of its importance in vascular function, abnormal production of NO, as occurs in different disease states, can adversely affect blood flow and other vascular functions. Murat’s work, performed in the 1980's, uncovered an entirely new mechanism for how blood vessels in the body relax and widen. It led to the development of the anti-impotence drug Viagra and had the potential to unlock new approaches for understanding and treating other diseases.

            1957 –Saturday- Have Gun Will Travel reads the card of a man.
A knight without armor in a savage land.
His fast gun for hire head's the calling wind.
A soldier of fotune is the man called Paladin.
Paladin, Paladin
Where do you roam?
Paladin, Paladin,
Far, far from home
. The premier of TV western Have Gun Will Travel starring Richard Boone as Paladin. It would run until April 1963. Boone was, yes, a seventh generation nephew of Daniel Boone. Paladin dressed all in black and lived in San Francisco.  His business card, featuring a chessman (knight) read “Have Gun Will Travel”, “Wire Paladin”. Since Paladin had no first name, the cognoscenti among the Professor Sy Yentz youth crowd “knew” his first name was ….Wire. The show also starred……well, actually, there was no one else, just Richard Boone although Lisa Lu and Kam Tong had recurring roles as Hey Girl and Hey Boy.

1963-Saturday  I’m just a poor left-winger
Befuddled, bewildered, forlorn
Duped by a bearded singer
Peddling his Communist corn
….Janet Greene……
Pete Seeger finally agreed to break a general folk music boycott  (they had blacklisted Pete Seeger so Bob Dylan; Joan Baez; Peter, Paul & Mary; The Kingston Trio refused to appear) of the ABC-TV variety show Hootenanny and perform, only to change his mind when the network asked  him to sign a loyalty oath.  The news caused even more artists to join the boycott and that, unfortunately, killed the show.

1964 -Monday  A Bing Crosby sit com?  Yup.  The ill-fated sitcom The Bing Crosby Show , a domestic comedy about a middle-aged couple with two teenage daughters and a long staying friend debuted  on ABC-TV.  Co-starring  Gonzaga graduate, “der Bingle”, Beverly Garland (Police Woman, Decoy), Diane Sherry, Carol Faylen and Frank McHugh, they show, which featured at least one song from Crosby per episode, limped along for two seasons before being put out of its misery.

            1965 – Imagination
Matt Stone & Trey Parker……One of the best known, tragically short lived, original, imaginative, inspired, artistic, inventive, resourceful, ingenious, innovative, productive TV comedies premiered, My Mother, the Car. Considered by many to be one of the worst shows of all time My Mother the Car lasted one painful season. The premise? Jerry Van Dyke’s (trying to take advantage of the fame of his brother, and a repetitive banjo playing role on the  Dick Van Dyke Show) mother is reincarnated as a classic 1928 Porter automobile. She spoke through the radio.  Famed comic actress Ann Southern tarnished her reputation by supplying the voice of the car.

            1968- Saturday  Denny reportedly called the Tigers a "country-club team where everybody does what they want." This remark was printed the next day in the ‘Detroit News’. When Jim Campbell, the Tigers' general manager, read the quote attributed to McLain he immediately fined Denny and ordered him to say he was misquoted.’May God strike me dead if I said those things,’ said Denny. At which point Joe Sparma, who was McLain's roommate at the time, asked Charlie Creedon, the Tigers' traveling secretary, to change his room assignment. ‘God might make a mistake and get the wrong guy,’ Sparma said. Another Tiger said, ‘I can see it now. Denny's on the mound, taking his windup, and all of a sudden the skies turn dark and there's this huge bolt of thunder and....’  Detroit Tigers pitcher Denny McLain won his 30th game of the season, becoming the first 30-game winner in the major leagues since 1934 when Dizzy Dean won 30 for the St. Louis Cardinals. The Tigers scored two runs in the bottom of the ninth to come from behind in a 5-4 decision over the Oakland A’s. Drugs and gambling would cause a rapid decline in McClain’s career and he would end up in prison.

            1974 –Saturday- I shot the sheriff, but I did not shoot the deputy.
I shot the sheriff, but I did not shoot the deputy.
All around in my home town
They're trying to track me down.
They say they want to bring me in guilty
For the killing of a deputy,
For the life of a deputy.
But I say:
I shot the sheriff, but I swear it was in self-defense.
I shot the sheriff, and they say it is a capital offense
. Eric Clapton’s first number one single was a cover of Bob Marley's reggae song I Shot the Sheriff. It’s time at the top was short lived as the following week Barry White’s majestic Can’t Get Enough of You Babe replaced it as number 1.

            1978 – Thursday  [alarm for Mork's wristwatch which he wears round his ankle goes off]
Mindy McConnell: Ah, your foot's ringing. I'll get it.
[bends down and pushes button on watch, pulls out small piece of paper under watch strap]
Mindy McConnell: What's this piece of paper?
Mork: Must be a footnote
Lots of TV premieres?  September is when most of the new shows used to appear.  Today it was Mork and Mindy which launched Robin Williams to stardom. The show ran from Sept. 14, 1978 until May 27, 1982.  It “jumped the shark” when Mork and Mindy (Pam Dawber) got married and their baby was Jonathan Winters. Mork had appeared as a character on  Happy Days (the original “jump the shark” show) when Fonzie fixed him up on a date with Laverne ( Penny Marshall). Mork and Mindy would also co-star Shelley Faberes of The Donna Reed Show and Johnny Angel ( a record always played by Professor Sy Yentz at parties to let the girls know he was there).

            1982- Tuesday  Blinded by a bright beam
Shattered by the windscreen
Stunned by the whiplash
I'm a victim of a bad crash
….AC DC….Spellbound……Death by car accident in France Day (see Isadora Duncan, 1927 above) continues with the kapution of Princess Grace of Monaco--the American-born former film star Grace Kelly, whose movie credits included High Noon, The Country Girl and  Rear Window-from injuries suffered after her car plunged off a mountain road near Monte Carlo (which is really France but they pretend it’s an  independent principality).  The car landed in the garden of a 64 year old flower grower named Sesto Lequio who heard the accident and ran to the wreckage and pulled out Stephanie.  He  noticed the older woman open her eyes, say a few words, then close them.  He  claimed he had no idea who they were. Lequio  was also able to eventually confirm that it was Kelly behind the wheel, not as rumored, wild child Stephanie.  Kelly was taken to a local hospital in Monaco for treatment although, had she been taken to an almost as close medical center in Nice, they had better equipment, and she may have had a better chance.  A leading neurosurgeon descsribed her treatment was "appalling".  By the time doctors realized the extent of the brain damage, she was in an irreversible coma.


                1984 –Friday-  There's something in a flying horse,
There's something in a huge balloon
…….William Wordsworth, Peter Bell, Prologue. Stanza 1………
Attempting to escape escalating air fares, excess baggage fares, fights for overhead bin space and fat, odiferous seatmates, Joe Kittinger became the first person to fly a hot air balloon alone across the Atlantic Ocean. Kittinger left from from Caribou, Maine, in the 3,000-cubic-meter-Rosie O'Grady, he floated 3,543 miles (5,702 kilometers), touching down in Cairo Montenotte, Italy, on September 18, by Kittinger's account, 83 hours and 40 minutes after launch. His flight set a record for both the longest solo balloon flight and a distance record for this class of balloon.  Twenty four years earlier, On August 16, 1960, Kittinger made his most famous free-fall….from  an altitude of 102,800 feet, fell for almost five minutes before reaching a safe altitude to open his main parachutes and float down to the ground. In this time, he went as fast as 614 MPH - achieving the fastest speed by man through the atmosphere.

            1985 - Saturday  When you get something like MTV, it`s like regular television. You get it, and at first it`s novel and brand new and then you watch every channel, every show. And then you become a little more selective and more selective, until ultimately... you wind up with a radio……..David Lee Roth……The MTV Awards (back when the M stood for music) were  held for the first time. Eddie Murphy hosted the show. The actual awards, “Moonmen” were won by  Don Henley - Video of the Year, for his hit The Boys of Summer. Tina Turner Best Female Video award for What’s Love Got to Do With It,  the Bob Geldof-organized famine relief concert Live Aid, held just a few months prior, won Special Recognition Award , and….this was the hey day of “let’s have a charity concert sothat self centered, drug addled rock stars can get good publicity”, USA for Africa's instant-treaclely  classic We Are the World  won Best Group Video.

            1994 – Wednesday Oh, somewhere in this favored land the sun is shining bright;
The band is playing somewhere, and somewhere hearts are light,
And somewhere men are laughing, and somewhere children shout;
But there is no joy in Mudville - mighty Casey has struck out…..Ernest Thayer….
The Major League Baseball season was canceled because of a strike.  The players walked out Aug. 12, 1994. The rest of the season, including the World Series, was called off Sept 14. It was the eighth work stoppage in baseball history. The strike lasted 234 days, dragging into the next spring. Baseball became the first sport in history to lose its postseason to a labor dispute.  The players would return in 1995 and celebrate by launching the Age of Steroids.

1999 – Tuesday  'E 'Otua Mafimafi,
Ko ho mau 'Eiki Koe,
Ko Koe Koe fa la la 'anga,
Mo ia 'ofa ki Tonga;
Nauru bwiema, ngabena ma auwe.
Ma dedaro bwe dogum, mo otata bet egom.
Atsin ngago bwien okor, ama bagadugu
Teirake kaini Kiribati, Anene ma te kakatonga,
Tauraoi nakon te mwioko, Ma ni buokia aomata.
Tauaninne n te raoiroi, Tangiria aomata nako.
Tauaninne n te raoiroi, Tangiria aomata
Since there were three countries, the Editorial Board of the Gnus combined the National Anthems but if you look closely, you’ll figure it out………….Kiribati, Nauru and Tonga joined  the United Nations. Okay okay okay, we know that Tonga is an island in the south Pacific by Nauru?  Kiribati?  So the Editorial Board of the Gnus went into research mode. Nauru – population  9,434(there are more people at a New Jersey Devils game in Newark in February)  Here is the Nauru website - Unique Nauru Extraordinary Nauru is a tiny island with a big history and even bigger hospitality. home2Nauru is located in the deep, blue Pacific Ocean waters north of the Solomon Islands. An uplifted coral formation, Nauru is just 21 kilometres square and lies some 40 kilometres south of the Equator.One of the smallest nations on earth, with a mostly Micronesian population of around 10,000 people, Nauru offers travellers a truly unique Pacific Island visit. Discover excellent deep sea fishing, scuba dive amazing ocean depths, take a tour of the island’s past economic mainstay the phosphate mines or simply experience a holiday in a world far from your own.  And let’s not forget Kiribati, population 103,248,  direct from their website - Mauri ....this is Hello and Welcome in Kiribati Kiribati is for travellers - those who have a passion for exploring and discovering, people who like an adventure off the tourist trail to places where few have been before, and people who want to understand a country - not just see it. Kiribati will challenge your view of how life should be and show you a less complicated way of living where family and community come first.Click here for maps of Kiribati! Situated in the equatorial pacific, in the east Kiribati offers world class fishing (both game and bone fishing) from Kiritimati Island. In the west is the Gilbert Group of islands, which offer amazing and unique cultural experiences. The country's capital of Tarawa has historic sites and artefacts where one of the bloodiest battles of World War II , the Battle of Tarawa. If you are visiting as part of your work, we would encourage you to explore Kiribati to experience these delights - South Tarawa should not be the only Atoll you visit when you have 33 to choose from, even the nearby North Tarawa offers a very different perspective!

2001 -  Friday Two days after  the horrific September 11th  Muslim terrorist attacks on America, Clear Channel Communications  decided that certain songs were not for sensitive ears and so it released  what became an infamous list of songs banned from radio stations until further notice for possibly being upsetting to American listeners. Included are evil, offensive, traumatizing oldies such as Louis Armstrong's  What A Wonderful World,  The Beatles'  Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds, Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da, and Ticket To Ride, Petula Clark's Sign Of The Times Sam Cooke's Wonderful World, Creedence Clearwater Revival's Travelin' Band, Bobby Darin's Mack The Knife, The Drifters' On Broadway,"The Jimi Hendrix Experience's Hey Joe," The Hollies' He Ain't Heavy, He's My Brother,"Elton John's Bennie And The Jets, Daniel,"and Rocket Man, John Lennon's Imagine,"Martha and the Vandellas'’ Nowhere To Run and Dancing In The Street,….although we saw video of Muslims dancing in the streets…..Mitch Ryder and the Detroit Wheels'Devil With A Blue Dress On, Ricky Nelson's Travelin' Man,Elvis Presley's (You're The) Devil In Disguise, The Rolling Stones' Ruby Tuesday, Simon and Garfunkel's Bridge Over Troubled Water, Cat Stevens' Morning Has Broken and  Peace Train, The Surfaris' Wipeout, The Youngbloods' Get Together, Zager and Evans' In The Year 2525, and the Zombies' She's Not There.  The only one we would go along with is Muslim convert Stevens; songs.

2003 – Sunday After winning the Euromillions, my wife got so excited that she knocked over and smashed the TV.At first I was a bit pissed off but then I thought, ‘Don’t be ridiculous. I can just buy a new one’.In the end I settled on a six-foot, busty Russian teen…….In a referendum Sweden rejected  adopting the euro. List others who rejected Euro.   We wish Italy had done so as we miss paying 1,500,000 lira for a cup of coffee in Florence.  Denmark and the UK also rejected the Euro and eceived opt-outs from the Maastricht Treaty and do not have to join the euro until they choose to do so.  Sweden did not receive an opt out but vetoed the Euro in two referendums.

 2006 -  Thursday Did you hear about the dyslexic Rabbi? He walks around saying, "Yo." ………..Three Jewish students from Abraham Geiger College were ordained in Germany and become the first rabbis ordained in Germany since World War II.  The Abraham Geiger College at Potsdam University is the first rabbinic seminary founded in Central Europe after the  Holocaust.

2007  Friday  Japan launched its first lunar probe successfully. The probe, called  Kaguya (Selene) , was set to first orbit the Earth and then travel to the moon and gather information with two smaller satellites.  Kaguya consisted  of a main orbiting satellite at about 100km altitude and , small satellites (Relay Satellite and VRAD Satellite) and Zatoichi, the Blind Samurai,  in polar orbit. Kaguya was descended to the 50km altitude from February 1, 2009 and then was descended again to 10-30km in Lower altitude (Perilune) from April 16, 2009. Finally, kaguya was impacted to the south-east of near side of the Moon on June 10, 2009 where it was eaten by a giant lizard that had previously attacked Toyko. Unfortunately, a Higgs Boson was also impacted and rebounded to Earth where in it’s role of adhesive for atoms, it evolved into a microbe that caused the dread disease, Onagain Offagain Pushlesia who’s victims push their way onto commuter trains before exiting passengers can exit.

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668 – Tuesday Splish Splash, I was takin' a bath
Long about a saturday night, yeah
Rub-a-dub, just relaxin' in the tub
Thinkin' everything was alright
….Bobby Darin…….Eastern Roman Emperor Constans II was rendered kaput  in his bath at Syracuse, Italy.  The rather eccentric Constans had  made his son Constantine IV co-emperor in  654  and in  then in 659 he did the same for his other two sons, Heraclius and Tiberius. To ensure that there would not be a problem with the dynastic succession, he had his younger brother Theodosius murdered. When he announced his plans to make Sicily his permanent headquarters it was quite unpopular with both the local inhabitants and the populace of Constantinople. On September 15, 668, he was murdered by a cubicularius  (eunuch chamberlain) while bathing. The count of the Opsikion, the Armenian general Mezizios, was acclaimed emperor. In July 1793, French Revolutionary leader Jean Paul Marat was also rendered kaput  by Charlotte Corday.

1254 –Tuesday- I have not told half of what I saw. Buon Compleanno!Happy Birthday, Marco Polo, Italian explorer and famous for the swimming pool game played by children.. Marco Polo was also celebrated for his travels through Asia. He was one of the first Europeans to travel into Mongolia and China and renowned for his book that told the story of his travels along the Silk Road to China.  In 1271, when he was 17 years old, Polo, together with his father Niccolò and his uncle Maffeo, traveled the Silk Road to China (which he called Cathay, after the Khitan) and visited the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, Kublai Khan (grandson of Genghis Khan) where they dropped in for tea and scones.  When he returned to Europe in 1295,  Polo was captured in a minor clash of the war between Venice and Genoa, or in the naval battle of Curzola, according to a dubious tradition. He spent the few months of his imprisonment, in 1298, dictating to a fellow prisoner, Rustichello da Pisa, a detailed account of his travels in the then-unknown parts of China. It would be made into a book known in English as The Travels of Marco Polo

1440 Tuesday  Zol er aropshlingen a shirem un s'zol zikh im efenen in boykh!  (May he swallow an umbrella and may it open in his belly!) …Yiddish saying……Gilles de Rais, one of the earliest known serial killers, was arrested  after an accusation brought against him by the Bishop of Nantes for trial in an Ecclesiastical Court.  Talk about a fall from grace, Gilles de Rais was the companion of Joan of Arc, Marshal of France and a national hero before he turned 26. In his later years he was accused of torturing, sodomizing, and disemboweling as many as 800 children at his country estate. At first he refused to plead to the charges, but, declared himself not guilty. He was condemned for heresy and sentenced to death for murder by a civil court. His confession and his repentance may have come under threat of torture. He was was hanged on a gibbet above a roaring fire in the meadow of Biesse outside Nantes a month later.


             1616 -Thursday Up in the morning and off to school
the teacher is teaching the golden role.
American history and pracitcal math
you study them hard, hoping to pass
working your fingers right down to the bone
the guy behind you won´t leave you alone
……..Chuck Berry…..