June Gnus
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The Dangers of Chewing bubble Gum in Class

June is American Rivers Month, National Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Month, National Dairy Month,  National No Dairy Month (different sponsors), National Rose Month, National Soul Food Month,National Accordion Awareness Month, International Men's Month, National Celibacy Awareness Month,  and Zoo and Aquarium Month.  We'll celebrate Flag Day and remember D-Day. No presidents were born this month so put away the candles.  The full moon is the Strawberry Moon.
The first day of summer, the Summer Solstice will occur on June 21.  It's the longest day of the year

The flower of the month  is the Rose  and the Rock of the Month is the Pearl

June may have been named for the goddess Juno, protectress of women, although some Romans felt that its name came from the Latin juniores, in which case June would be a month dedicated to the young. Or it could also be dedicated to Beaver Cleaver’s mother, June Cleaver

No price is set on the lavish summer; June may be had by the poorest comer.
James Russell Lowell, The Vision of Sir Launfal (pt. I, prelude)

Science Gnus is a almanac of News of Science, History, Mathematics and Items of Interest with comment and elucidation for each day of the year.   The items are factual.  The elucidation is both factual and factual. It also contains Professor Sy Yentz, answering someone’s questions, Dr. Matt Matician connecting science and mathematics, the Activity of the Month, Factorinos, Trivia Questions, Bonus Trivia Questions, Extinct Kaput animals and plants, Jokes, Obscure Questions, “Fathers Of……”, and  Scientists of the Month.

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 193 –Saturday-  Alas poor Marcus Didius Julianus we hardly knew ye. Roman Emperor Didius Julianus was diddled. The Didster (called M Diddy by his fans) became emperor during an epidemic of assassinations.  Commodus had been kaputed in late 192.  Successor Pertinax  followed to that big rostra in the sky in early 193 bringing us to Didius Julianus who basically bought the emperorship……sort of like Michael Bloomberg’s purchase of multiple terms as Mayor of New York City……Anyway, Dio Cassius’ account describes the populace as openly hostile. Whether the Senate and the citizens were angry over the murder of Pertinax, the preceding assassination of Commodus or the unseemly sale of the empire to Julianus – probably a combination of the three, the praetorian guard effectively switched sides. Dio Cassius describes the end of Julianus’ reign thusly: “We (the Senate) thereupon sentenced Julianus to death, named Severus emperor, and bestowed divine honors on Pertinax. And so it came about that Julianus was slain as he was reclining in the palace itself; his only words were, "But what evil have I done? Whom have I killed?" He had lived sixty years, four months, and the same number of days, out of which he had reigned sixty-six days.” http://www.unrv.com/decline-of-empire/didius-julianus.php


            987 –Friday- Hugh Capet was elected King of France. Capet was the son of a Frankish duke, he inherited vast estates in the regions of Paris and Orléans, which made him one of the most powerful vassals in France and a serious threat to the Carolingian king, Lothar. By 985 Hugh was the ruler of France in all but name. After Lothar and his son conveniently went kaput, the archbishop of Reims convinced an assembly of nobles to elect Hugh Capet king. He immediately crowned his own son to ensure the line of succession, - the Capetian Dynasty- a practice continued until the time of Louis VII.

            1215 –Monday-  Xuanzong, Xuanzong, he’s our mon. If he can’t do it, Genghis Khan. …..Beijing, then under the control of the Jurchen ruler Emperor Xuanzong of Jin, was captured by the Mongols led by  Genghis Khan, ending the Battle of Beijing. Yes, it was Xuanzong’s swan song. In 1211 the Mongols had began a full assault on China by invading the entire region north of the Great Wall…..which, of course, had been built to keep out invaders…. In the summer of 1215 Peking, China, was captured. Leaving one of his generals in charge of further operations in North China, Genghis Khan returned to Mongolia to devote his attention to events in central Asia.

            1495 –Saturday  To Friar John Cor, by order of the King, to make aqua vitae VIII bolls of malt. — Exchequer Rolls 1494–95, vol x, p. In Fife, Scotland 1494, on the banks of the Tay, a Tironension monk, Friar John Cor, paid duty on "eight Bols of malt wherewith to make Aqua Vitae for King James IV"; enough to make him about 1,500 bottles of whisky.  Scotland's great Renaissance king, James IV (1488-1513) was fond of 'ardent spirits' as is the editorial staff of the Gnus. When the king visited Dundee in 1506, the treasury accounts recorded a payment to the local barber for a supply of aqua vitae for the king's pleasure. In 1505, the Guild of Surgeon Barbers in Edinburgh was granted a monopoly over the manufacture of aqua vitae - a fact that reflects the spirits perceived medicinal properties as well as the medicinal talents of the barbers. The primitive equipment used at the time and the lack of scientific expertise meant that the spirit produced in those days was probably potent, and occasionally even harmful. The Gaelic "usquebaugh", meaning "Water of Life", phonetically became "usky" and then "whisky" in English. However it is known, Scotch Whisky, Scotch or Whisky (as opposed to whiskey), we love it. Scotland has internationally protected the term "Scotch". For a whisky to be labeled Scotch it has to be produced in Scotland. http://whiskyman.com/history.html  For single malts, the Gnus prefers Glen Morangie or Balvenie,  although there is a certain sympathy for Bladnoch because it is distilled in Wigtown, near the ancestral home of Castle Douglas.

            1533 –Thursday-   Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown. …..Henry IV. Part II……. '[A] woman who is the scandal of Christendom.'…..Katharine of Aragon describing  her rival, 1531…….. Anne Boleyn was crowned Queen of England.  Anne and Henry were secretly married in January 1533 before he got his divorce from Catherine of Aragon.  They were a 21st Century kind of couple as Anne was “prenatal loaded” at the time.  On  May 2 1536, Anne was arrested. She was accused of adultery with her own brother and four commoners - they were all tried and convicted of treason by Anne's uncle, the duke of Norfolk. On  May 19 , Anne was beheaded at the Tower of London

            1633 –Wednesday – Happy Birthday, Geminiano Montanari, Italian astronomer.  He improved the telescope by adding a devise that enabled the user to measure distances with better precision. Montanari is credited with discovering the variable star, Algol in the constellation of Perseus. Variable stars are stars that change in brightness, sometimes seeming to disappear completely and then getting brighter until they reach a maximum brightness before dimming again.

            1637 Monday- Happy Birthday- Jacques-Marquette, French Jesuit missionary and explorer. We grew up thinking Marquette was his first name since we always heard it in school as Marquette Andjoliet.  Marquette got a university named after him and Joliet got at prison named after him.  In 1673 Marquette, Louis Joliet and five other men began their expedition by following Lake Michigan to Green Bay, where they visited Lambeau Field and took in a Packers game. Then they canoed up the Fox River, crossed over to the Wisconsin and followed that river downstream to the Mississippi. The first Native Americans they encountered were the Illini, (they had not yet joined the Big Ten)  who were  friendly to the expedition and presented them with a peace pipe to use for the remainder of the journey. The further the expedition went, the more convinced Marquette and Joliet became that the Mississippi flowed into the Gulf of Mexico and not the Pacific as they had hoped. By the time they got to the Arkansas River they were told by friendly local tribes that the sea was only ten days away but they would encounter hostile tribes. They also noticed the presence of Spanish trade goods among the friendly Native Americans and discretion being the better part of valor, the expedition decided to return north. The Illini tribe showed them an easier route to Lake Michigan which was to travel up the Illinois River and cross over to the Chicago River where they enjoyed the Architecture Tour .

             1796 –Wednesday- Rocky Top you'll always be
Home sweet home to me
Good ole Rocky Top, Rocky Top, Tennessee
Rocky Top, Tennessee…
….Tennessee was admitted as the 16th state of the United States.  Ever the fickle state, they seceded from the Union on June 8, 1861, became the scene of several Confederate defeats under the hopeless Braxton Bragg, and were re-admitted to the Union on July 24, 1866. Agricultural Insect (yes they have an Architectural Insect!)             Honeybee, Amphibian: Tennessee Cave Salamander, Beverage: Milk ,  Bird: Mockingbird, Butterfly: Zebra Swallowtail; Commercial Fish (yes, a commercial fish….we believe it sells used cars…): Channel Catfsh, Folk Dance: Square Dance, Fruit: Tomato, Game Bird: Bobwhite Quail,  Gem: Tennessee Pearl, Horse: Tennessee Walking Horse, Insects (regular insects as opposed to Architectural insects): Firefly, Mineral: Agate, Poem Oh Tennesssee, My Tennessee by Vice-Admiral William Porter Lawrence, Reptile: Eastern Box Turtle, Rock: Limestone , Slogan : "Tennessee - America at its Best"            Song (there are quite a few but we selected the two we like, Tennessee Waltz  by Redd Stewart and Pee Wee King  and  Song  Rocky Top by Boudleaux and Felice Bryant , Affirmative Action for Bass with, Sport Fish: Large-mouth Bass and Small-mouth Bass, Tree: Tulip Poplar, Wild Animal: Raccoon, and Wildflower: Passion Flower  

            1801 –Monday- I come to wive it wealthily in Padua;
If wealthily, then happily in Padua….. Petruchio….. The Taming of the Shrew (I, ii, 75-76)
Happy Birthday - Brigham Young, American colonizer, religious leader and serial groom.  Young was was the second prophet and president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Mormons. After the assassination of founder, Joseph Smith, Young played a crucial role in keeping the church together by organizing the journey that would take the faithful to Winter Quarters, Nebraska, in 1846, then to Utah's Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847, a date now recognized as a holiday in Utah known as Pioneer Day.  Young married approximately 27 women and had 56 known children.

            1812 –Monday-  James Madison sent a declaration of war message to congress, This document cited numerous American grievances against Great Britain including; impressment, the practice of searching American vessels in American waters, trade embargoes detrimental to the American economy, making people watch British sitcoms, Simon Cowell, Freddy and the Dreamers, Joan Collins, silly wigs in court, and finally, the alleged incitement to violence of the First Nations by the British Army.  He also cited the adding of the letter u to many words words such as armor, color, and favorite making them armour, colour, and favourite, the German English horse faced monarchs,  Elton John,  Victoria Beckham,  Jude Law, Masterpiece Theater shows about butlers, sticking out their pinkies when drinking tea, wrapping French fries in newspaper and calling them chips,  and the television show Love Thy Neighbour (which also added the extra “U”).

            1813 –Tuesday-  James Lawrence, the mortally-wounded commander of the frigate  USS Chesapeake, gave his final order: Don't give up the ship! during a sea battle outside Boston with H.M.S Shannon. Captain Lawrence was mortally wounded by small arms fire.  While they didn’t give up the ship, they lost it anyway as Chesapeake was boarded by the crew of the Shannon and the battle was over within fifteen minutes.

            1825 –Wednesday-  Happy Birthday, John Hunt Morgan, American Confederate cavalry general. Although he was from Kentucky.  Kentucky did not secede so Morgan soon formed the 2nd Kentucky Cavalry with himself as colonel. Serving in the Army of Tennessee. He developed a reputation as an aggressive commander and Morgan led several successful raids against Union forces. Morgan’s aggressive tactics constantly clashed with the muddled (alienate your subordinates) tactics of Braxton Bragg.  Morgan was defeated and captured on July 26 after the Battle of Salinesville. After several weeks of imprisonment, Morgan, along with six of his officers managed to tunnel out of the prison and escaped.  Later accused of bank robbery (it may have been some of his men, while working to clear his name, Morgan and his men were camped Greeneville, TN. When Union troops attacked the town. Morgan was shot and killed while attempting to escape from the attackers.

             1849 –Friday- Happy Birthday, Edgar F. and Freelan O. Stanley, American inventors, twin brothers, the most famous manufacturers of steam-driven automobiles. They had invented the “Stanley Steamer” in 1896, the first steam motorcar – named the Flying Teapot-  in New England, and formed the Stanley Motor Company to manufacture them. Francis served as president of the firm. They actively competed in auto races, pitting their steam power against gasoline-fueled engines and often winning. One of their “steamers” no, this wasn’t the Flying Teapot, this was named The Rocket set a world record in 1906 for fastest mile, 28.2 seconds or 127 mph 205 kph. The brothers sold the business in 1918, having manufactured more than 10,000 “Steamers.” In 1918, Francis was killed while driving one of his automobiles. He swerved to avoid an obstruction in a mountain road and plunged down an embankment near Ipswich, Massachusetts. And why aren’t we driving steam powered cars today?  Steam cars  had a significant drop-off in popularity following the adoption of the electric starter, which eliminated the need for risky hand cranking to start gasoline-powered cars. Then the introduction of assembly-line mass production by Henry Ford, hugely reduced the cost of owning a conventional automobile

.           1855 Friday- Ita erat quando hic adveni. It was that way when I got here……... American adventurer William Walker, who had previously invaded Mexico, arrived in Nicaragua. Internal strife and a power struggle among several leaders had torn the country apart….gee, those things never happen in 3rd world countries, do they?......... Late in 1854 he obtained a contract from the currently prevailing government of Nicaragua, allowing him to bring to that country approximately three hundred colonists to settle a land grant of fifty thousand acres. In return, Walker and his American colonists would be liable for military service for Nicaragua, for which they would receive monthly compensation from the Nicaraguan government……Big mistake. Calling his group of sixty or so followers the American Phalanx, Walker captured an American steamer plying the waters of Lake Nicaragua and then took the town of Granada. Walker’s victories earned him popular acclaim and, incredibly enough, election as president of Nicaragua in July 1856.

            1864 –Wednesday-  Not war, but murder………The Battle of Cold Harbor began. Coming less than a month after the battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania in which for Robert E. Lee were pyrrhic victories - strategically successful but the lost soldiers could not (unlike Grant who suffered even larger losses) be replaced, Cold Harbor was one of the biggest disasters of the war for the Union as on June 3….see June 3 below, Grant sent wave upon wave of troops to be slaughtered as they attacked well entrenched Confederate troops.

             1869-Tuesday-  Voting doesn't work. why?
When they don't like what we say, then
they stop it in the courts
Voting doesn't work. why?
When they don't like what we say, then
they stop it in the courts ……
Placebo……….Thomas Edison of Boston, Mass., received his first patent. It was for an "electrographic vote recorder." The device was the first of its kind, and would enable a legislator……after receiving a allurement, bait, blackmail, buyoff, compensation, contract, corrupt money, corrupting gift, enticement, envelope*, feedbag, fringe benefit, gift, goody, graft, gratuity, gravy, grease, hush money, ice*, incentive, inducement, influence peddling, kickback, lagniappe, lure, payola, perk*, perquisite, present, price, protection*, remuneration, reward, sop, sweetener, sweetening, take……  to register a vote either for or against an issue by turning a switch to the right or left. The original may have still been used in general elections, first in Florida in 2000 and Ohio in 2004.

            1871-Thursday- Abilene, Abilene
Prettiest town I ever seen.
Folks down there don't treat you mean
In Abilene, my Abilene.
I sit alone most every night
Watch them trains roll out of sight
Wish that they were carryin' me
To Abilene, my Abilene.
….. Bob Gibson and John D. Loudermilk……John Wesley Hardin, one of the deadliest gunfighters in the history of the Old West, arrived in Abilene, Kansas, where he allegedly briefly became friends with Marshal Wild Bill Hickok. The other version is that he made Hickok back down in a gunfight.  By 1869, Hardin had killed four soldiers who had come to arrest him so he became a cowboy. In 1871, he signed on with a cattle outfit heading up the Chisolm Trail toward Abilene, Kansas. Forgetting he was supposed to be driving cattle, Hardin killed seven people along the trail and three people in Abilene.

        1875 –Tuesday- Oh, I've got a lovely bunch of coconuts.
There they are all standing in a row.
Big ones, small ones, some as big as your head.
Give 'em a twist, a flick of the wrist."
That's what the showman said…….Fred Heatherton…………… Alexander P.Ashbourne, who also invented the biscuit cutter,  received a patent for a "Process Preparing Cocoanut for Domestic Use ".  Obviously there was some demand for eating coconuts in 1875.  The patent described the process oftaking any quantity of coconuts and paring  them. The coconut  meat was then grated or otherwise smushed , and then passed through fine sieves, but you need to add boiling water at the same time. Got that Rachel Ray? The meat was then cooked with hot steam for 3 to 4 hours, then pressed dry. Sounds delicious, thank you…..Today in Science History….

            1879 –Sunday-  Napoleon Eugene, the last dynastic Bonaparte, was slewn in the Anglo-Zulu War. Euge was the only child of Emperor Napoleon III of France and his wife the Empress Eugénie. He served as an officer in the British Army (Napoleon must have been turning over in his grave!) and volunteered to join the British expedition to Zululand. While out on a reconnaissance mission he was surprised by Zulus and speared to death at Ulundi. His death sent shock waves throughout Europe as he was the last dynastic hope for the restoration of the Bonapartes to the throne of France.

             1880-Tuesday- The first pay telephone service in the United States, for public use went into service. The toll was given to an attendant. It was installed by the Connecticut Telephone Co. in their office at Yale Bank Building at State and Chapel Streets in New Haven, CT. Later that day the first coin was lost in the phone. According to the AT&T website, after making the connections for customers, attendants would lock them in booths so they couldn't leave without paying. We’ve also seen that in 1889 - the first public coin telephone was installed by inventor William Gray at a bank in Hartford, Conn. It was a "postpay" machine (coins were deposited after the call was placed). Gray's other claim to fame was inventing the inflatable chest protector for baseball.

            1886 –Tuesday-  The railroads of the Southern United States converted 11,000 miles of track from a five foot rail gauge to standard gauge. They began on May 31.  Rail gauge is the distance between two rails of a railroad. Sixty percent of the world's railways use a 4 feet 8½ inch (1435 mm) gauge, which is known as standard gauge or international gauge. This brings us to a Professor Sy Yentz pet peeve.  He began his model train collection during the 1950’s.  The two major brands were American Flyer & Lionel.  American Flyer had two rails, Lionel…three.  Lionel was big and clunky.  American Flyer was finely honed and realistic.  He got American Flyer.  American Flyer trains are now worth like $1.85.  Lionels cost in the hundreds.  Go figure

            1907 –Saturday-  Frank Whittle, English inventor  (along with Dr. Hans von Ohain) of the jet engine. Frank Whittle was the first to register a patent for the turbojet engine in 1930. Hans von Ohain was granted a patent for his turbojet engine in 1936. In 1929, Whittle's proposed engine drew in air through a series of compressors. The air entered a combustion chamber, where it was mixed with fuel and ignited. As the resulting hot gas blasted out the back of the chamber, it pushed the engine forward. The exiting hot gas turned a shaft that spun a turbine - which drew in more air, creating an ingenious loop of intake and combustion.

            1909-Tuesday- Thomas A. Edison received a patent for "Shaft-Coupling". It must have been important as many people continue to get shafted to this day…..or it could have something to do with a porno movie. A shaft coupler is a  removable device for fastening together the ends of two coaxial shafts, either permanently or temporarily.  We looked for songs about shaft coupling but…no joy.

            1917 –Friday-  Happy Birthday- William S. Knowles, American chemist. Knowles won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2001 (along with Ryoji Noyori, and K. Barry Sharpless) build molecules without creating a mirror-image opposite, a principle used today in making drugs from L-DOPA, a treatment for Parkinson's, to beta blockers for heart function and the protease inhibitors for AIDS.  In 1968 Knowles discovered that it was possible to use transition metals to make chiral catalysts for an important type of reaction called hydrogenation. His research led quickly to an industrial process for the production of L-DOPA.   Overdoses of L-DOPA can render people stupid, we cite, Gerald R. Ford, Dan Quayle, the New York State Legislature, Charlie Rangel, any Kardashian, any celebrity that carries a dog as an accessory, the people who thought Steven Tyler should be a judge on American Idol

            1918 –Saturday – It’s the bottom of the 9th inning.  The Chicago White Sox are losing 5-4  to  the NY Yankees.  The Sox  load the bases with no outs. Chick Gandil hit a line drive  to 3rd baseman Frank (Home Run) Baker who turns a 5-4-3 triple play.  Gandil then went on to fame as a member of the Black Sox throwing the 1919 World Series.

            1925 –Monday…Yankees again….yeesh, you’d think Professor Sy Yentz was a fan……….  Lou Gehrig pinch-hit for shortstop Paul Wanninger in 1925 in a 5-3 loss to the Washington Senators. The next day Lou started at first base in place of tr Wally Pipp, making what was to become his record consecutive-games streak ( it would go to  2,130 games)  two games old.

            1926 –Tuesday Who said nights were for sleep?...................  Happy Birthday, Marilyn Monroe, born Norma Jean Baker, American actress, sex symbol and Presidential innamorata.   Her breakthrough in movies was a bit part (Angela Phinlay ) in The Asphalt Jungle.  Her appearance generated a huge amount of fan mail.  She went on to make, among others; Niagara (1953).Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953), How To Marry A Millionaire(1953) River Of No Return, There's No Business Like Show Business, The Seven Year Itch(1955) featuring  Monroe and a subway grating, Bus Stop (1956)  Some Like It Hot(1959), the absolutely awful,Let's Make Love (1960) The Misfits

(1961 – both stars, Monroe and Gable would die within a year, and the unfinished,

Something's Got To Give (production suspended in 1962 went Monroe went kaput) with Dean Martin.  A few minutes of footage from this unfinished film appears in Marilyn, a compilation (and exploitation) film released by Twentieth Century-Fox in 1963.

            1934- Friday  Don't forbid me to hold you tight
a-darlin', don't-a forbid me to hold you tight
Let me hold you in my lovin' arms
'cause it's cold and I can keep you warm

a-don't-a forbid me to kiss your lips
a-darlin' don't-a forbid me to kiss your lips
Let me kiss you please, baby, please
'cause it's cold and your lips might freeze
…….Happy Birthday to the man who almost destroyed Rock n’ Roll,  Pat Boone.  Boone was clean cut (even white bucks) and much safer than those nasty Black singers so his cringe worthy watered down cover versions of  Fats Domino’s Ain’t That a Shame, Little Richard’s Long Tall Sally, even Elvis’ Good Rockin Tonight were played all over A.M radio.  He did settle down as a crooner with the insipid April Love, Friendly Persuasion, and Moody River.  We personally liked Speedy Gonzalez.

            1940 –Saturday- Nite shlof inem unterban libling (Don’t sleep in the subway darling….Yiddish Petula Clark)   The Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation (the BMT) went  out of business,giving the City of New York full control of the subway system in the city. The city had taken over the bankrupt IRT (Interborough Rapid Transit) earlier in the year. The Independent Subway (IND) was formed by the City in the 1920s as an "independent" system that was not connected to the IRT or BMT lines.  

            1947-Sunday- The first photosensitive glass, invented by D.S Stookey ten years earlier, was made in Corning, NY. Photo sensitive glass is not glass that doesn’t want to have its picture taken.  It is, are you ready? Glass containing submicroscopic metallic particles; when ultraviolet light passes through a negative on the glass, it precipitates the particles, with shadowed areas of the negative permitting deeper penetration into the glass than highlight areas, giving the picture three dimensions and color; photograph is developed by heating the glass to 1000°F (538°C).

             1961 –Thursday- And now we can listen to Beyonce singing the best of Pat Boone as FM stereo broadcasting was authorized to begin in the U.S. when on this date the Federal Communications Commission received its first notifications of such regular operation, from WEFM Chicago and WGFM Schenectady. Both stations had previously experimented with stereo broadcasting, as had others. 

           1962 –Friday Near midnight between May 31 and June 1, 1962, Nazi war criminal, Adolf Eichmann was executed by hanging. His body was then cremated and his ashes scattered at sea. Eichmann was responsible for the persecution and murder of millions of Jews in the death camps in Europe during World War II. On May 13, 1960, Adolf Eichmann was seized by Israeli agents in Argentina      

            1964 –Monday The Horror of Party Beach, The Rolling Stones Arrive for Their First American Tour. Seemed like such a natural combination since they both occurred today.  The Horror of Party Beach premiered.  It got one star from IMDb.  We looked for anyone in the cast that we knew but alas….John Scott, Alice Lyon and Alan Laurel just weren’t familiar.  We thought we knew Marilyn Clarke but her only other credit was an episode of Kolchak: The Night Stalker (starring Darren McGavin), although she did appear in Smokey and the Good Time Outlaws  but this time as Madilyn Clark….. so this story of sea creatures created from radioactive sludge terrorize a beach community is a must see.

            1964 –Monday Obviously people were torn between greeting the The Rolling Stones arrive in New York for their first American tour or seeing Horror of Party Beach. Not quite receiving the tumultuous welcome of the Beatles,  Stones then appeared on the  Les Crane Show and Hollywood Palace, hosted by Dean Martin that week.  They would share the stage with;  comedian Joey Forman, The King Sisters & daughters, Larry Grizwold (comedy trampoline act) and Bertha the elephant and her daughter Tina

            1974 –Saturday- ……..I love you so much, I need the Hiemlich manuver
Your love sticks like a turkey bone in my throat
She's in my thoughts and it'll need a jolt to remove her
Before my expiration, I need resuscitation
Mouth to mouth
 ……Arrogant Worms……….The Heimlich maneuver for rescuing choking victims was  published in the journal Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).  The American Red Cross later adopted it as standard protocol for rescuing choking victims. Saving choking victims was not new, in the 15th century  common practice was to lay a drowning victim face down across a barrel and roll the barrel back and forth. This movement pushed the diaphragm up and into the lungs which pushed the water out.

            1977 –Wednesday-  The proletarian workers paradise known as The Soviet Union’s government charged Anatoly Shcharansky, (after 1986, Natan Sharansky)a leader among Jewish dissidents and human rights activists in Russia, with the crime of treason. The action was viewed by many in the West as a direct challenge to President Jimmy Carter's new foreign policy emphasis on human rights and his criticism of Soviet repression. Carter became so upset that he gave back the Panama Canal.

            1979 –Friday - The first black-led government of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) in 90 years assumed  power.  Well that’s certainly worked out well.

            1980 –Monday-  Cable News Network (CNN) began broadcasting.  CNN was founded by Ted Turner and Reese Schonfeld (although Schonfeld had become a non-person at the station). CNN introduced the concept of 24-hour television news coverage During the ensuing years, the network frequently forgot the definition of news. Viewers (but not many) got to enjoy Parker Spitzer, Larry King’s suspenders (Larry was put out ot pasture and replaced by Piers Morgan), Fareed Zakania, Candy Crowley, the ever earnest Anderson Cooper, Jesse Jackson, Connie Chung, Aaron Brown, Paula Zahn, and the almost daily surgically enhanced Robin Meade. News readers read the news as if they were reading to an early childhood class complete with angry looks, concerned looks and voices, happy looks and voices, querulous looks and voices…..so that we all know how we should react to the news.

            2000 –Thursday-  The Patent Law Treaty was  signed. So we looked this item up and the explanations were more technical than explanations of Field Medal winning  titles in Mathematics.  The best we found was at WIPO – The World Intellectual Property Organization - The aim of the Patent Law Treaty (PLT) is to harmonize and streamline formal procedures in respect of national and regional patent applications and patents, and thus to make such procedures more user-friendly. With the significant exception of the filing date requirements, the PLT provides maximum sets of requirements, which the Office of a Contracting Party may apply. This means that a Contracting Party is free to provide for requirements that are more generous from the viewpoint of applicants and owners, but are mandatory as to the maximum that an Office can require from applicants or owners……Got it?

             2002-Saturday-  Turn out the lights the party's over they say that all good things must end.  Let's call it a night the party's over and tomorrow starts the same old thing again…..Willie Nelson……The first national law prohibiting "light pollution" went into effect. The Czech Republic became the first nation to outlaw excess outdoor light. All outdoor light fixtures in the country had to be shielded to ensure light went only in the direction intended, and not above the horizontal. Czech astronomers had lobbied for the legislation.  Known as the "Protection of the Atmosphere Act," the bill passed both houses of parliament (Chamber of Deputies and Senate) and was signed into law by President Vaclav Havel on February 27, 2002, it went into effect today, although in the absence of light, no one could read it..  The law defined "light pollution" as "every form of illumination by artificial light which is dispersed outside the areas it is dedicated to, particularly if directed above the level of the horizon."   

            2008 –Sunday-  The Phoenix Mars Lander became the first NASA spacecraft to scoop Martian soil. This was a test scoop.  The regularly scheduled scoop would take place later. The 8-foot-long robotic arm uncovered bits of bright specks in the soil believed to be ice or salt containing the DNA of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.  

            2009 –Monday Refusing to blame the Cadillac Escalade, the Chevy Aveo, the Chevrolet Colorado, The Chevy Cavelier, the destruction of the Pontiac brand, the deletion of the Oldsmobile (88, Super 88 and 98), the Hummer H2 , terrible advertising, overblown union contracts, and inept leadership, General Motors filed for chapter 11 bankruptcy. It was the fourth largest United States bankruptcy in history after Lehman Brothers, Washington Mutual and WorldcomInc.

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455 –Wednesday-  The pump don’t work cause the Vandals took the handle…..Bob Dylan……..The Vandals entered Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks. Yes, entire Idaho St. student body attacked the Eternal City in a desperate search for potatoes.  Vandals were originally Germanic tribes inhabiting [living in] East Germany in the 3rd century B.C. In AD 270 they invaded Romania and Hungary near the Danube River, part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Constantine was forced to make a treaty and give them land there. Around this time, Attila and the Huns (a famous Budapest doo wop singing group) were also threatening Rome. In in 451, one of his generals Aëtius won a major victory over Attila in Gaul. In 454, Valentinian had Aëtius killed out of jealousy and fear he would try to take over. However, two of Aëtius generals and supporters assassinated Valentinian in 455. Rome was without a leader.  Enter the Vandals, stage right.  Valentinian’s widow,  Eudocia, had invited them.  She had been forced to marry his successor, Maximus, and was out for revenge. Pope Leo met with Vandal leader Gaiseric outside the city gates, and persuaded him to have mercy on the people of Rome. The Vandals then proceeded to sack Rome for 14 days, taking all the art and treasure they could find. The good news was that as per Leo's request, there was no murder, arson, or torture.  Gaiseric was a formidable ruler, as shown by the conquests of the Vandals. After his death in 477 AD, the forces weakened, and they were conquered in a single campaign by the Romans.

            1098 –Thursday-  During the First Crusade, the eight month Siege of Antioch ended as Christian forces took the city. As so often happens with sieges, sneaky betrayal, not military force won the day.  One of the Christian leaders, ohemund of Taranto, secretly contacted an Armenian named Firouz who commanded one of the city's gates. After receiving a bribe, Firouz opened gate on the night of June 2/3, allowing the crusaders to storm the city.

            1686-Sunday- The publication of Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), known to posterity as the Principia. was arranged in London at the Royal Society. The minutes of the meeting record that the astronomer Edmund Halley would "undertake the business of looking afte rit and printing it at his own charge." The New York  Times Book Review felt that Newton had gotten over his inertia and understood the gravity of the situation but that many of his arguments were elliptical. And it was all the result of a bet.  The great architect and mathematician, Christopher Wren made a wager as to why the shape of a planet’s orbit is an ellipse. He offered a prize of 40 shillings (about 2 weeks pay). He wagered with…Robert Hooke and Edmund Halley.  Hooke, notorious for taking credit for the work of others,  said he knew already but wouldn’t tell them on the grounds that it would rob others of the satisfaction of making the discovery for themselves.Halley went to see his friend, Isaac Newton.  Newton agreed it was an ellipse because, as he said, “I have calculated it”.  However, he couldn’t find any of the work Now we know where students get it from. He agreed to re do the calculations and provide a paper.He did as he promised. He worked on it for two years and added a bit more….He ended up writing Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, The Principia.   It not only explained mathematically the orbits of heavenly bodies, but also identified gravity.  At it’s heart were Newton’s three laws of motion. It has also been called on of the most inaccessible books ever written (obviously they never tried  Thomas Hutton).  But Hooke reappeared on the scene and He got in an argument with Newton over the priority of the inverse square law.  Don’t we all?  Newton refused to release the vital 3rd volume. Halley’s shuttle diplomacy resolved the issue. But wait! There’s more!
The Royal Society had promised to publish the work. Unfortunately, they had used too much money publishing previous year’s (scintillating no doubt) book The History of Fishes. Halley paid for the Principia with his own funds.He accepted a job as Clerk for the Royal Society.  Because they were still short of funds……..He was paid instead in copies of……..
The History of Fishes.

            1692 –Monday-  Because its witchcraft, wicked witchcraft
And although, I know, it
s strictly taboo ………Frank Sinatra…………Bridget Bishop became the first person to go to trial in the Salem witch trials in, yes,  Salem, Massachusetts. She was found guilty, and hanged on June 10. Bridget,  born sometime between 1632 and 1637 was quite the social butterfly.  She  married three times.  Her third and final marriage, after the kaputions of her first two husbands, was to Edward Bishop, who was employed as a "sawyer" (lumber worker).  In 1680 she had been charged (but cleared) of witchcraft, and on other occasions she had ended up in the courthouse for violent public quarreling with her husband.  In addition to her somewhat outrageous (by Puritan standards…..but then everything was outrageous by Puritan standards..) lifestyle, the fact that Bishop "was in the habit of dressing more artistically than women of the village" also contributed in large part to her conviction and execution. She was described as wearing, "a black cap, and a black hat, and a red paragon bodice bordered and looped with different colors." This was a showy costume for the times. Aside from encouraging rumors and social disdain, this "showy costume" was used as evidence against her at her trial for witchcraft. In his deposition, Shattuck, the town dyer mentions, as corroborative proof of Bishop being a witch, that she used to bring to his dye house "sundry pieces of lace" of shapes and dimensions entirely outside his conceptions of what would be needed in the wardrobe of a plain and honest woman. Fashionable apparel was regarded by some as a "snare and sign of the devil." http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/salem/SAL_BBIS.HTM

            1731 –Saturday-   Happy Birthday - Martha Dandridge Custis Washington Martha Washington, First American first lady. At the age of seventeen, she married Colonel. Daniel Parke Custis, age thirty seven. She had four children with Col. Custis. Her eldest was a daughter, Frances, who died in infancy, next was a son named Daniel,  whose early death is supposed to have hastened his father’s death. The third was Martha, who died in 1770 as a young woman, and last was John, who was killed during the siege of Yorktown at age twenty seven. She married George in 1759. 

            1740 –Thursday-  Nine years younger and born on the same day as Martha Washington, Happy Birthday, Donatien Alphonse François, Comte de Sade, better known as the Marquis de Sade, depraved, debauched, French author of Les 120 Journées De Sodome, Justine (1791) and the sequel, Juliette (1797),

            1763 –Thursday-   During Pontiac's Rebellion, Pontiac, upset that G M had created the Sunbird, attacked what is now Mackinaw City, Michigan. The Chippewas captured Fort Michilimackinac by diverting the garrison's attention with a game of using the subterfuge of a bagataway (lacrosse) game to take the British unexpectedly. They kicked the ball into the fort and before you could say, Trojan Horse, many of the British were killed via terminal stupidity with some taken prisoner. The French population (which far out numbered the British) was unharmed.

            1780 –Friday-  The Derby horse race is held for the first time. It could have been named The Bunbury but  was eponymously named for r Edward Stanley, 12th Earl of Derby, who founded the race.  He proposed a race for both colts and fillies over the same distance of one mile. The story goes that his friend Lord Bunbury tossed him for the honor of naming the new race. The toss was won by the Earl of Derby and thus, it was called after himself.  There was some solace for Bunbury since his , Diomed that won the first event.

            1787 –Saturday-  Happy Birthday, Nils Gabriel Sefström, Swedish chemist who discovered the element vanadium. He examined iron ore after the Tanburg mine manager had pointed out an interesting test.  They tested the ore by dissolving it in hydrochloric acid and if a black powder resulted the steel was likely to be brittle. Sefström investigated and found that what was important in the test was the presence or absence in the ore of a new element. In 1830 he isolated the new element, which he named vanadium - atomic number 23 -after the Norse goddess Vanadis.  Approximately 80% of the vanadium produced is used as ferrovanadium or as a steel additive. Of course in the “and I listened to you?” category, vanadium was originally discovered by Andres Manuel del Rio (a Spanish mineralogist) at Mexico City in 1801, who called it erythronium, since most of the salts turned red when heated. A French chemist incorrectly declared that del Rio's new element was only impure chromium. Del Rio thought himself to be mistaken and accepted the statement of the French chemist.

            1793 –Sunday-  Jean-Paul Marat recited the names of 29 people to the French National Convention. Almost all of these people would be  guillotined, followed by 17,000 more over the course of the next year during the Reign of Terror  which began in September. Gnus recommendation – A Place of Greater Safety by Hilary Mantel. On July 13, just six weeks after his words condemned people to decapitation, 1 a young Royalist from Caen, Charlotte Corday, managed, by a clever subterfuge, to gain entry into his apartment. When Marat agreed to receive her, she stabbed him in his bathtub

            1840 –Tuesday- “Try to learn something about everything and everything about something.” Happy Birthday- Thomas Hardy, English novelist, poet and dramatist. Hardy set his "Novels of Character and Environment," as he did most of his other novels, poems and short stories, around the market town of Dorchester ('Casterbridge'), near his boyhood home at Bockhampton. The Gnus favorite is Jude the Obscure but Hardy’s works included, Far from the Madding Crowd, Tess of the d'Urbervilles, The Mayor of Casterbridge, and the favorite of English classes everywhere, The Return of the Native.

            1850-  Happy Birthday, Jesse Boot, obscure in most of the world but, the English chemist who founded Boots Company, Ltd. At 13 he inherited his father's herbalist shop, andin  his spare-time he studied pharmacy and in 1877 opened his first chemist shop (aka drug store, apothecary, dispensary) . Boot realized that the established chemists in Nottingham had a price-fixing policy. He decided to sell his goods cheaper than the other chemists. Boot advertised in the Nottingham Daily Express that the 128 items in his shop at Goose Gate were being sold at reduced prices and the rest is drug store history.

            1855 –Saturday-  So bring me two pina coladas
One for each hand
Let's set sail with Captin Morgan
And never leave dry land
…..Garth Brooks……The Portland Rum Riot occured in Portland, Maine. A 19th century “Nanny Stater”- Neil Dow guided his Maine Law through the legislature and Maine became the first "dry" state. Strangely, in spite of endless adjustments, however, the Maine Law never succeeded in destroying the liquor traffic or public thirst. In 1855, Dow ordered the militia to fire on civilians (mostly Irish Immigrants) as they descended upon Portland's City Hall, looking for a stash of liquor they had heard was kept there. One man was killed by Dow's forces.

            1857-Tuesday-   Elias Howe and Isaac Singer are the names usually associated with the history of the early sewing machine and few have ever heard of James Edward Allen Gibbs. “After studying the position and relations of the needle and shaft with each other, I conceived the idea of a revolving hook on the end of the shaft, which might take hold of the thread and manipulated it into a chain stitch. My ideas were, of course, very crude and indefinite, but it will be seen that I then had the correct conception of the invention afterwards embodied in my machine." The first practical U.S. chain-stitch sewing machine was patented by a farmer, James E. A. Gibbs of Mill Point, Va. It was a single-thread, twist-loop, rotary hook design. This method thus produced a chain-stitched seam. http://www.ismacs.net/willcoxandgibbs/james-edward-allen-gibbs.html

            1858-Wednesday-  The Donati Comet was first seen and named after its discoverer, Giovanni Battista Donati, of  Florence. It was the second-brightest comet of the nineteenth century  and came closest to Earth (on October 9, and was last seen on March 4, 1859. Around the time of closest approach the Earth, the comet developed a prominent dust tail, up to 60° long and curved like a scimitar, for which it is best remembered.

              1875-Wednesday-   Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A. Watson first transmitted sound over wires. This successful experiment was completed in a fifth floor room  at what was then 109 Court Street in Boston.  While using his “harmonic telegraph" discovered he could hear sound over a wire. The sound was that of a twanging clock spring. Mr. Watson had twanged (or, it could have been Duane Eddy and his “twangy guitar”) a clock spring in their experimental telegraphic device, which Mr. Bell physically heard on a 2nd device. Just over nine months later….on  March 10th, 1876, at the same workshop on Court Street, Alexander Graham Bell shouted the famous words, "Mr. Watson, Come Here, I Want to See You." Thomas Watson, his assistant, surprisingly heard Bell's voice over their telegraphic contraption, and this event marks the first use of a telephone in history. It was followed by, “ Hi, we’re not in right now, but leave a message when you hear the beep and we'll get right back to you.”

            1881-Thursday-  Happy Birthday Henry J. Round, English electronics engineer whose numerous invention contributed to the development of radio communications. Round worked with Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company, Ltd., from 1902 to 1914, first in the United States, where he improved the tuning components of radio receivers and built early radio direction finders and radio telephones. See Marconi below – 1896.

            1883-Saturday-  The first electric elevated railroad made a trial run in Chicago.  For some reason they put it indoors.  For some reason, the idea did not catch on.  New York City began elevated railway service in the early 1870s, running in Manhattan on Ninth Avenue and Greenwich Street. It was America's first elevated railroad, but it was steam-powered. At the Berlin Exhibition of 1879 some 600 yards of track were laid, on which a little three-horse-power electric engine, designed by Werner von Siemens, hauled a load of some thirty passengers at a speed of four miles an hour. Current was supplied by a third rail laid between the track rails. The 1883 version, developed by, surprise, Thomas Edison and Stephen D. Field aimed to impress the crowds at the Chicago Railway Exposition, and they did. They built a narrow-gauge 3-foot-wide track in the gallery around the edge of the main exhibition building, with tight curves at each end of the 1,552-foot track -- less than one-third of a mile long. The locomotive weighed 3 tons and was 12 feet long by 5 feet wide. It drew current by rubbing a wire brush on each side of an electrified, central third rail. The 15-horsepower locomotive pulled a passenger car at and chugged along at  9 mph. http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/06/dayintech_0602

           1886 –Wednesday-  On a social note U.S. President Grover Cleveland married Frances Folsom in the White House, becoming the only president to wed in the executive mansion. - Cleveland was also the first president to have a child born in the White House; his daughter Esther in 1895. John Tyler and Woodrow Wilson also married (not to each other) while in office but managed to splurge on catering halls.  Cleveland, was dazzling in a tux by Halson.  The bride was resplendent in a Martha Stewart gown from K Mart.  Music in the Blue Room was provided by Guido and His Harmonica Orchestra playing the Chicken Dance, the Hokey Pokey and YMCA.  The wedding reception came to an abrupt halt when the crowd ran screaming from the room as Guido launched his polka version of We’ve Only Just Begun.

            1896- TuesdayOtis Pond, an engineer then working for Nikola Tesla, said, "Looks as if Marconi got the jump on you." Tesla replied, "Marconi is a good fellow. Let him continue. He is using seventeen of my patents..  The first radio patent was filed by Guglielmo Marconi in England for his wireless telegraphy apparatus  for "Improvements in Transmitting Electrical Impulses and Signals, and in Apparatus Therefore." 

           1904 –Thursday Johnny Weissmuller, American swimmer and actor. Weismuller was born in Timisoara, Romania,  though he would later claim to have been born in Windber, Pennsylvania, probably to ensure his eligibility to compete as part of the US Olympic team. He was winner of five Olympic gold medals, 67 world and 52 national titles, holder of every freestyle record from 100 yards to the half-mile. Weismuller became more famous for his scholarly, erudite, clad in loincloth, Tarzan starting in 1932 with Tarzan, The Ape Man, and on to;  1934 Tarzan And His Mate, 1936 Tarzan Escapes, 1939 Tarzan Finds A Son, 1941 Tarzan's Secret Treasure, 1942 Tarzan's New York Adventure, 1943 Tarzan Triumphs, 1943 Tarzan's Desert Mystery, 1945 Tarzan And The Amazons, 1946 Tarzan And The Leopard Woman, 1947 Tarzan And The Huntress, 1948 Tarzan And The Mermaids (where he fought an octopus).  Weismuller, having grown attached to Hollywood jungle sets,  then made sixteen Jungle Jim movies.

       1907-Sunday- Old rockin' chair's got me, my cane by my side
Fetch me that gin, son, 'fore I tan your hide
Can't get from this cabin, goin' nowhere
Just set me here grabbin' at the flies round this rockin' chair…
Hoagy Carmichael Happy Birthday Edwin Shoemaker, American inventor and engineer who with his cousin, Edward Knabusch, created the recliner chair and started the La-Z-Boy furniture company to manufacture it.  That first recliner chair was a wood slat outdoor folding chair
from orange crates.  A comfortable
concept, the chair followed the contour of a person’s body, both sitting up and
leaning back.

            1922-Friday- Happy Birthday, American geologist, Clair Patterson. Using lead and uranium isotopic data from a meteorite, he calculated an age for the Earth of 4.55 billion years; a figure far more accurate than those that existed at the time and one that has remained unchanged for over 50 years. He determined through ice-core samples from Greenland that atmospheric lead levels had begun to increase steadily and dangerously soon after tetra-ethyl lead began to see widespread use in fuel. He devoted the rest of his life to removing as much introduced lead from the environment as possible.

Following his criticism of the lead industry he was refused contracts with many research organizations, including the United States Public Health Service, and was excluded from a 1971 National Research Council panel on atmospheric lead contamination.Eventually, Patterson's efforts led to the Clean Air Act of 1970, and ultimately the removal of lead from all gasoline in the United States by 1986. Lead levels within the blood of Americans are reported to have dropped by up to 80% Most Earth Science texts do not mention him….and the reviewer of one text that did….Thought he was a woman.

            1925 –Tuesday-  “ Not tonight.  I have a headache.”  First baseman, Wally Pipp, asked out of the line up and manager, Miller Huggins replaced him with Lou Gehrig for the New York Yankees, beginning a streak of 2,130 consecutive games played, topped only by Cal Ripken, Jr. in 1995. Exactly 16 years later to the day, in 1941 Gehrig passed away at age 37,  from Amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Gehrig, who’s baseball totals would have been even greater also hold one of baseball’s more dubious achievements – the lowest stolen base percentage of all time among players with 200 or more attempts.  50.2%. Wally Pipp, to be fair, was probably benched by Huggins due to a batting slump. The headache occurred  a few weeks later when his skull was fractured by a practice pitch from Charlie Caldwell, an event that may have been mistakenly linked to his initial benching. Pipp was later traded to the Cincinnati Reds before the 1926 season. He played 372 games for them over the next three seasons before retiring.

             1928-Saturday- Kraft's Velveeta Cheese was invented. It was packaged using the 1921 invention of a tinfoil lining that could house the cheese inside a wooden box.  The invention of a food product, how tacky. The United States Food and Drug Administration categorized it as pasteurized process cheese spread. It was developed by a cheese maker,  Emil Frey. He was trying to help the company he worked for find a way to dispose of the excess whey. Whey was a waste product that was made as a result of the cheese making process. Frey was working on another idea when he serendipitously  stumbled on a combination of the whey and another cheese that when mixed together created a smooth, almost velvety cheese material. That is of course why it was given the name Velveeta Cheese, because of the consistency. It was also good for mortar when making brick walls. http://www.cheeselovers.org/velveeta-cheese.html

            1930-Monday-  Happy Birthday,  Charles Peter (Pete) Conrad, American astronaut. Conrad had quite a space resume.  He was the third man to walk on the moon during the Apollo 12 mission. He had other experience in space on Gemini 5 (launched August 21,  1965, logging a new space endurance record of 8 days), on Gemini 11 (launched 18 Sept. 18,  1966, first orbit rendezvous and docking), and the Skylab 2 mission (1973). Returning to Earth, on 14 February 14, 1996, Conrad was a crew member for a record-breaking flight around the world in a Lear jet.

            1946 –Sunday-  Spawning of Peter Sutcliffe, English serial killer known as The Yorkshire Ripper. Sutcliffe, a textbook example for death penalty advocates is serving life for the murders of 13 women in west Yorkshire between 1975 and 1981.

            1946–Sunday-  Birth of the Italian Republic:Eighty five years after the unification of Italy and installation of Victor Emmanuel as king,  in a referendum, Italians voted to have a monarchectomy and  turn Italy from a monarchy into a Republic. After the referendum the king of Italy Umberto II di Savoia was exiled to Portugal.

             1947 –Sunday The premiere of  The Corpse Came C.O.D. Directed by Henry Levin, it starring George Brent and Joan Blondell, in a Tracy/Hepburnish comedy

            1964 –Tuesday-  The Rolling Stones made  their American TV debut on the Les Crane Show, another of ABC’s attempts to challenge Johnny Carson. They didn’t perform.  They took questions from the audience.  

            1966Surveyor 1 landed in Oceanus Procellarum on the Moon, becoming the first U.S. spacecraft to soft land on another world.  The main objectives of the Surveyors were to obtain close-up images of the lunar surface and to determine if the terrain was safe for manned landings. Each Surveyor was equipped with a television camera. This was how Paul Abdul was discovered. In addition, Surveyors 3 and 7 each carried a soil mechanics surface sampler scoop which dug trenches and was used for soil mechanics tests which led to the discover of Senator Charles Schumer, and Surveyors 5, 6, and 7 had magnets attached to the footpads and an alpha scattering instrument for chemical analysis of the lunar material which caused the break up of the marriage of Britney Spears and Jason Allen Alexander.

            1967 –Friday- What would you think if I sang out of tune,
Would you stand up and walk out on me.
Lend me your ears and I'll sing you a song,
And I'll try not to sing out of key.
Oh I get by with a little help from my friends,
Mmm,I get high with a little help from my friends,
Mmm, I'm gonna try with a little help from my friends.
  In the U.S., Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band was released by the Beatles. It was released on June 1 in Britain. This was the first album to have song lyrics printed on the back cover.  Produced by George Martin, there were thirteen songs on the album with Within You and Without You being Harrison’s only contribution. The concept behind the album cover collage was the burial of the old I-Want-to-Hold-Your-Hand Beatles. The celebrities looking over the flower bouquet Beatles logo are mourners.  The album was heavily produced and took 129 days and about 700 hours to complete. The Beatles first album, Please Please Me, was recorded in less than 10 hours.

1969 Friday- Australian aircraft carrier Melbourne sliced the destroyer USS Frank E. Evans in half during a Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) exercise (possibly Operation Bumper Boats) off the coast of Vietnam. HMAS Melbourne was called a jinx ship, not only did it sink the Evans, it had sunk in HMAS Voyager 1964. Both were caused by human error and incompetence on the bridge.  

1992 Tuesday- In a national referendum Denmark rejected the Maastricht Treaty by a thin margin. and only accepted it in a second vote in May 1993 after receiving an optout on monetary union like the UK and a promise that Danish pastry would not be called Euro Bagels. In France it squeaked home by just 50.4 to 49.7. The Maastricht Treaty served two purposes. It amended the provisions of the Treaty of Rome while hugely advancing the agenda set out under the Single European Act (1986) for deepening European Political Union (EPU). It created a new model for the Community based around three 'pillars' which, broadly speaking, covered economic relations, foreign affairs and home affairs and the fact that a cup of coffee in Italy cost 4 billion lire.  It ... officially created the European Union (EU), which became the title to cover all the functions of the much-expanded European governmental structure and enabled Belgium to conquer the continent. It set in train the process of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), which would lead to the creation of the Euro.

1997 –Monday-  In Denver, Colorado, home grown terrorist Timothy McVeigh was convicted on fifteen counts of murder (out of 168 who died) and conspiracy for his role in the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. McVeigh would be executed in June, 2001.

1999 –Wednesday  Well this was certainly exciting, The Bhutan Broadcasting Service brought television transmissions to the Kingdom of Bhutan for the first time. It was  currently the only service to offer both radio and television to the Kingdom, and is the only television service to broadcast from inside the Bhutanese border. Bhutan is landlocked country in South Asia, located at the eastern end of the Himalaya Mountains and bordered to the north, south, east and west by the Republic of India and to the northwest by Tibet.  Viewers could now enjoy cultural highlights such as My Favorite Yak, Life on the Mo Chhu River (sort of like a Bhutanese Glee), Another Day, Another Ngultrum, Tibet Sucks,  and Thimphu Tonight.

2003 –Monday-  Europe launched its first voyage to another planet, Mars. The European Space Agency's Mars Express probe launched from the Baikonur space center in Kazakhstan. In March 2010, European Mars Express (Mex) probe has made its closest flyby of the Martian moon Phobos, passing just 67km (42 miles) from its surface. Mars Express consists of two parts, the Mars Express Orbiter and the Beagle 2, a lander designed to perform exobiology and geochemistry research. Beagle 2  bit the dust and  failed to land safely on the Martian surface but  the Orbiter has been successfully performing scientific measurements. Residual microbes returned to Earth resulted in a mutation causing Americans to be possibly the most obnoxious tourist on the Earth, except for roving bands of Chinese and Japanese looking for photo ops.  

2004 –Wednesday- Fed Ex ….. Ken Jennings began his 74-game winning streak on the syndicated game show Jeopardy! Just in case someone gives you an answer of "Most of this firm's 70,000 seasonal white-collar employees work only four months a year."…don’t say Fed Ex.
 Jennings’s streak would end on November 30.

2004-Wednesday-  Like a sturgeon
Touched for the very first time
Like a sturgeon
When your heart beats
Next to mine ….
apologies  to Madonna…While Ken was beginning his winning streak on Jeopardy, a 2.75-meter sturgeon weighing 120 kg was caught in Swansea Bay off the coast of Wales by Robert Davies. Sturgeons are extremely rare in British waters, so this catch was interesting, but by a statute dating back to the testeronically challenged,  King Edward II the 14th century the fish had to be offered to the Crown if caught in Britain. When Buckingham Palace told him he could "dispose of it as he saw fit,", despite protests from Sarah Ferguson that she was hungry and from Princess Anne who thought it resembled one of her cousins, Davies auctioned it off at Plymouth fish market for £700, but then the  local police confiscated it as a protected species under British law.  If the prouerbe be true,‥that a fishe beginneth first to smell at the head, the faultes of our seruantes will be layed vppon vs.
[1581 G. Pettie tr. S. Guazzo's Civil Conversation iii. 51]

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1098 –Friday –The city of Antioch finally fell to the First Crusade after an eight-month siege. The Crusade, led by ,Godfrey of Bouillon, Bohemund of Taranto, Raymond IV of Toulouse, and Crusader Rabbit,  had disagreed over what course of action to take the city when they arrived in October 1097 . Bohemund and Godfrey wanted to lay siege. However there was a slight problem since they lacked sufficient men to completely surround Antioch. Thus the southern and eastern gates were left unblockaded allowing the governor, Yaghi-Siyan, to bring food into the city…..it was a Swiss Cheese Seige.  Finally, in November, the crusaders were reinforced by troops under Bohemund's nephew, Tancred. The following month they defeated an army sent to relieve the city by Duqaq of Damascus.  Another Muslim army was on the way, so after eight months of siege and battle, they simply bribed an Armenian named Farouz who was in charge of one of the gates. Requisat Antioch.

            1140 Monday- When the gods wish to punish us, they answer our prayers.

    Oscar Wilde, An Ideal Husband………French scholar Pierre (Peter) Abelard was found guilty of heresy at the Council of Sens, for writing Ethica, in which he analyzed the notion of sin (not Sens) and also for insisting that he only read Playboy for the articles, he withdrew to the monastery at Cluny. Abelard was also rather famous for his affaire d’coeur with Heloise – he was 40, she was 18, and his subsequent castration men hired by her enraged uncle.

1326 Thursday-  Borderline … feels like I'm goin' to lose my mind
You just keep on pushin' my love over the borderline
Borderline … feels like I'm goin' to lose my mind
You just keep on pushin' my love over the borderline (borderline)
…..Madonna……..The Treaty of Novgorod delineated borders between Russia and Norway in the region called Finnmark. Aha! You say.  The Treaty of Novograd was really in 1557! But, aha! We say.  That was the Second Treaty of Novograde and it ended the Russo-Swedish War (1554–1557)

 1539 –Saturday-  Mass murdering conquistador Hernando DeSoto claimed Florida for Spain.  Following the initial voyage of Juan Ponce de León in 1519,  Hernando de Soto  was chosen to return to Florida and solidify Spain's claim and expand the territory. De Soto had accompanied Francisco Pizarro on earlier voyages to South America and had grown rich from exploitation of the Inca. Figuring there was “gold in them thar swamps” de Soto embarked on an ambitious sea and land venture. He claimed the beaches, Disney World, golf courses, beach front condos, and scantily clad young women for Spain, he disclaimed the insects the size of an SUV, the tourists, Miami, the filling in of the Everglades, and hurricanes saying that the English could have them.

1608 Tuesday-  Two men, one from Ontario and one from Quebec, were in a cave when they came across a magic lamp.
While they were fighting over who the lamp belonged to, a genie popped out.
The genie said, "I shall grant each of you one wish and only one, so make it good."
The Quebequois spoke first, "I want you to build a hundred foot wall around the border of Quebec, this will ensure that the english culture does not corrode our superior heritage."
The genie nodded, "done," he then turned to the Ontarian. "And your wish?"
"Fill it with water."
…………Speaking of explorers, Samuel de Champlain completed his third voyage (he made five in all) to New France at Tadoussac, Quebec.  He had Champlain founded a settlement and trading post along the St. Lawrence River that eventually became the city of Quebec. It was the first permanent white settlement in Canada and gave them plenty of time to change French just enough so that if you speak French you can’t understand Quebecois’ French.

1659Tuesday- David Gregory (Gregorie), Scottish astronomer and mathematician. Gregory was the first to openly to teach the doctrines of  Newton’s  Principia, in a public seminary. After  the Union between England and Scotland in 1707, he was given the responsibility of reorganizing the Scottish Mint  which he divided into peppermints, spearmints, chocolate mints, orange mints, ginger mint and Junior Mints.

1665Wednesday-  Duke Duke Duke Duke of York

Duke Duke Duke of York……apologies to Gene Chandler…….James Stuart, Duke of York (later to become King James II of England) defeated the Dutch fleet off the coast of Lowestoft.  This was the first major battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War.  This was the worst defeat in Dutch naval history, with York capturing or sinking seventeen ships while losing only one of his own.  This was the same York, who as James II proved remarkably inept in his battles with William of Orange as he lost his throne in 1689.

1726-Monday-  Oh my mama loves me, she loves me
She get down on her knees and hug me (ahh a-a-ah)
(oh)She loves me like a rock
She rocks me like the rock of ages
And loves me
She love me, love me, love me, love me
…..Paul Simon…………Happy birthday, James Hutton, Scottish scientist who founded the science of geology.  Rumor is he got off to a rocky start.  As Bill Bryson notes in his wonderful, A Short History of Nearly Everything, Hutton was described as a man of keen insights and lively conversation. Unfortunately, it was beyond him to set down his ideas in a form that anyone could begin to understand. A biographer described him as “almost entirely innocent of rhetorical accomplishments.” Here is a sample from his masterwork, A Theory of the Earth with Proofs and Illustrations.“ The world which we inhabit is composed of the materials, not of the earth which was the immediate predecessor of the present, but of the earth which, in ascending  from the present, we consider as the third, and which had preceded the land that was above the surface of the sea, while our present land was yet beneath the water of the ocean. “ He was equally bad as a public speaker. Fortunately…he died ..and after he died, a friend named John Playfair – Professor of Mathematics at the University of Edinburgh not only actually understood what Hutton was trying to say, but after Hutton’s death, Playfair produced a simplified exposition of the Huttonian principles, Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth.

            1761-Wednesday  Happy Birthday, Henry Shrapnel, the English army lieutenant (promoted to general later in his career)  who invented the eponymous shrapnel shell in 1784.  The shell, consists of a steel case filled with bullets and an explosive charge. It is fired in midair by a time fuse and scatters shot and shell fragments with great and deadly force over a wide area. Shrapnel's invention was the first air-bursting case shot which, in technical words, "imparted directional velocity" to the bullets it contained. Henry Shrapnel's new shell was first used by the British against the French in 1808, however, it was not named after Shrapnel until 1852.

          1777-Tuesday-  Happy Birthday, Charles Bernard Desormes, French physicist and chemist. All internet sources have the same citations including….Desormes  determined the ratio of the specific heats of gases in 1819. We figured you’d want to know more about the ratio of specific heats of gases so…….as molar specific heats. For a monoatomic ideal gas the internal energy is all in the form of kinetic energy, and kinetic theory provides the expression for that energy, related to the kinetic temperature. The expression for the internal energy is     ….we hope that clears it up for you.  Anyway, most of Desorme’ work was in collaboration with his son-in-law Nicolas Clément.  Desormes correctly determined the composition of carbon disulphide (CS2) - a toxic colorless flammable liquid now used in the manufacture of rayon and cellophane and carbon tetrachloride,  as a solvent for rubber and Joan Rivers’ facials, and carbon monoxide (CO) - is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas-  in 1801-02. In 1813 he was asked by Bernard Courtois, to make a study of his discovery, iodine,  and its compounds.

            1800- Tuesday-  Since the White House wasn’t finished,  President John Adams moved into a tavern (wouldn’t you?) Tunnicliffe's City Hotel - in Washington, D.C. Abigail was still at home in Massachusetts so she wasn’t able to join him, and cabinet members Timothy Pickering, Oliver Wolcott Jr. Benjamin Stoddard, and Charles Lee in nightly games of Beer Pong…keg Cups  are partially filled with beer and set up in a diamond shape on each ends of the beer pong table. When a ping pong ball lands in an opposing players cup, that cup must be drank by the opposing player. The winner is the player with the most cups left…….. but when the White House was ready, she and John moved in on Nov. 1…just in time for him to lose the election to Thomas Jefferson and they had to move out again.  

            1808 –Friday- Happy Birthday,  Jefferson Davis, American politician and President of the Confederate States of America. Davis, the youngest of ten children was born in Christian County, Kentucky. Following military service during the Mexican War, he served as Secretary of War during the epic administration of the renowned Franklin Pierce.  Though an opponent of secession in practice, Davis upheld it in principle. On January 21, 1861, he announced the secession of Mississippi, delivered a farewell address, and resigned from the Senate. Four days after his resignation, Davis was commissioned a Major General of Mississippi troops. On February 9, 1861 a constitutional convention at Montgomery, Alabama named him provisional president of the Confederate States of America, and he was inaugurated on the 18th.  

            1844 –Monday-   Happy Birthday- Garret Hobart,…….quick now….who was he?.... 24th Vice President of the United States (President, William McKinley) and the sixth Vice President to go kaput while in office. He was replaced on the 1900 ballot by Theodore Roosevelt who would then become President when McKinley went kaput.

            1851 –Tuesday- A white sport coat and a pink carnation
I'm all dressed up for the dance.
A white sport coat and a pink carnation,
I'm all alone in romance.
…..Marty Robbins…….The  first  baseball uniforms were worn (see 1953 below), as the New York Knickerbockers dazzled in straw hats, white shirts and  blue long trousers. In 1868 the Cincinnati Red Stockings began wearing knee length knickerbockers- baggy pants that end just after the knees. The word Knickerbocker, as any well educated (and they are all well educated) NBA player will tell you is derived from Diedrich Knickerbocker, the fictitious author of Washington Irving's 1809 novel Knickerbocker's History of New York. He's also mentioned in the original title of Irving's most famous work, The Legend of Sleepy Hollow: Found Among the Papers of the Late Diedrich Knickerbocker.

            1864 –Friday-  June 3 1864. Cold Harbor. I was killed. The last diary entry, found in the pocket of a dead Union soldier. He had made the entry himself, while all around him, other soldiers were writing names and home addresses on slips of paper and pinning them to the back of their coats.  Not War but Murder….(a superb book by Ernest B. Furguson) This was the fourth phase of U.S. Grant’s overland campaign against Robert E. Lee. Grant had spent all of May attempting to get past Lee’s right flank, suffering defeats but inflicting heavy casualties on the way at the Battles of the Wilderness, Spotsylvania and North Anna River. On this day, Grant ordered continued assaults against well entrenched Confederate defenders.  In one hour of fighting the Union army suffered 7,000 casualties. Confederate losses were at most 1,500.  Confederate Gen. Evander Law said, I had seen the carnage in front of Marye's hill at Fredricksburg, and on the 'old railroad cut' which Jackson's men held at the Second Manassas; but I had seen nothing to exceed this. It was not war; it was murder. Although the two armies stayed in the trenches around Cold Harbor for some days after 3 June, the failed assault effectively ended the battle.  Grant commented in his memoirs that this, and his 2nd attack on Vicksburgh were the only ones he wished he had never ordered.

            1864 – Happy Birthday, Ransom E. Olds, American automobile inventor and creator of the Oldsmobile, now defunct but one of the more successful cars of the twentieth century. Olds also created the assembly line in 1901. The new approach to putting together automobiles enabled him to more than quadruple his factory’s output, from 425 cars in 1901 to 2,500 in 1902. Ah, we miss the Delta 88, the Super 88 and the 98.  Professor Sy Yentz had a Cutlass.

            1875 Thursday- A year before his invention of the telephone, Alexander Bell used his "harmonic telegraph" to transmit a twanging sound from a reed vibrated by Bell’s voice along wires to his assistant Thomas A. Watson.  Bell thought he could send several telegraph messages at once by varying their musical pitch. Although the instrument transmitted voicelike sounds, the words were not recognizable. Twanging did not go away, much ater, Duane Eddy and his twangy guitar had a major hit record with Rebel Rouser in 1958.

             1879-Tuesday-  Happy Birthday, Raymond Pearl, American scientist who made significant contributions in the areas of biology, genetics, eugenics, and statistics. One of the founders of biometry, the application of statistics to biology and medicine, Pearl (also a virulent ant-Semite) was ahead of his time, warning of the dangers of smoking as early as 1936 and the benefits of alcohol in moderation – as opposed to overuse or abstinence (although, “abstinence makes the heart grow fonder”) - in 1926. Pearl was also a founder of  biogerontology (the biology-based study of aging)

            1884-Tuesday-   I believe I can do anything if I just try……. American of African descent, inventor/scientist Granville T. Woods received his first patent. It was for the first steam boiler furnace.  A steam boiler furnace is an enclosed vessel in which water is heated and circulated, either as hot water or as steam, for heating or power. Called “The Black Edison” over the course of his life Woods would receive 60 patents, mostly relating to electrical subjects. His inventions revolutionized railway and telegraph communication.  This was good news and bad news.  The good news was that it  helped in the growth of his competitors' companies--General Electric, Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing, and American Bell Telephone. The bad news was that Woods was virtually penniless.

            1888 –Sunday-  The outlook wasn't brilliant for the Mudville nine that day;
The score stood four to two, with but one inning more to play,
And then when Cooney died at first, and Barrows did the same,
A pall-like silence fell upon the patrons of the game.
A straggling few got up to go in deep despair. The rest
Clung to that hope which springs eternal in the human breast;
They thought, "If only Casey could but get a whack at that —
We'd put up even money now, with Casey at the bat." ………………
The poem Casey at the Bat, by Ernest Lawrence Thayer, was published in the San Francisco Examiner under the title Casey at the Bat: A Ballad of the Republic, Sung in the Year 1888.

            1889 –Monday-  The first long-distance electric power transmission line in the United States was completed.  It ran 14 miles between a generator at Willamette Falls and downtown Portland, Oregon.  Before the Portland line, it was not clear how or even if electrical power could be sent long distances. After the Civil War, stationary steam engines began to flood into American cities, but the power they produced was local.  A German team built a 100-mile alternating-current, high-voltage, three-phase transmission line from a hydroelectric generator to Frankfurt in the summer of 1891. It went many times farther than the Portland line, while maintaining the same efficiency of about 75 percent. http://www.wired.com/thisdayintech/2010/06/0603long-distance-power-line/

            1899 –Saturday  - Three old guys are out walking. First one says, "Windy, isn't it?" Second one says, "No, its Thursday!" Third one says, "So am I. Let's go get a beer." Happy Birthday, Georg von Békésy,  winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1961. He demonstrated  the physical means by which sound is received and analyzed in the cochlea -the spiraling cavity of the ear. Békésy was able to observe the traveling waves along the basilar membrane that were produced by sound. He observed the shape of these waves by stroboscopic examination of the motion of particles of silver which he sprinkled on the nearly transparent basilar membrane. Depending upon the frequency of the sound, the traveling waves achieved maximum amplitude in different locations. His paper was titled Things Go Better With Cochlea.

           1904-Friday Give blood
But you may find that blood is enough
Give blood
And there are some who'll say it's not enough
Give blood
But don't expect too ever see reward
Give blood
You can give it all but still asked for more
…..Pete Townshend………..Happy Birthday, Charles Drew, American of African descent, physician and surgeon who was an authority on the preservation of human blood for transfusion. Drew was instrumental in developing blood plasma processing, storage and transfusion therapy. His groundbreaking work in the large-scale production of human plasma was eventually used by the U.S. Army and the American Red Cross as the basis for blood banks.  Segregation rules at the time forbade Dr.Drew, a black man, to donate his own blood. Drew resigned his official posts in 1942 after the armed forces ruled that the blood of African Americans would be accepted but would have to be stored separately from that of whites. He then became a surgeon and professor of medicine at Freedmen's Hospital, Washington, D.C., and Howard University (1942–50).

            1906 –Sunday-  I wasn't really naked. I simply didn't have any clothes on…….Josephine Baker, American dancer born Freda Josephine McDonald. The French loved her (they also loved Jerry Lewis so no one is perfect) and she achieved her greatest successes in France beginning with the Folies Bergère in 1926. She appeared wearing a skirt made of bananas

            1917 –Sunday-  Happy Birthday, Leo Gorcey, distinguished Shakespearean, classical American actor. Gorcey’s first role was as “Spit”, the slimy stool pigeon in the movie Dead End starring Sylvia Sidney, Joel McCrea and Humphrey Bogardt.  He was a member of the “Dead End Kids” with Billy Halop, Bobby Jordan, Gabriel Dell and Huntz Hall in several movies.  The Dead End Kids morphed into “The East Side Kids”, a series of early 1940’s films with Gorcey as “Muggs McGuiness”.  The East Side Kids then transformed into “The Bowery Boys”. Gorcey was now (Terence Aloysius) “Slip” Mahoney and Huntz Hall was still on board. Of note, Louie Dumbrowski, the candy store owner in most of the films was played by Gorcey’s father Bernard.

            1920 –Thursday-  Twelve years before James Chadwick discovered the neutron, physicist Ernest Rutherford predicted its existence and properties in his Bakerian Lecture, London, on "The Nuclear Constitution of Atoms." Rutherford said  “A neutron walks into a bar, orders a drink. When it offered to pay, the bartender refused to take the money saying ‘for you, it’s no charge”…….. He hypothesized on “conditions where it  would be possible for an electron to combine much more closely with the H nucleus, forming a kind of neutral doublet. Such an atom would have very novel properties. Its external field would be practically zero, except very close to the nucleus..."

            1929 –Monday- Q. What does DNA stand for? A. National Dyslexics Association ... Happy Birthday, Werner Arber,  winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1978.  Arber theorized that when a virus entered bacterium, most of the viral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was destroyed. He posited that the bacterium produced an enzyme that severed the viral DNA into smaller pieces. Arber was correct -- certain enzymes, called 'restriction enzyme' or 'restriction endonuclease', cleave long strands of DNA into tiny fragments. These fragments, which retain their genetic information, led to the development of gene splicing -- techniques for separating, manipulating, and eventually altering this basic genetic material.

            1932 –Friday-  New York Yankee Lou Gehrig became the first player in “modern” baseball history to hit four home runs in a game.  Teammate Tony Lazzeri hit hit for the natural cycle, single-double-triple-home run included in his five hits against the Philadelphia Athletics at Shibe Park, Philadelphia.   This was notable because these two feats are both less common than a perfect game, which has occurred twenty one times in one hundred and twenty years.  

            1937 Thursday-  On a social note the conspicuously fatuous Duke of Windsor married the connubially experienced upwardly mobile (except when she was prone), American divorcé Wallis Simpson. Edward was almost late to the wedding as he had difficulty counting the buttons on his jacket, a Tommy Hilfiger tuxedo.  The blushing bride, wore Vera Wang.  Not a dress.  Vera Wang was draped on her shoulders pinning sleeves on throughout the ceremony.  The reception was held at Anthony’s of Windsor Castle with music by Freddy and the Dreamers.

            1940 –Monday During World War II,  The Battle of Dunkirk ended with a German victory and with Allied forces in full retreat.  On the night of May 9/10, 1940, German forces attacked the Low Countries. Moving to their aid, French troops and the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) were unable to prevent their fall.  The BEF withdrew to a perimeter around the port of Dunkirk.  They had to be evacuated or the 350,000 man army would be captured or destroyed. Between June 3 and 4, an additional 52,921 Allied troops were rescued from the beaches. With the Germans only three miles from the harbor, the final Allied ship, the destroyer HMS Shikari, departed at 3:40 AM on June 4.  All told, 332,226 men were rescued from Dunkirk.

            1948-  Thursday- Q: What is an astronomical unit?
A: One helluva big apartment.
The 200-inch (5.08 m) reflecting Hale telescope at the Palomar Mountain Observatory in California was dedicated……by the Shirelles…..To the one I love………. This was the first telescope in the world with a 200-inch lens.  The telescope was officially named after Dr. George Ellery Hale who conceived, designed and promoted this telescope to be placed at an elevation of 5,600 feet on Palomar Mountain, 100 miles southeast of Pasadena, California. Hale bought one hundred sixty acres of land from local ranchers and the U.S. Forest Service. On average the weather allows for at least some data collection about 290 nights a year.

            1953 –Wednesday.  Doublday Shmubleday…. Alexander Cartwright was officially credited by the geniuses in U.S. Congress as founder of baseball.  For years people believed  that  West Point Cadet Abner Doubleday invented baseball one day in 1839 while in Cooperstown, New York. The Doubleday Myth was first created by a panel of “baseball experts” appointed to determine the origins of the game.

The Commission based its conclusions on the testimony of one Abner Graves. History proved that Graves may not have been the most credible witness, however. Just a year later, Mr. Graves shot his wife, was declared criminally insane, and spent the rest of his life in a mental institution….he probably should have been in Congress. On the other hand, Alexander Cartwright was a member of the New York Knickerbockers, a club of young businessmen who regularly played something called Town Ball. In 1845, Cartwright and a committee from his club drew up clear rules designed to convert Town Ball into a more elaborate sport. He called it Base Ball. Cartwright actually wrote down his rules for Base Ball, and many of them are still fundamental parts of the game, including the concepts of: (1) fair and foul territory; (2) three strikes per out; (3) three outs per inning; (4) nine players per side; and (5) ninety feet between bases. The first baseball game played under these new rules took place on June 19, 1846.  Ever quick to pick up on these things, in 2002 Congress declared that Antonio Meucci was the inventor of the telephone.

            1959 –and 1964…. One of the great days in tonsillitis history as firs in 1959, Elvis was tricken with tonsillitis while in the Army. Elvis went to the base hospital in Germany and remained there for six days. They couldn’t find a doctor willing to operate on that million dollar gullet. Instead, the inflammation is instead allowed to run its course and Elvis remained tonsil intacto. Then in 1964 tonsil tragedy struck again as an exhausted Ringo Starr collapsed and was rushed to the hospital, where he was diagnosed with the dread tonsillitis.  Unlike Elvis, who kept his, Ringo had a tonsillectomy.  This resulted in the Beatles recording one of their worst songs ever, the execrable Mr. Moonlight.

            1965 –Saturday-  The first American astronaut to make a “spacewalk”…a bit difficult to “walk when there is no surface to walk on, but why quibble…….. was Major Edward White II,  when he spent 20 minutes outside the Gemini 4 capsule during Earth orbit at an altitude of 120 miles. White later said that later said the spacewalk was the most comfortable part of the mission, and said the order to end it was the "saddest moment" of his life. A tether and 25 foot airline were wrapped in gold tape to form a single, thick cord kept him from floating away.  He used a hand-held 7.5 pound oxygen jet propulsion gun to maneuver around.  White was a member of the Apollo 1 crew killed in a fire while testing their flight capsule in January 1967.

            1967-Saturday-  You know that it would be untrue
You know that I would be a liar
If I was to say to you
Girl, we couldn't get much higher
Come on baby, light my fire
Come on baby, light my fire
Try to set the night on fire
……The Doors recorded , Light My Fire  Silly us, we thought Doors, the group name was based on doors, swinging or sliding barrier that will close the entrance to a room or building or vehicle, and that they could have just as easily named themselves the Walls or the Crown Moldings, or The Window Treatments.  Oh, we were so wrong. Actually, it was double doors, both William Blake If the doors of perception were cleansed man could see things as they truly are, infinite…." from The Marriage of Heaven and Hell written between 1790-93, and  Aldous Huxley and his 1954 book The Doors of Perception.  Anyway, on this day, the Doors recorded Light My Fire. The Doors' record company, Electra,  thought this was too long to get radio play, so the guitar solos were edited down for the single to make it considerably shorter. Many stations played the 6:50 album version anyway. The song reached number 1 on the Billboard Charts on July 28, 1967.  Also, famously, on the Doors one and only appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show, Sullivan didn't want the word "higher" sung on the show. The demand was passed down through one of the show's producers, who met the group in the dressing room.The band agreed. The producer  looked at Morrison and said, 'You're the poet. Think of something else -- 'wire,' 'flyer.' "Then the Doors went out and did the song exactly as they always did. Sullivan was so furious he didn't even shake their hands. When the Doors got backstage, they learned they wouldn't be back -- ever.     

            1968 –Monday.  Warholian hanger-on loon, Valerie Solanas, author of SCUM Manifesto,  (an anti male diatribe) attempted to assassinate bizarre artist Andy Warhol by shooting him three times. Curator Mario Amaya  was also shot.  Solanas was arrested the day after the assault. She said that "He had too much control over my life," She was sentenced to  three years in prison and to watch Warhol movies 24/7 for the first two. The shooting was mostly overshadowed in the media due to the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy two days later.

            1969 –Tuesday - Ships that pass in the night, and speak each other in passing, only a signal shown, and a distant voice in the darkness; So on the ocean of life, we pass and speak one another, only a look and a voice, then darkness again and a silence.   Henry Wadsworth  Longfellow, ..............well, not quite in this case….as  off the coast of South Vietnam, the Australian aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne cuts the U.S. Navy destroyer USS Frank E. Evans in half.  At about 3 a.m the two ships were travelling close together at night, performing tight maneuvers, the Frank E. Evans acting as guard ship to pick up any accidentally ditched crew or aircraft. The destroyer turned across the bow of Melbourne, and was cut in two. The bow section sank, and the stern section was later sunk in target practice. 74 people lost their lives, all from the destroyer.

            1973 –Sunday  She’s as sweet as Tupolev honey……apologies to Van Morrison…….. A Soviet supersonic Tupolev Tu-144 crashed near Goussainville, France, killing 14, the first crash of a supersonic passenger aircraft.  The Tupalev, which looked suspiciously like the Concorde (but the Soviets never stole technology from capitalists, did they?) was to  be a shining example of Soviet technology and put through its paces at the Paris Air Show.  Concorde flew first and performed well.  The Tu-144 took off and climbed to 4 000 feet - suddenly there was a violent change in the pitch of the aircraft and it fell out of the sky, the aircraft broke up at 1 500 feet and feel onto the nearby village. All six crew and several civilians died from the accident.

            1980 –Tuesday- I have little compassion for people in trailer parks who refuse to
move after getting tornado warnings. How hard is it for them to
relocate? Their house have wheels.
,,,,,,,,,,Carlos Mencia……………. Ruby slippers, house falling on witch …..that’s for Kansas tornadoes.  In this, the Grand Island tornado outbreak. Seven tornadoes hit Grand Island, Nebraska. Five people were killed, 357 single-family homes gone , 33 mobile homes violently relocated and $300 million in damages.  

            1989 –Saturday- The proletarians of the world have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Workers of all countries: Unite! ……The government the proletarian workers paradise oof China sent troops to force protesters out of Tiananmen Square after seven weeks of occupation.  The soldiers started firing on the unarmed civilians with AK-47s loaded with battlefield ammunition. The people in the streets don't expect this to happen.. An untold number of people were killed.

            1991 –Monday-  Mount Unzen in southern Japan erupted killing 43 people. Mount Unzen is actually a group of composite volcanoes, the highest of which is Mount Fugen, at 4,462 feet (1,360 m). Mount Unzen had previously erupted in 1792 and

as many as 15,000 people were killed. Composite volcanoes are also called stratovolcanoes.  They are typically deep-sided, symmetrical cones of large dimension built of alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash, cinders, blocks, and bombs and may rise as much as 8,000 ft above their bases. Some of the most beautiful mountains in the world are composite volcanoes, including Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount Cotopaxi in Ecuador, Mount Shasta in California, Mount Hood in Oregon, and Mount St. Helens and Mount Rainier in Washington. The essential feature of a composite volcano is a conduit system through which magma from a reservoir deep in Earth's crust rises to the surface. The volcano is built up by the accumulation of material erupted through the conduit and increases in size as lava, cinders, and ash are added to its slopes. The volcanic eruption also caused the  release giant prehistoric scorpions on an Mexican unsuspecting town.

1998 –Wednesday – In the  Eschede train disaster,  an ICE (Inter City Express) high speed train derailed near the village of Eschede in Lower Saxony, Germany, causing 101 deaths. The train, traveling 125 mph, and slammed into a concrete bridge

            2008-Tuesday- Remember the brand new Japanese science laboratory was attached to the International Space Station?   Space Shuttle Discovery's STS-124 mission launched had been launched on  May 31st . It  got down to business, unloading the huge 11.2 meter-long lab using the station's robotic arm and a Toyota Matrix . This was the second component of Kibo (Japanese for "Hope") to be attached to the station, the first was a logistics module sent to the station by Endeavour in March. The third and final part of the lab, a facility that will allow outdoor experiments be exposed to space, would be delivered in the future  The lab will be used to create bizarre looking men who will wear their hair in pony tails well into middle age.

            2010 –Thursday –Sort of like the Japanese soldiers that they found hiding in the jungle long after the end of WW II, A Soviet robot lost on the dusty plains of the Moon for the past 40 years was found again, and it is returning surprisingly strong laser pulses to Earth. Scientists believe that it was reactivated by misdirected radio impulse sent by Vladimir Putin intended to render a dissident journalist kaput.  Researchers plan to use the aged robot to help them measure the Moon's orbit and test theories of gravity.

Back to Calendar


780 B.C –Wednesday- The first total solar eclipse reliably recorded by the Chinese was noted. Note that while the item is all over the Xeroxian World of the Internet, NASA – a reliable source, we think, does not list it on http://eclipse99.nasa.gov/pages/traditions_morechina.htm

- their Eclipses Through Traditions and Cultures site. Whenever…..The stakes were fairly high for Chinese astrologers.  Failure to get the prediction right, in at least one recorded instance in 2300 BC resulted in the beheading of two astrologers. Since the pattern of total solar eclipses is a very erratic one in time at a specific geographic location, many astrologers were decapitated. By about 20 BC, surviving documents show that the Chinese astrologers had figured it out and understood what caused eclipses. By 8 BC some predictions of total solar eclipse were made using the 135-month reoccurrence period. By 206 AD they could predict solar eclipses by analyzing the motion of the moon itself or asking Bonnie Tyler who observed a Total Eclipse of the Heart in 1983.

            1584 – Monday- Sailing under instructions from Sir Walter Raleigh, Arthur Barlowe identified the site for the  first English colony on Roanoke Island, in what was Virginia  but is now North Carolina. Earlier in 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh had been granted a patent by Queen Elizabeth I to colonize America. Based on Barlowe's report and backed by Queen Elizabeth, Raleigh sent an all-male colony of more than a hundred settlers (the Village People) to Roanoke Island in July 1585.  Of course as we know the colony got wiped out.  A supply ship returned and poof! They were gone.  But Roanoke has gone on to much bigger and better things.  It is now the home of Miniature Graceland in the front yard of one, Don Epperly. Also known as Elvis City, one visitor described Miniature Graceland as slightly shabby but fun to see. Another reported that "the statue of Elvis has spider webs on it, and the mini-marquee is missing a letter or two"….hmmm, could be connected to the missing colonists.  

             1704 –Wednesday-  In the steel of the night
I held you
Held you tight
'Cause I love
Love you so
Promise I'll never
Let you go
In the steel of the night …
..apologies to the Five Satins……Happy Birthday,  Benjamin Huntsman, English inventor and manufacturer who invented the crucible process for casting steel.  This was first tried by bass fisherman but the casting frequently resulted in them being hurled from the boat so…it was soon realized that this process could be used to make superior tools and cutlery.

            1738 –Wednesday ………..A traitor is everyone who does not agree with me ………..Happy Birthday, King George (Hanover) III of Great Britain. George would make anyone’s top ten of loony monarchs (actually, listing the top 100 would be fairly easy too). His bizarre behavior and wild outbursts were treated as insanity. He was bound in a straitjacket and chained to a chair to control his ravings. While losing the colonies was his fault, his madness probably wasn’t.  Arsenic was the culprit.  Arsenic was found in massive amounts of George’s hair samples.  It seems that the most common medication he was given was James' powders, a routine medicine administered given several times a day - made of a substance called antimony. Antimony, even when purified, contains significant traces of arsenic. The arsenic from the very medication he was being given to control his "madness" was triggering more attacks.

 1783 –Wednesday- The Montgolfier brothers publicly demonstrated their hot air balloon called the  montgolfière.  Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier were paper mill owners. In their spare time they  were trying to float bags made of paper and fabric. When the brothers held a flame near the opening at the bottom, the bag (called a balon) expanded with hot air and floated upward. The Montgolfier brothers then built a much  larger paper-lined silk balloon and demonstrated it on June 4, 1783, in the marketplace at Annonay. Their balloon lifted 6,562 feet into the air….but there were no passengers.  That would occur on September 19, when a sheep, a rooster, and a duck flew (sounds like a joke…..a sheep, a rooster and a duck go into a bar…..What do you get when you cross a rooster and a duck?  A bird that wakes up at the quack of dawn, he said sheepishly) for eight minutes in front of, still with their heads, Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and the French court. First human flight was on October 15 Pilatre de Rozier and Marquis d'Arlandes were the brave souls.

            1792 –Monday-  Captain George Vancouver claimed  Puget Sound for the Kingdom of Great Britain. Vancouver was a veteran explorer and familiar with the Northwest, having served as a lieutenant on Capt. James Cook’s third voyage to the Pacific. On that voyage, Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to visit the Hawaiian Islands (when Cook was rendered kaput)  they also landed on present-day Vancouver Island — without realizing it was an island.  Vancouver had arrived in April but he made the claim on this day because it was the birthday of King George III (see 1738 above). While in Puget Sound Vancouver named 75 prominent features, from bays to mountains. Many of these remain to this day, including Admiralty Inlet, Mount Baker, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, Port Townsend, Hood’s Canal (today Hood Canal), Whidbey Island, Deception Pass and Vashon Island.  With George on his mind, he named der gor dover (whole thing) New Georgia.

            1844-Monday-  Few problems are less recognized, but more important than, the accelerating disappearance of the earth's biological resources. In pushing other species to extinction, humanity is busy sawing off the limb on which it is perched. Paul Ehrlich

 ……An "aukward"  moment in wildlife history. The great auk became extinct when the last one died on Eldey Island.  A pair was beaten to death and its egg was broken according to Peter Mass on the Extinction Website http://www.petermaas.nl/extinct/speciesinfo/greatauk.htm

 There are no penguins at the North Pole (only the South) but the great auk was known as the 'penguin of the north'. Although not a penguin, it resembled these flightless birds of the Southern Hemisphere not only with its small wings, but also with its black back, white abdomen, and upright posture.          

            1859 –Saturday  In the Battle of Magenta, the French army, under Louis-Napoleon, defeated the Austrian army as they went back to the fuchsia.   All of the uniforms were reddish, roseate, rose-colored.  The battle occurred during the Franco-Piedmontese war against the Austrians (this was the second War of Italian Independence if you’re keeping score) in Lombardy, northern Italy. The French victory over the Austrians was an important step toward Italian independence,

            1876 –Sunday-  Driving that train, high on cocaine,
Casey Jones YOU BETTER, watch your speed.
Trouble ahead, trouble behind,
And you know that notion just crossed my mind.
This old engine makes it on time,
Leaves Central Station 'bout a quarter to nine,
Hits River Junction at seventeen TO,
At a quarter to ten you know it's DRIVIN' again……
.Grateful Dead………The Transcontinental Express arrived in San Francisco, California, via the First Transcontinental Railroad only 83 hours and 39 minutes after leaving New York City.  The trip would have been considerably faster had they not stopped at the Liberace Museum. Las Vegas, Nevada, Da Tourist Trap & Museum in Yooperland. Upper Peninsula, Michigan, World's Only Corn Palace. Mitchell, South Dakota, Carhenge. Alliance, Nebraska, Seattle's Gum Wall, Barbed Wire Museum in Texas, and the National Museum of Funeral History, also in Texas (is it a great state or what?)

             1872 –Tuesday- I know a girl who thinks of ghosts
She'll make ya breakfast
She'll make ya toast
She don't use butter
She don't use cheese
She don't use jelly
Or any of these
She uses vaseline(
She uses vaseline,
She uses vaseline………….the
Flaming Lips……….A process for making Vaseline was patented by Robert Chesebrough of New York City. Chesebrough had worked in the oil-fields of Pennsylvania. He noticed that oil workers would smear their skin with the residue from their drills, called rod wax,  and it appeared to aid the healing of cuts and burns. After months of testing, he managed to successfully extract usable petroleum jelly. The vaseline is a product from petroleum, made from the residue of petroleum distillation left in the still after all oil has been vaporized.  And thanks to the Ask A Scientist website we know that mostly, it is a mixture of different length chains of carbon molecules containing between 20 and 25 carbon atoms. These are considered long chained hydrocarbons. Small chained carbons are like methane and propane. The longer chains have a higher boiling point, and have a semi-solid state at standard temperature and pressure.

            1877 Monday- My liver swells with bile difficult to repress……Horace……

Happy Birthday, Heinrich Wieland, German biochemist, Nobel winner in Chemistry, 1927, who studied bile acids. Yes, it was a bile experience for Heinrich.  Wieland he showed that three principle ingredients in liver secretions (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and lithocholic acid) are chemically similar, and all three are steroids but he is best remembered for his theory that oxidation in living tissues is more a matter of hydrogen atoms being removed than of the addition of oxygen.

            1896 –Thursday-  Henry Ford completed the Ford Quadricycle, his first gasoline-powered automobile, and had a successful test run…..that is after a bit of remodeling.  He built it in the shed behind his home and  half the side of it had to be removed, since the shed door was too small.

             1906-Monday-  Pathologist Howard T. Ricketts discovered that Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is caused by an unusual microbe spread by ticks.  Interesting that someone with Rickets discovered the cause of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.  The Encyclopedia of Public Health notes that by using laboratory animals, Ricketts was able to demonstrate that ticks transmitted the disease and this finding led to a public health campaign that targeted the elimination of ticks. Although Ricketts observed a very small bacillus, he was unable to isolate and culture the causal agent using contemporary laboratory techniques. Nonetheless, his work suggested that bacterial diseases could be biologically transmitted from pests to people. He published his findings in the Journal of the American Medical Association under the gripping title A Micro-Organism Which Apparently Has a Specific Relationship to Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: A Preliminary Report in 1909.

            1910 –Saturday…singing cockerells and muscles alive alivo  ….Happy Birthday, Christopher Sydney Cockerell, British engineer and inventor who invented the hovercraft in 1956.  The theory behind one of the most successful inventions of the 20th century  was originally tested in 1955 using an empty cat food can inside a coffee can, an industrial air blower and a pair of kitchen scales. Cockerell was initially testing out the idea that it was possible to produce a cushion of air between the bottom of the tins and the surface of the scales.

            1912 –Tuesday-  It is not the employer who pays the wages. Employers only handle the money. It is the customer who pays the wages…..Henry Ford…. Massachusetts became the first state of the United States to set a minimum wage to encourage employers to pay “standard” wages to women and children.  It was ruled unconstitutional by Supreme Court in 1923.  In 1938 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA). The act applied to industries whose combined employment represented only about one-fifth of the labor force. In these industries, it banned oppressive child labor and set the minimum hourly wage at 25 cents, and the maximum workweek at 44 hours.

             1913Wednesday,  Emily Davison, a suffragette, cleverly ran out in front of King George V's horse, Anmer, at the Epsom Derby. Unfortunately, the horse was running full speed at the time and Davison was trampled and never regained consciousness before going kaput a few days later. The jockey’s injuries included a fractured rib, a bruised face and slight concussion. Anmer, the  horse having gone over, got to his feet and completed the race minus his jockey and with some bruised shins.

            1916 –Sunday – Happy Birthday, Robert F. Furchgott American chemist, awarded the  Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1998.  Furchgott’s focus was investigating the interaction between drugs and the receptors in blood vessels. His research showed that an unknown signaling molecule is produced in blood vessels. Furchgott called this the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). It was later discovered that the unknown factor was nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide h acts to increase the diameter of blood vessels, providing a new means to relax, widen, and increase the capacity of blood vessels. This led to  life-saving effect by nitroglycerin and other related medicines for the heart. Yes, and Viagra too.

            1917 –Monday-  Between the Pulitzer Prizes, the American Academy of Arts and Letters and its training-school, the National Institute of Arts and Letters, amateur boards of censorship, and the inquisition of earnest literary ladies, every compulsion is put upon writers to become safe, polite, obedient, and sterile. In protest, I declined election to the National Institute of Arts and Letters some years ago, and now I must decline the Pulitzer Prize. 
            —Sinclair Lewis, Letter to the Pulitzer Prize Committee……. The first Pulitzer Prizes are awarded: Laura E. Richards, Maude H. Elliott, and Florence Hall received the first Pulitzer for biography (for Julia Ward Howe). Jean Jules Jusserand received the first Pulitzer for history for his work With Americans of Past and Present Days and Herbert B. Swope received the first Pulitzer for journalism for his work for the New York World (later to merge with the New York Telegram, then the New York Sun to form the World Telegram and Sun…..killed in 1962 by greedy union workers.).  Publisher Joseph Pulitzer had made provisions in his will for Pulitzer Prizes as an incentive to excellence, Pulitzer specified solely four awards in journalism, four in letters and drama, one for education, and four traveling scholarships. In letters, prizes were to go to an American novel, an original American play performed in New York, a book on the history of the United States, an American biography, and a history of public service by the press.

1919-Wednesday- Congress passed  the 19th Amendment to the Constitution which ensures women the right to vote.  It was ratified 441 days later when Tennessee became the 36th state to vote for ratification.  his amendment was specifically rejected by Georgia on Jul 24, 1919; by Alabama on Sep 22, 1919; by South Carolina on Jan 28, 1920; by Virginia on Feb 12, 1920; by Maryland on Feb 24, 1920; by Mississippi on Mar 29, 1920; by Delaware on Jun 2, 1920; and by Louisiana on Jul 1, 1920….although all would eventually see the error of their ways with Mississippi being the last in 1984

            1920 –Friday-  Hungary lost 71% of its territory, 63% of its population and 49% of its goulash when the Treaty of Trianon was signed in Paris.  Other than that, everything was fine.  The treaty concluded  World War I and was signed by representatives of Hungary on one side and the Allied Powers on the other at the Trianon Palace at Versailles, France.  Czechoslovakia was given Slovakia, sub-Carpathian Ruthenia, the region of Pressburg (Bratislava), and other minor sites. Austria received western Hungary (most of Burgenland). The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) took Croatia-Slavonia and part of the Banat. Romania received most of Banat and all of Transylvania. Italy received Fiume and the Gabor sisters were sent to the United States.

            1928 –Monday -  The warlord of Manchuria, and former ally of Japan,   Zhang Zuolin was assassinated by Japanese agents as they blew up his train.

             1937-Friday-The customers had a tendency to stop shopping when the baskets became too full or too heavy …..Sylvan Goldman…….The first shopping carts were introduced at the Humpty Dumpty supermarket in Oklahoma City. They were invented by the store owner, Sylvan Goldman who devised a  metal frame that held two wire baskets.  They were not, alas and instant success, as  the site, Idea Finder tells us,  the customers didn’t want to use the carts. Young men thought they would appear weak; young women felt the carts were unfashionable; and older people didn’t want to appear helpless. So, Goldman hired models of all ages and both sexes to push the things around the store, pretending they were shopping. That, and an attractive store greeter encouraging use of the carts, did the trick. By 1940 shopping carts had found so firm a place in American life as to grace the cover of the Saturday Evening Post. Supermarkets were redesigned to accommodate them. Checkout counter design and the layout of aisles changed.

            1939 –Sunday-  And thus I clothe my naked villany
With odd old ends stol'n out of holy writ,
And seem a saint, when most I play the devil…….King Richard III (I, iii, 336-338)
……Ah bureaucracy…..The German transatlantic liner,  St. Louis, a ship carrying 963 Jewish refugees, was denied permission to land in Florida, after already being turned away from Cuba. Legally the refugees could not enter on tourist visas, as they had no return addresses, and the U.S. had enacted immigration quotas in 1924.  It was forced to return to Europe where the the ship was able to dock in Antwerp, Belgium; and the governments of Belgium, Holland, France, and the United Kingdom agreed to accept the refugees. Unfortunately, by 1940, all of the passengers, except those who escaped to England, found themselves once again under Nazi rule and more than 200 of its passengers would later die in Nazi concentration camps.

            1942 –Thursday- The beginning of the Battle of Midway as  Japanese Admiral Yamamoto ordered a strike on Midway Island  (an atoll) by much of the Imperial Japanese navy in an effort to draw out and destroy the U.S. Pacific Fleet's aircraft carrier striking forces, which had embarrassed the Japanese Navy in the mid-April Doolittle Raid on Japan's home islands and at the Battle of Coral Sea in early May. He planned to quickly knock down Midway's defenses, follow up with an invasion of the atoll's two small islands and establish a Japanese air base there.  Yamamoto's intended surprise (since the Russo Japanese War, Japan loved surprise attacks) was thwarted by American communications intelligence, which deduced his scheme well before battle was joined. This allowed Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, the U.S. Pacific Fleet commander, to establish an ambush by having his carriers ready and waiting for the Japanese. On  June 4 1942, the trap was sprung.   Although it was a close run thing with a great deal of good luck….the U.S planes were in the air on the way to attack the Japanese, when the Japanese planes attacked the U.S airfield….then later, the U.S planes got to the Japanese carriers when the Japanese planes had landed for refueling…..on the American side.  The battle cost Japan four irreplaceable fleet carriers, while only one of the three U.S. carriers present was lost.

            1942- Thursday  Out on the plains down near Santa Fe
I met a cowboy ridin' the range one day
And as he jogged along I heard him singin'
The most peculiar cowboy song
It was a ditty, he learned in the city
Comma ti yi yi yeah
Comma ti yippity yi yeah
Now get along, get hip little doggies
Get along, better be on your way
Get along, get hip little doggies
He trucked 'em on down that old fairway
Singin' his Cow Cow Boogie in the strangest way
Comma ti yi yi yeah
Comma ti yippity yi yeah
. The record label started the year before by songwriter Johnny Mercer, Liberty Records, was renamed Capitol. Capitol  became  the  first major West Coast label (RCA-Victor, Columbia and Decca were all based in New York) CEO Glenn Wallichs came up with the idea of sending free copies of Capitol 78s to radio stations, thus becoming the first record promoter.  The earliest recording artists included Paul Whiteman, Martha Tilton, and Ella Mae Morse. Capitol's first gold single was Morse's Cow Cow Boogie in 1942

            1953 –Thursday- A watershed day in cinematic history as both Julius Caesar and The Lost Planet had their premieres.  People who could not get to The Lost Planet  premiere had to settle for Julius Caesar, directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz, starred Marlon Brando as Marc Antony, James Mason as Brutus and Louis Calhern as Caesar.  Love interest was supplied by Greer Garson as Calpurnia and Deborah Kerr as Portia. (Michael Ansara who went on to play Cochise in television’s Broken Arrow, had a minor role as did John Lupton, Ansara’s co-star in Broken Arrow……really….if it wasn’t for the Gnus, you wouldn’t know these things). Meanwhile, at The Lost Planet, directed by Spenser G. Bennett (who went on to direct Adventures of Captain Africa, Mighty Jungle Avenger!) as two newspaper reporters – Judd Holdren and Vivian Mason battled a plot by the evil Dr. Grood (played by Michael Fox but not Michael J. Fox) to conquer the world.

1961Sunday-  John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev agreed on neutrality for Laos, - well that certainly worked out well

            1963-Tuesday- Truckin' got my chips cashed in. Keep truckin', like the do-dah man. Together, more or less in line, just keep truckin' on…….Grateful Dead……Six-year-old Robert (Bobby) Patch received a U.S. patent for a "Toy Truck".  Young Robert created a truck that could be taken apart and rebuilt by a kid…..or even a mechanically challenged adult like Professor Sy Yentz.   It could also be transformed into several different kinds of truck  The truck separated into a chassis, driver's cab, truck body, wheels and four axles so it could be reassembled in either a closed van body or dump truck form.

            1973 –Monday-  A patent for the ATM was granted to Donald Wetzel, Tom Barnes and George Chastain.  This was by no means the first ATM.  In 1939, Luther Simjian patented an early and not terribly successful prototype of an ATM. James Goodfellow of Scotland holds a patent date of 1966 for a modern ATM, and John D White  in the US is often credited with inventing the first free-standing ATM design. In 1967, John Shepherd-Barron invented and installed an ATM in a Barclays Bank in London. Don Wetzel invented an American made ATM in 1968 and got his patent….but wait, patents are issued on Tuesdays n’est pas?  Clearly this was a Monday ….another source claims May 18, but that was a Friday….We’re confused…… Wetzel said he got the idea while waiting on line at, yes, a bank. The ATM seems to have had as many inventors as the game of Monopoly.

            1974 –Tuesday- “ I’ve got a great promotional idea.  Let’s charge only 10 cents per beer at the baseball game with the Texas Rangers.  Really….both teams stink and no one would come to the game but this will bring them out to the old ball game.”  Brilliant moments in promotional advertising as during Ten Cent Beer Night - Stroh's beer at 10 cents per 10-ounce cup-  well oiled Cleveland Indians fans started a riot, causing the game to be forfeited to the Texas Rangers. 25,000 fans showed up to imbibe and watch the game at Municipal Stadium, which was a referred to as The Mistake on the Lake. During the pregame fans were setting off fireworks from their seats. During the 2nd inning, a very  large woman jumped down from the fans into the Indians' on-deck circle, lifted her shirt, and tried to kiss the umpire, Nestor Chylak. Then on to the 4th inning when in response to a Tome Grieve Ranger home run, a naked man from the stands ran onto the field and slid into second base.  By the 6th inning fireworks were shooting toward the Texas dugout. Unfortunately, Cleveland, losing 5-3 in the 9th inning somehow managed to tie the game. More fans ran onto the field in celebration. Then someone tried to steal Texas right fielder Jeff Burroughs' glove for a souvenir. Since the glove was still on Burrough’s hand, he objected. The fan punched Burroughs; Burroughs punched back. In reply, nearby drunk and angry fans jumped onto the field, swarming around Burroughs. Some still in the stands wrenched their chairs out of their bearings and threw them onto the field, aiming for Burroughs. Texas Rangers manager Billy Martin, always known for his calm, serene demeanor,  grabbed a bat and said to his team, "Let's get 'em, boys," on his way out of the clubhouse. When Martin and his team rushed the field, thousands of fans streamed out of the stands.  Things went downhill from there.  It was like Custer at the Little Big Horn, the Rangers were hopeless outnumbered by the Indians (fans). Teams fought with the fans on the field and tried to duck flying chairs and other projectiles. The fans fought with each other, with the Rangers, with the Indians, with the police. They threw a chair at an Indians pitcher, and they hit the umpire with a folding chair. Martin's bat was later recovered, broken. Cleveland forfeited the game.

            1975-Wednesday-  Paleontologists in North Carolina discovered the oldest animal fossil in the U.S., a 620 million year old marine worm.  The marine worm fossil, still singing “ Halls of Montezuma ", promptly invaded Iraq.

            1984- Mary had a little lamb, its fleece was slightly grey,
It didn't have a father, just some borrowed DNA.
It sort of had a mother, though the ovum was on loan,
It was not so much a lambkin, as a little lamby clone.
And soon it had a fellow clone, and soon it had some more,
They followed her to school one day, all cramming through the door.
It made the children laugh and sing, the teachers found it droll,
There were too many lamby clones, for Mary to control.
No other could control the sheep, since their programs didn't vary,
So the scientists resolved it all, by simply cloning Mary.
But now they feel quite sheepish, those scientists unwary,
One problem solved, but what to do, with Mary, Mary, Mary!
……..Anonymous…..DNA from an extinct mammal, the Quagga , a brown, horse-like beast with zebra stripes on the front of its body, which inhabited South Africa was successfully cloned by scientists at the University of California.  The quagga was seen as an unwanted grazing competitor to the farmers' livestock, as were all the other grass-eating wild animals and was hunted to extinction during the 19th century. The UCal scientists used samples from an over 140-yr-old quagga skin, and Larry King saliva,  in a German museum, and managed to extract enough DNA from the animal's flesh to determine some of its sequences of "base pairs," the molecular rungs that link the two spiral halves of a DNA molecule (looks like a ladder). The quagga DNA came from mitochondria, a structure in cells, rather than from the genome.The scientists showed the quagga DNA was more closely related to the zebra than the horse.

            1989 – Sunday- A white-washed crow won't stay white for long…..Unknown….Tiananmen Square massacre. Chinese troops attacked Tiananmen Square in the center of Beijing, killing and arresting thousands of pro-democracy protesters. Then the Communist government made believe it never happened.

            1996 –Tuesday-  The first flight of Ariane 5, launched by the European Space Agency didn’t go so well as it exploded roughly 20 seconds after launch at Kourou, French Guiana  Ariane explosion The rocket was on its first voyage, after a decade of development costing $7 billion. The destroyed rocket and its cargo were valued at $500 million…..well that sure gave everyone a warm, fuzzy feeling. It turned out that the cause of the failure was a software error in the inertial reference system. A 64 bit floating point number relating to the horizontal velocity of the rocket with respect to the platform was converted to a 16 bit signed integer. The number was larger than 32,767, the largest integer storeable in a 16 bit signed integer, and thus the conversion failed sort of like when you cut and paste text from a website and it pastes at size 82 font on your page.  Other fallout from the failure included a rain of mutated microbes that quickly spread to China making Chinese tourists even more annoying than Japanese tourists.

            2001 –Monday  Nepal's King Dipendra went kaput.  Three  days earlier, the then Crown Prince Dipendra, 30, combining regicide, matricide, and siblingcide, opened fire and shot all the members of the royal family including King Birendra, Queen Aiswarya and Prince Nirajan, before turning the gun on himself. It was believed that Prince Dipendra was angry over a marriage dispute. His mother objected to his choice of bride…can you imagine if he wanted to wed Wallace Simpson?
            2003 –Wednesday-  Kitchy, relentlessly self promoting television doyenne, Martha Stewart was indicted on federal charges of using illegal privileged information and then obrstructing an investigation. She resigned as chairman and chief executive officer of her company the same day.  She was ultimately found guilty of on all four counts of obstructing justice and lying to investigators about a well-timed stock sale –Imclone (did the cloning have anything to do with the Quagga?  See 1984 above), being a thoroughly nasty human being, having no talent, and consorting with K-Mart

            2005 – Saturday- Despite NASA recommendations that astronauts sleep 8 hours a day, they usually don't. Strange sights and sounds, the stress of riding a powerful rocket, the lack of a normal day-night cycle, threats of aliens jumping out of the co-pilot’s stomach, pumped in Cher songs from Earth, worrying about your next bowl movement, concern over which crew mate is really The Thing--all these things tend to keep space travelers awake. A report issued showed that astronauts typically sleep 0.5 to 2.5 hours less than they do on Earth.

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World Environment Day  -Oh Beautiful for smoggy skies, insecticided grain,
For strip-mined mountain's majesty above the asphalt plain.
America, America, man sheds his waste on thee,
And hides the pines with billboard signs, from sea to oily sea
…..George Carlin………By resolution 2994 (XXVII) of December 15, 1972, the General Assembly designated June 5 as World Environment Day, to deepen public awareness of the need to preserve and enhance the environment. The date was chosen because it was the opening day of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972), which led to the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)…..Well that’s certainly worked out well.  It’s also Hot Air Balloon Day, see 1783 June 4.        

            469 BC Wednesday-  By all means marry; if you get a good wife, you'll be happy. If you get a bad one, you'll become a philosopher………Happy Birthday (approximately), Socrates, Greek philosopher.  He is considered one of the founders of Western philosophy. Socrates strongly influenced Plato, who was his student, and Aristotle, whom Plato taught, making Socrates Aristotle’s Grand Teacher.  A handy dandy mnemonic for the correct order of the three is SPA.  His work continues to form an important part of the study of philosophy. Socrates himself left no writings, and most of our knowledge of him and his teachings comes from the dialogues of his most famous pupil, Plato, and from the memoirs of Xenophon(Greek historian, essayist, soldier and xylophone expert). Using a method now known as the Socratic dialogue, or dialectic, he drew forth knowledge from his students by pursuing a series of questions and examining the implications of their answers. Socrates looked upon the soul as the seat of both waking consciousness and moral character, and held the universe to be purposively mind-ordered. In 399 B.C. Socrates was tried for corrupting the morals of Athenian youth, for religious heresies, and watching Jersey Shore. It is now believed that his arrest stemmed in particular from his influence on Alcibiades and Critias, who had betrayed Athens to Sparta during the Peloponnesian war War. He was convicted and drank the cup of poison hemlock claimed it tasted like chicken and went kaput.

            1553 –Friday-  Happy Birthday, Bernardino Baldi, Polyglot, polygraph, and poet Italian mathematician and physicist…..which ended the alliterative description.  He was, perhaps, the most universal genius of his age, and is said to have written upwards of a hundred different works, the chief part of which have remained unpublished. Baldi’s  principal contribution to physics was a commentary on has been called the  pseudo-Aristotelian Questions of Mechanics, thirty-five problems become the pretext for long digressions,  on the topic which was written in the 1580's, but was published in 1621 after Baldi's death. In this he developed the idea of  Archimedes’ center of gravity.

             1656-Monday-  Tiptoe through the window
By the window, that is where I'll be
Come tiptoe through the tulips with me
Oh, tiptoe from the garden
By the garden of the willow tree
And tiptoe through the tulips with me
Knee deep in flowers we'll stray
We'll keep the showers away
And if I kiss you in the garden, in the moonlight
Will you pardon me?
And tiptoe through the tulips with me …..
Joe Burke and Al Dubin…… Happy Birthday, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort , French botanist and physician, a pioneer in systematic botany. His system of plant classification represented a major advance in his day.  Hewas responsible for defining a genus as a cluster of species and distinguished between the description of a plant and its nomenclature. Among his notable classifications were Genus – Gave Me a Rashium, Genus – Smells Like a Sweat Sockium, and Genus – Ate My Dogium.  

            1760 Thursday- Happy Birthday, Johan Gadolin, Finnish chemist, an expert in the chemistry of the elements known as the lanthanide series of elements- the 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium (aka rare earths) . They are stuck down at the bottom of the periodic table because they can barely be distinguished from one another.  Gadolin's best known achievement was in 1794 the discovery of yttria which was a new earth (element in oxide form), present in a black mineral found seven years earlier in Ytterby quarry near Stockholm. This was the first rare earth (lanthanide) element discovered; later the mineral was named in his honor gadolinite and element 64 gadolinium.  Ytterium -Atomic Number: 39, Atomic Weight:  88.90585 is pronounced as IT-ri-em. Gadolinium, Atomic Number: 64 has an Atomic Weight of  157.25  In all, seven elements trace their “roots” to Ytterby.

            1819 Saturday- Bacchus hath drowned more men than Neptune…..Thomas Fuller…….. Happy Birthday, John C. Adams, British mathematician and astronomer, one of two people who independently discovered the planet Neptune, although Urbain Leverrier of the Berlin Observatory usually gets the credit.  Neptune was discovered by means of mathematics before it was actually seen through a telescope.  In 1843,Adams  had begun working to find the location of the unknown planet. He predicted the planet would be about 1 billion miles (1.6 billion kilometers) farther from the sun than Uranus. He completed this remarkably accurate work in September 1845 and sent it to Sir George B. Airy, the Astronomer Royal of England. However, Airy, joining the long list of dolts who did not listen to genius when it appeared before them, did not look for the planet with a telescope. Apparently, he lacked confidence in  young Adams. Meanwhile, Urbain J. J. Leverrier, a young French mathematician, independent of Adams’ work,  began working on the project. By mid-1846, Leverrier also had predicted Neptune's position. He sent his predictions, which were similar to those of Adams, to the Urania Observatory in Berlin, Germany. Johann G. Galle. Unlike, Airy, Galle listened to the mathematician and on Sept. 23, 1846, Galle and his assistant, Heinrich L. d'Arrest, found Neptune near the position predicted by Leverrier. Today, both Adams and Leverrier are credited with the discovery.  Adams made many other contributions to astronomy, notably his studies of the Leonid meteor shower  in 1866 where he showed that the orbit of the meteor shower was very similar to that of a comet. He was able to correctly conclude that the meteor shower,  was associated with the comet. We now know that most meteor showers are associated with comets. 

            1850 –Wednesday-  Quien es?....Happy Birthday, Pat Garrett, American Western lawman famous for killing Billy the Kid in 1881.  Garrett, a former friend of Henry McCarty, William Bonney, Henry Antrim…..Billy the Kid, had been appointed Sheriff of Lincoln County, New Mexico, took his job seriously and began the relentless pursuit of the outlaw. Garrett set-up many traps and ambushes in an attempt to apprehend Billy, but the Kid kept eluding him.  Finally on July 14, 1881, Sheriff Garrett shot “The Kid”  dead at Fort Sumner, N.M in one Pete Maxwell's darkened bedroom. Garrett was squatting alongside the mattress talking with Maxwell as the Kid entered the room. Mr. The  Kid cocked his revolver and whispered "Quien es?" ("Who is it?"). Mr. Garrett answered by firing twice with one bullet striking the Mr. The Kid squarely in the heart. Garrett lived the rest of his life off the fame of being Billy the Kid’s killer. Most people in the area saw him as a villain for having killed a favorite son. Although he had put his life on the line for his community, he lost the next election for sheriff of Lincoln County.

            1851 –Thursday- Yes Eliza, it's all misery, misery, misery! My life is bitter as wormwood; the very life is burning out of me. I'm a poor, miserable, forlorn drudge; I shall only drag you down with me, that's all. What's the use of our trying to do anything, trying to know anything, trying to be anything? What's the use of living? I wish I was dead!"…..Uncle Tom's Cabin, Ch. 2 ……..Harriet Beecher Stowe's anti-slavery serial, Uncle Tom's Cabin or, Life Among the Lowly, her a polemical novel illustrating the moral responsibility of the entire nation for the cruel system, started a ten-month run in the National Era, an abolitionist newspaper.  She was paid $300 and the novel ran in forty installments. It would be published as a book in March 1852.

            1862 Thursday- Are the stars out tonight?
I don't know if it's cloudy or bright
I Only Have Eyes For You, Dear.
The moon maybe high
but I can't see a thing in the sky,
'Cause I Only Have Eyes For You……
The Flamingoes…..(Harry Warren and lyricist Al Dubin….who also co-wrote Tiptoe Through the Tulips) Happy Birthday, Allvar Gullstrand, Swedish ophthalmologist and recipient of the 1911 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his research on refraction of light in the eye.  Gullstrand investigated  the way the eye refracts light, and invented the slit lamp for eye exams -- a device still used by ophthalmologists. He detailed the structure of the cornea (he studied cornea-on-the-cob) and improved corrective lenses for people who had undergone cataract surgery.

            1878 –Wednesday- Don't let it end like this. Tell them I said something….Pancho Villa’s last words………… Happy Birthday, Pancho Villa, Mexican revolutionary. Though he was a killer, a bandit, and a revolutionary leader, many remember him as a folk hero (just like Che Guevera but not a communist). Villa was also responsible for a raid on Columbus, New Mexico in 1916, which was the first attack on U.S. soil since 1812. The U.S. sent several thousand soldiers across the border to hunt for Pancho. Though they spent over a year searching, they never caught him.  On May 20, 1920, Adolfo De la Huerta became the interim president of Mexico. De la Huerta wanted peace in Mexico so he negotiated with Villa for his retirement. Part of the peace agreement was that Villa would receive a hacienda in Chihuahua with an infinity pool, tiled floors, crown molding, ceiling fans, and upgraded appliances.  Villa retired from his merry revolutionary life in 1920 but had only a short retirement for he was kaputed down in his car on July 20, 1923.  The assassins were never arrested.

            1877-Tuesday- The eyes of taxes are upon youNew York, as ever,  a state willing to tax anything (including the patience of the residents), in an effort to protect the dairy industry, passed a law to tax oleomargarine. When a court voided the ban on margarine in New York, the dairy industry “udderly” infuriated,  turned its attention to Washington, home to even more obtuse office bearers than NY, resulting in Congressional passage of the Margarine Act of 1886. Margarine had first been created in France in 1870  by Hippolyte Mège-Mouriez for  the Emperor Louis Napoleon III.

            1882 Monday- The scientific theory I like best is that the rings of Saturn are composed entirely of lost airline luggage.  …..Mike Russell………..John Mitchell Lyons, railway clerk in Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada, received a patent for "Improvements in Baggage Checks and Coupon Tickets".  This was a way to track and identify luggage, separable baggage check tags.  The  baggage check separated into halves along a perforation with  both pieces printed with same route information and identifying number; one half attached to bag, other given to passenger to claim luggage at destination.  Well that has certainly worked out well

            1884-Thursday-  At the Republican Convention (June 3-6), Civil War hero General  William T. Sherman refused the Republican presidential nomination, saying, "I will not accept if nominated and will not serve if elected." This resulted in the nomination of James G. Blaine of Maine, for President and John A. Logan of Illinois, for Vice-President.  The ticket then  lost in the election of 1884 to Democrats Grover Cleveland and Thomas A. Hendricks

            1895 –Wednesday Happy Birthday, William Boyd, American actor better known as Professor Sy Yentz favorite childhood western cowboy hero, Hopalong Cassidy. He started the Hopalong series in 1935 and after he had made 54 "Hoppies" for his original producer, Harry Sherman, Sherman dropped the series. Boyd then produced and starred in 12 more on his own. In 1948 Boyd, in a wise and precedent-setting move, bought the rights to all his pictures just as television, and young Professor Sy Yentz,  were  looking for Saturday-morning western fare. He starred in the television series until 1954 with his horse Topper, and his sidekick played by George ‘Gabby’ Hayes, and later, by Andy Clyde.  It was the first significant Western to appear on network television and began in 1949.  The last episode, Tricky Fingers aired on  April 2, 1954. The reruns went on and on. Professor Sy Yentz parents took a very young (age 4) Professor Sy Yentz to see Hopalong Cassidy live at Madison Square Garden.  They secured first row seats.  When Hoppy made his grand entrance and road Topper along the first row greeting and waiving to fans, Professor Sy Yentz, ever the shy one, hid behind the railing.  

            1900-Tuesday Happy Birthday, Dennis Gabor ( we wish he was the brother of either Zsa Zsa or Eva - we get them confused- Gabor….but he wasn’t), Hungarian-born electrical engineer who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1971 for his invention of holography (holograms).  His first holograms using mercury-vapor lamps demonstrated the principle, but were dim and difficult to view. Holograms require a coherent set of waves, not easily available until the advent of the laser in 1960. Look for those holograms on your driver’s license, in Europe telephone credit cards use holograms to record the amount of remaining credit. Fighter pilots use holographic displays of their instruments so they can keep looking straight up. Museums keep archival records in holograms. One of the best uses for holography is candy. The candy’s surface is etched into tiny prism-like ridges that display 3-D images in brilliant iridescent colors. Gabor’s other work included research on high-speed oscilloscopes, communication theory, physical optics, and television. And no, he was not related to either Zsa Zsa or Eva Gabor, otherwise he would have been a Himbo.

         1941 –Thursday-  Four thousand Chongqing residents were asphyxiated in a bomb shelter during a four hour episode of the Bombing of Chongqing which had commenced on  February, 18 1938 and would continue through  August, 23, 1943.  This was part of an Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service terror bombing operation on the Chinese provisional capital of Chongqing

            1942 – Friday- Having forgotten that they existed, what with Pearl Harbor and Hitler…. United States finally got around to declaring war on Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania.  Actually, they had declared war on the U.S on June 2 but the Bulgarian’s sent a really heavy manish woman walking along dirt roads to the U.S embassy in Sophia.  The Hungarians sent the declaration in a take-out portion of goulash delivered to the embassy in Budapest, and the Romanians sent it via Gypsy crystal ball….actually and 8-ball, with instructions to ask Has Romania declared war?  The 8-ball then showed “signs point to yes”.

            1943 –Saturday-  In the  75th running of the  Belmont Stakes, jockey Johnny Longden aboard Count Fleet won the third “jewel” in the Triple Crown having previously won the Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes. Having thoroughly beaten all comers, only two horses were entered against “The Count” – Fairy Manhurst and Deseronto. Good thing they didn’t have a trifecta in those days.  Count Fleet won by 25 lengths, a record which stood until Secretariat’s 31-length victory thirty years later. That evening, it was discovered that Count Fleet had bowed a tendon. He never raced again

            1947 –Thursday- It is logical that the United States should do whatever it is able to do to assist in the return of normal economic health in the world, without which there can be no political stability and no assured peace. Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos. Its purpose should be the revival of a working economy in the world so as to permit the emergence of political and social conditions in which free institutions can exist………….In a commencement speech at Harvard University, United States Secretary of State (former five star general) George Marshall called for economic aid to a still recovering war-torn Europe. Officially known as the European Recovery Program, the Marshall Plan began in 1948.

             1956 –Thursday-  Elvis Presley introduced his new single, Hound Dog, on The Milton Berle Show.  Elvis scandalized the audience with his suggestive hip gyrations. In the media feeding frenzy that followed, other show hosts, including Ed Sullivan, denounced his performance. Ed swore he would never invite Presley on his own show, but that autumn, when it became clear that Elvis was a major star,  he booked Elvis for three shows. Actress Deborah Padgett also appeared on th Berle show and  Elvis performed a duet with Uncle Miltie, who was billed as Elvis’ brother Melvin Presley.

            1956-Thursday- Well, be-bop-a-lula, she's my baby
Be-bop-a-lula, I don't mean maybe
Be-bop-a-lula, she's my baby
Be-bop-a-lula, I don't mean maybe
Be-bop-a-lula, she's my baby love
My baby love, my baby love……..
  Meanwhile, Gene Vincent (and the Blue Caps) went into the echo machine and recorded  Be-Bop-A-Lula. Vincent would later be injured in the car crash that killed his good friend and fellow rocker Eddie Cochran in 1960.

            1964-Friday- David Jones and his band, The King Bees, released his first single, Liza Jane.  David Jones, wasn’t he the one who starred on Broadway in Oliver and then they stuck him in the Monkees?.... No, this David Jones had to change his name eventually to David Bowie because of the confusion with the Daydream Believer.

            1967 – Monday- The beginning of the Six-Day War as Israel, responding to a threatening build-up of Arab forces – the Muslims had been trying to destroy Israel since the country’s modern rebirth in 1948 - along its borders, launched simultaneous attacks against Egypt and Syria. Jordan then entered the war, but the Arab coalition was no match for Israel's proficient armed forces. In six days of fighting, Israel occupied the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt, the Golan Heights of Syria, and the West Bank and Arab sector of East Jerusalem, both previously under Jordanian rule. By the time the United Nations cease-fire took effect on June 11, Israel had more than doubled its size

          1968- Wednesday-  It’s on to Chicago.  Let’s win there……..At 12:50 a.m. PDT, Senator Robert F. Kennedy, a presidential candidate and brother of assassinated president John F. Kennedy , was shot three times by a an Islamic/Palestinian  assassin, Sirhan B. Sirhan in the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. Five others were wounded. The senator had just completed a speech celebrating his victory in the California presidential primary. Sirhan was to have been executed, but the U.S. Supreme Court voided the constitutionality of the death sentence before the sentence could be carried out. Kennedy was one of only two U.S senators to be assassinated, the other was Huey Long of Louisiana.

            1976-Saturday- Damn Dam Done. The Teton Dam, a 305-foot high earth-fill dam across the Teton River in Madison County, southeast Idaho, collapsed and released the contents of its reservoir at 11:57 AM.  The failure was initiated by a large leak near northwest abutment of the dam, about 130 feet below the crest. The dam, designed by, ironically,  the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, failed just as it was being completed and filled for the first time.  The collapse of the dam resulted in the deaths of 11 people and 13,000 cattle. The dam was never rebuilt.

            1977-Sunday-  If at first you don't succeed; call it version 1.0 ………The first personal computer, the Apple II, went on sale. It was the invention of Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs. You had to supply your own keyboard and monitor. The Apple II was one of three prominent personal computers that came out in 1977. Despite its higher price, it quickly pulled ahead of the TRS-80 and the Commodore Pet (possibly because the "Pet" wasn't housebroken.)

             1981-Friday- From the point of view of the pharmaceutical industry, the AIDS problem has already been solved. After all, we already have a drug which can be sold at the incredible price of $8, 000 an annual dose, and which has the added virtue of not diminishing the market by actually curing anyone…..Barbara Ehrenreich ……….An epidemic disease, later to be named AIDS that killed five homosexual men in Los Angeles,  was briefly described by Dr. Michael Gottlieb in the newsletter of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. This was the first notice to be published on AIDS, though it had not yet been given that name.  Gottlieb reported that within days of the June 5 report, doctors began telephoning from all over the nation to tell him about their own patients with pneumocystis - a form of pneumonia caused by the yeast-like fungus. Over time, intensive care units at UCLA and across the country began to fill with young homosexual men requiring ventilators, their lungs choked with the same strange organism. The AIDS epidemic was underway.

            2004 –Saturday-  Ronald W. Reagan, the 40th president of the United States, died, after a long struggle with Alzheimer’s disease.

            2008 –Thursday-  Flushed with success, It was a very good day for the crew on board the International Space Station.  The shuttle Discovery brought parts to fix the faulty toilet. The Russian flight engineer Oleg Kononenko was able to replace the broken urine collection pump in a two hour repair job and specialists in Moscow checked his work to verify it was working fine….. hopefully, they didn’t look up at the sky….Fortunately, the solid waste disposal was working o.k.I f  the repair was unsuccessful, it may have seriously hindered the manned presence on the station and many experiments would have gone down the toilet.

Back to Calendar


 1436-Monday-  You, who wish to study great and wonderful things, who wonder about the movement of the stars, must read these theorems about triangles. Knowing these ideas will open the door to all of astronomy and to certain geometric problems. ….Happy Birthday, Regiomontanus, aka, Johannes Müller von Königsberg arguably,  foremost mathematician and astronomer of 15th-century Europe. A letter from this period, sent to the astronomer Giovanni Bianchini  contained Regiomontanus' analysis of all the ways in which current (13th century) astronomical theory disagreed with the observed phenomena, he felt they were a few French fries short of a Happy Meal, and  expressed the hope of a collaborative effort to restore the discipline.  He wrote his book De Triangulis Omnimodis detailing methods for solving triangles, developed an astrolabe, a medieval instrument, now replaced by the sextant, that was once used to determine the altitude of the sun or other celestial bodies, set up a printing press in his own house and published various scientific and astrological works, and his  book Ephemerides was used by Christopher Columbus and Amerigo Vespucci to measure longitudes in their explorations of the New World

            1513-Friday - At the Battle of Novara in northern Italy during the War of the League of Cambrai Swiss troops defeated the French under Louis de la Tremoille, forcing the French to abandon Milan. Duke Massimiliano Sforza was restored to his dukedom, as Gene Chandler would call it, and had a cappuccino at the Just Cavalli Café, shopped at Quadrilatero d'Oro, and the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele.

            1523 –Wednesday-  A watershed day in Swedish history as Gustav Vasa was elected King of Sweden. This meant the denouement of  the Kalmar Union which was Scandinavian union (everyone had to be named Sven)  formed at Kalmar, Sweden, in June 1397 that brought the kingdoms of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark together under a single monarch   Then, same day 1654 Saturday- Charles X succeeded his abdicated cousin Queen Christina to the Swedish throne. We note that Christina (Kristina) was a remarkable monarch require in more than just this item, which we’ve done for her December 18, 1626 birthday.  Suffice to say, the hunch backed long nosed queen was portrayed by Greta Garbo and Liv Ullman on the big screen.  1809 –Saturday Sweden promulgated a new Constitution, which restored political power to the Riksdag of the Estates  as well as a new Freedom of Press Act and Act of Succession, under which the King still played a central role in government, however no longer independent of the Privy Council. The King (Gustav IV was deposed in March 1809 and the new king was calling himself, Charles XIII) was free to choose Councillors. 1857 –Wednesday-  Sophia of Nassau, she lived in a split level ranch near the Roosevelt Mall, her wedding reception was at Leonard’s,  married the future King Oscar II of Sweden-Norway. And lastly, so far,  1974 Monday- A new Instrument of Government is promulgated making Sweden a parliamentary monarchy. They still have a king or queen but the Riksdagen, is  a unicameral system. It has 349 members who are elected in proportional elections for a period of four years at a time. The term of office is four years.

            1580 –Tuesday-  Happy Birthday, Godefroy Wendelin, Flemish astronomer. Like many scientists in the 16th century, also took a Latin name, Vendelinus.  Vendinus  measured the distance between the Earth and the Sun using the method of Aristarchus. The value he calculated was 60% of the true value - 43 times the distance to the Moon; the true value is about 384 times; Aristarchus calculated about 20 times- but hey, nobody’s perfect. In 1643 he recognized that Kepler's third law applied to the satellites of Jupiter. Vendelinus crater on the Moon is named after him. Wendelin appears to have been the first to propose the law of the variation of the obliquity of the ecliptic. We put that in so that you can mention it in casual conversation some day.

            1644 –Friday- It don’t mean a thing if it ain’t got that Quing to Ming ……The Qing Dynasty began as Manchu forces led by the Shunzhi Emperor captured Beijing during the collapse of the Ming Dynasty. The Manchus (gezundheit!) would then  rule China until 1912 when the Republic of China was established.  The Ming dynasty began in 1368, and lasted until 1644 A.D. Its founder was a peasant, the third of only three peasants ever to become an emperor in China,  known as Hongwu Emperor, and he led the revolt against the Mongols and the Yuan Dynasty.

            1683 –Thursday- One time I went to a museum where all the work in the museum had been done by children. They had all the paintings up on refrigerators…..Steven Wright………The Ashmolean, the world's first university museum, opened in Oxford, England. In 1677, English archaeologist Elias Ashmole cleaned out his attic thought of having a yard sale but decided to donate  his collection of artifacts and curiosities to Oxford University. The Oxfordian directors then planned the construction of a building to display the items permanently. Architect Sir Christopher Wren was commissioned for the job, and on June 6, 1683, (we’ve also seen it as May 24, 1683 ….it depends on whom it was opened to)  the Ashmolean opened.  Even the use of the term 'Museum' was a novelty in English: a few years later the 'New World of Words' (1706) defined it as 'a Study, or Library; also a College, or Publick Place for the Resort of Learned Men', with a specific entry for 'Ashmole's Museum', described as 'a neat Building in the City of Oxford'.

            1755—Tuesday- I only regret,that I have but one life to lose for my country.

 Happy Birthday, Nathan Hale, American Revolutionary patriot. He was hanged, by order of General William Howe, as a spy, in the city of New York, at what is now the intersection of East Broadway and Market Streets, on September 22, 1776.  Hale was a teacher when he joined George Washington’s arm He volunteered to go behind British lines to gather intelligence but was  captured by the British on  September 21,  1776 and immediately admitted that he was spying for Washington. Hale's famous quote comes by way of a memoir by his friend, William Hull, who reported the famous last words as told to him by a British engineer who spoke with Hale

Stop this train
I want to get off and go home again
I can't take the speed it's moving in
I know I can't but honestly won't someone stop this train
……John Mayer……Andrew Jackson became the first President to ride on a railroad train.”Old Hickory” rode on a Baltimore and Ohio (B&O…buy it for $200)  train from Ellicott's Mill, MD to Baltimore. Jackson’s arch enemy, John Quincy had also taken that train, but not while he was President.  The steam locomotive was first developed in England at the beginning of the 19th century by Richard Trevithick and George Stephenson. The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad had begun operation in 1828 with horse-drawn cars, but steam power was added and by 1831, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad had completed a line from Baltimore to Frederick, Maryland. Two years later, Jackson gave railroad travel its presidential christening. Jackson accumulated a few other “firsts”. He the first president to be born in a log cabin and the first president to be nominated by a political party. He also survived the first attempt to assassinate a president.

             1847- Sunday……Between the optimist and the pessimist, the difference is droll. The optimist sees the doughnut; the pessimist the hole! …….Oscar Wilde……15 year old Hensen Crockett Gregory used a fork to poke out the centers of uncooked doughnuts his mother was making. This let the dough cook more thoroughly.  In 1937, the Salvation Army made this National Donut Day.  Doughnuts have been around for centuries. Archaeologists turned up several petrified fried cakes with holes in the center in prehistoric ruins in the Southwestern United States.  Professor Sy Yentz had one of these originals at the local convenience store yesterday. Most discussions about doughnut history begin with the mid-19th century and the first recorded doughnut recipes. At this time doughnuts were known as olykoeks, or oily cakes, and it's primarily the Dutch who are credited with taking sweet dough balls and frying them in pork fat. The Hensen Crockett story as a teenager is nice but another has him as a sea captain (note: he did become a sea captain)  with the steering of  boat poking a hole in the center during a storm. A doughnut origin debate was actually held in 1941. The Crockett story (both young and old) is the most popular but another theory came from one Chief High Eagle, a Wampanoag tribesman,  who said his people created the doughnut when several of their arrows missed settlers, striking Pilgrim's cakes instead. In 1872 John Blondel of Thomaston, Maine, took out a patent on a spring loaded doughnut hole machine and by the World War I doughnuts were so popular that the Salvation Army sent them to American troops. Mass production began with a machine introduced by a Bulgarian immigrant; Arnold Levitt in 1921. After World War II , Levitt dropped a “u”, a “g”, and an “h” and  founded the Donut Corporation of America.

            1853Friday- Continuing our presidents on trains theme for the day (see Andrew Jackson 1833 above) President-elect of the United States Franklin Pierce and his family were involved in a train wreck near Andover, Massachusetts. Their train-car derailed, toppled off the embankment, and rolled into a field below.  Franklin and Jane Pierce's son Benny died.  The family had already lost two children to typhus.  Jane Pierce blamed Franklin's political ambitions for their son's death. Grief stricken and an emotional wreck, Pierce assumed the Presidency. His presidency was a failure. His distraught wife withdrew from society.

            1868 –Wednesday- Happy Birthday,  Robert Falcon Scott, English explorer.  Talk about having a bad day, Scott lost the race to the South Pole. His first expedition on the Discovery (1901-04, an attempt that included Ernest Shackleton) took him within 450 miles of the South Pole before he had to turn back. Scott later led the Terra Nova expedition, which reached the pole in January, 1912  but whoops….. Norwegian Roald Amundsen had been there a month earlier. On the return trip Scott and his party of four all died of hunger and extreme cold. Their bodies were found 11 miles from a food and fuel depot.

            1865 –Saturday- Minstrel:  Brave Sir Robin ran away...
Sir Robin: No!
Minstrel: bravely ran away away...
Sir Robin: I didn't!
Minstrel: When danger reared its ugly head, he bravely turned his tail and fled.
Sir Robin: I never did!
Minstrel: Yes, brave Sir Robin turned about, and valiantly, he chickened out.
Sir Robin: Oh, you liars
Minstrel: Bravely taking to his feet, he beat a very brave retreat. A brave retreat by brave Sir Robin…….
Monty Python & the Holy Grail……….. Quantrill kaput.  Confederate Civil War raider (would be called a terrorist today), William Quantrill, who gave Jesse and Frank James their start, died from gunshot wounds suffered in a May skirmish with Union soldiers in Taylorville, Kentucky on May 10, 1865, where he was literally caught napping by Terrell's men, and shot in the back and shoulder as he tried to flee. Paralyzed, he lingered in great pain and died a month later, 27 years of age, in a Louisville hospital.

             1882-Saturday A guy walks into work, and both of his ears are all bandaged up. The boss says, "What happened to your ears?"
He says, "Yesterday I was ironing a shirt when the phone rang and shhh! I accidentally answered the iron."
The boss says, "Well, that explains one ear, but what happened to your other ear?"
He says, "Well, geez, I had to call the doctor!"
………… H.W. Seely  in New York City applied for a patent for the electric flat iron.  Early electric irons used a carbon arc to create heat, however, this was not a safe method……..as they tended to burn and possibly electrocute one as one ironed the collar of a shirt.  We note again that again in the Xeroxian world of the internet, this date is given for Seely obtaining a patent. Patents were issued on Tuesdays.  It would be Patented Oct. 30 1883 In 1892, hand irons using electrical resistance were introduced by Crompton and Co. and the General Electric Company.  It wasn’t until the early 1950s electric steam irons were introduced.  Smoothers made of glass have been found in the graves of Viking women, who used them to smooth the wrinkles from linen garments after a few days of conquering and pillaging.Thousand-year-old drawings from China and Korea show women pressing cloth using a metal pan filled with hot coals, so the art of "ironing" was already well established in some parts of the world even before the first "flatiron" was forged by some unknown blacksmith in Europe in the Middle Ages.

            1882 -Saturday  -More than 100,000 inhabitants of Bombay (now Mumbai) India were killed as a cyclone in the Arabian Sea pushed huge waves into the city’s harbor.  

          1882 – Still Saturday, 1882 –see electric flat iron and Bombay flood, the Shewan forces of Menelik defeat the Gojjame army in the Battle of Embabo. The Shewans capture Negus Tekle Haymanot of Gojjam, and heir victory leads to a Shewan hegemony over the territories south of the Abay River. We note the item because we had never heard of Shewan, Menelik, Gojjame, Negus Tekle Haymanot and the Abay River.   But if you must know, the battle took place in Ethiopia.

             1889 Thursday- Behold, how great a matter a little fire kindleth!
- New Testament: James 3:5
……….The Great Seattle Fire destroyed  the entire downtown Seattle, Washington. The University of Washington illuminates us further - On the afternoon of June 6, 1889, John Back, an assistant in Victor Clairmont's woodworking shop at Front Street (now First Avenue) and Madison Avenue, was heating glue over a gasoline fire. Sometime after 2:15, the glue boiled over, caught fire, and spread to the floors, which were covered by wood chips and turpentine. He tried to put the fire out with water, but that only served to thin the turpentine and spread the fire further. Everyone got out of the building safely, and the fire department got to the fire by 2:45. By that time, there was so much smoke that it was hard to find the source of the fire, and by the time it was found, the fire was out of control. The fire quickly spread to the Dietz & Mayer Liquor Store, which exploded, the Crystal Palace Saloon, and the Opera House Saloon. Fueled by alcohol, the entire block from Madison to Marion was on fire. http://content.lib.washington.edu/extras/seattle-fire.html

             1907-Thursday- Laundry Day
(You gotta keep 'em separated)
You like the latest fashions
You'd like to keep 'em clean
You take a trip every week to the laundromat
Throw a load in the washing machine
But if you don't wanna ruin your clothes
You gotta sort 'em out first as everyone knows
Remember bright colors and the others don't mix
Before you wash'em up, wash'em up, wash'em up, wash'em up……
Weird Al Yankovic……..An end to thousands of years of dirty clothes as  Persil, the first household detergent, was marketed by Henkel & Cie, of Düsseldorf, Germany as the first "self-acting" washing powder in the world. In 1880 soap started to compete with washing powder, which was originally simply pulverized soap. Henkel added perborate as a bleaching agent to the washing agent. During the washing process, the oxygen formed small bubbles, taking over the hard work at the washboard, saving time and taking the “sun” out of sun-bleaching. The name “Persil” is derived from the two most important chemical raw materials in the product, perborate and silicate. Unlike the chlorine that had be used up to then, it bleached the laundry in an especially gentle and odorless way., On June 6, 1907 advertisement announcing the product appeared in the newspaper Düsselforfer Zeitung. Persil was then launched on the market in hand-made and hand-filled packs made of strawboard with a printed outer wrapper. But it is not good to stick in the mouths of children who have used bad language.

1912 –Thursday- The eruption of Novarupta in Alaska began . It would be, according to Geology.com,  the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.  a tremendous blast sent a large cloud of ash skyward and the eruption of the century was underway. People in Juneau, Alaska, about 750 miles from the volcano, heard the sound of the blast – over one hour after it occurred. Sarah Palin could see it.  For the next 60 hours the eruption sent tall dark columns of tephra (clastic volcanic materials, as dust, ashes, or pumice, ejected during an eruption and carried through the air before deposition) and gas high into the atmosphere. By the time the eruption ended the surrounding land was devastated and about 30 cubic kilometers of ejecta blanketed the entire region. This is more ejecta than all of the other historic Alaska eruptions combined. It was also thirty times more than the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens and three times more than the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, the second largest in the 20th Century.           

             1918 –Thursday-  The first large-scale battle fought by American soldiers in World War I began in Belleau Wood, northwest of the Paris-to-Metz road.  It saw the re-capture by U.S. forces, under the command of Major General Omar Bundy, of the wood on the Metz-Paris road taken at the end of May by German thus ending what would be the last German offensive of the war.  The battle was also demoralizing for the Germans as getting weary after almost four years of war and casualties, very large American re-enforcement of the allied armies meant a fresh, well supplied foe to deal with. An armistice would be signed five months later on November 11.

              1925 –Saturday Maxwell Motors Corporation, of which Walter. P. Chrysler was board chairman, voluntarily transferred its business and physical properties to a new company organized as Chrysler Corporation. It would be incorporated on June 26. …and yes, Jack Benny drove a Maxwell.

            1932 –Monday-Happy Birthday, David Scott, American astronaut who was the first to drive a wheeled vehicle on the moon during the Apollo 15 mission on  July 31,  1971. He was in command of its Lunar Module which made the fourth lunar landing, and became the seventh person to walk on the moon and the first to use the Lunar Rover vehicle on the moon's surface for which he received multiple traffic citations.  Among them, failure to use a seat belt, driving on the wrong side of the road, speeding, and using an expired driver’s license.  A space veteran, Scott and command pilot Neil Armstrong were launched into space on the Gemini 8 mission-- on March 16, 1966--a flight originally scheduled to last three days but terminated early due to a malfunctioning thruster. Scott served as command module pilot for Apollo 9, March 3-13, 1969. This was the third manned flight in the Apollo series, the second to be launched by a Saturn V, and the first to complete a comprehensive earth-orbital qualification and verification test of a "fully configured Apollo spacecraft."   

            1932 – Let me tell you how it will be,
There’s one for you, nineteen for me,
‘Cause I’m the Taxman,
Yeah, I’m the Taxman.
Should five per cent appear too small,
Be thankful I don’t take it all.
‘Cos I’m the Taxman,
Yeah, I’m the Taxman.
(If you drive a car ), I’ll tax the street,
(If you try to sit ), I’ll tax your seat,
(If you get too cold ), I’ll tax the heat,
(If you take a walk ), I’ll tax your feet.
Taxman. ……..
The Beatles…………..In a taxing situation, the U.S Congress, warming up to its late 20th    century frenzy of tax increases, levied  the first gasoline tax as a part of the Revenue Act of 1932. The Act mandated a series of excise taxes on a wide variety of consumer goods. Congress placed a tax of 1¢ per gallon on gasoline and other motor fuel sold.

             1933-Tuesday-  The first drive-in movie theater was opened in Camden, New Jersey. Invented by Richard Hollingshead, a sales manager at his Whiz Auto Products, the patent for the Drive-In Theater had been issued on May 16, 1933. With an investment of $30,000, Hollingshead opened the first drive-in on Tuesday June 6, 1933 at a location on Crescent Boulevard, Camden, New Jersey. The price of admission was 25 cents for the car and 25 cents per person.  The first movie was Shrek, The Embryo starring Halle Berry and Alex Trebek.

            1939 –Tuesday Judge Joseph Force Crater was declared legally dead. On on the morning of August 6,  1930, purchased one seat for a comedy that was playing that night called Dancing Partners at the Belasco Theater. He then went to Billy Haas’ chophouse on West 45th Street for dinner. After dinner Crater waved goodbye to his friends and then entered a cruising taxi that he hailed down. His next, and most likely, final destination, remains a mystery and the stuff of legend.

            1939….. Tuesday- and, reincarnation fans…on the day Judge Crater was declared officially kaput……..Don't you know that I danced, I danced till a quarter to three
With the help, last night, of Daddy G.
He was swingin on the sax like a nobody could
And I was dancin' all over the room.
Oh, don't you know the people were dancin' like they were mad,
it was the swingin'est band they had, ever had.
It was the swingin'est song that could ever be,
It was a night with Daddy G.
Happy Birthday, Gary U.S. Bonds. Early 1960’s singer who started with  New Orleans, continued to Quarter to Three, was happy that School is Out, was depressed that School is In, ordered a pretzel requesting Dear Lady Twist, had a Mexican pretzel Twist, Twist Senora, and ate it over a  Seven Day Weekend. In the early 1980’s he collaborated with Bruce Springsteen on Dedication and Jolie Blon so he was never Out of Work.

            1942- Saturday- The first parachute jump in the U.S. using a nylon parachute was made by Adeline Gray. Leonardo da Vinci between 1483 and 1485, sketched an idea for a device (a "tent roof") that would let someone down safely from high buildings, but it stayed a concept, never getting off the drawing board. Parachutes were once made from silk but now they are almost always constructed from more durable woven nylon fabric, sometimes coated with silicone to improve performance and consistency over time. Nylon was a newly invented synthetic substitute produced by the DuPont Co. It had been exhibited at the 1939 New York World's Fair. Gray, a parachute rigger at the Pioneer Parachute Company jumped from an aircraft flying from Brainard Field, Hartford, Conn. Gray capitalized on her fame with a Camel’s cigarette advertisement “ Taste and Throat, that’s my test of a cigarette.  And the brand for me is camel.  They’re grand.”

            1943 –Sunday-  Happy Birthday Richard E. Smalley, American chemist and physicist. Smalley won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his discovery (with Robert F. Curl, Jr., and Sir Harold W. Kroto) of fullerenes, the third known form of pure carbon (diamond and graphite are the other two known forms). The atoms of fullerenes are arranged in a closed shell. Carbon60, the smallest stable fullerene molecule, consists of 60 carbon atoms that fit together to form a cage, with the bonds resembling the pattern of seams on a soccer ball. The molecule was given the name buckminsterfullerene because its shape is similar to the geodesic domes designed by the American architect and theorist R. Buckminster Fuller.

            1944-Tuesday-  We want to get the hell over there. The quicker we clean up this Goddamned mess, the quicker we can take a little jaunt against the purple pissing Japs and clean out their nest, too. Before the Goddamned Marines get all of the credit……. General George S. Patton, Jr ….June 5, 1944.  D-day, “Operation Overlord” as the allied armies invaded Normandy on the coast of France in a major offensive against the Nazis.  160,000 Allied Troops landed long a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline designated Sword Beach, Juno Beach, Gold Beach, Omaha Beach and Utah Beach,  to fight the Germans on the shores of Normandy. General Dwight D. Eisenhower had overall command of the more than 5,000 ships and 13,000 aircraft  which supported the D-Day invasion, and by day’s end on June 6, the Allies  had gained a foot- hold in Normandy. The cost was high -more than 9,000 Allied Soldiers were killed or wounded -- but more than 100,000 soldiers began the march across Belgium and France and into Germany to defeat the Nazis.  Why was it called D-Day?  Probably because D-Day is a term often used in military parlance to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated.

            1946 Thursday-  They're playing basketball(JD:Uh, all around the world)
We love that basketball(Uh, to the beat y'all)
They're playin basketball(lets go)
(All around the world)
we love that basketball
they're playin basketball
We love that basketball(y'all know this is So-So Def)
They're playing basketball(To the beat y'all)
We love that basketball(Yeah)
They're playing basketball
We love that basketball(Bow Wow:Yeah)
….Lil’ Bow Wow………(who then matured to Bow Wow)…..The Basketball Association of America is formed in New York City.  Initially there were sixteen teams.  Boston Celtics (1946-49; joined NBA)

 Chicago Stags (1946-49; joined NBA), Cleveland Rebels (1946-47-kaput), Detroit Falcons (1946-47-kaput),New York Knickerbockers (1946-49; joined NBA), Philadelphia Warriors (1946-49; joined NBA , moved to San Francisco in 1962), Pittsburgh Ironmen (1946-47 -kaput), Providence Steamrollers (1946-49 kaput), St. Louis Bombers (1946-49; joined NBA but went kaput in 1950)

Toronto Huskies (1946-47-kaput), Washington Capitols (1946-49; joined NBA – kaput 1951), Baltimore Bullets (1947-49; joined NBA – kaput during 1954/55 season), Fort Wayne Pistons (1948-49; joined NBA –moved to Detroit in 1957), Indianapolis Jets (1948-49; joined NBA), Minneapolis Lakers (1948-49; joined NBA moved to Los Angeles 1960), Rochester Royals (1948-49; joined NBA….hoo boy, follow this now – moved to Cincinnati in 1957, Kansas City 1972 where they would become the Kings, and Sacramento in 1985, still the Kings) Most would merge with the National Basketball Association in 1949. The BAA was the first league to attempt to play primarily in large arenas in major cities, although, during its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was inferior to other leagues and leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters, who played more basketball with less clowning in those days.

            1960-Monday- Singer Tony Williams left the Platters to embark upon a solo career. Well that certainly worked out well. Tony was not alone. For many groups, the whole was greater than the sum of it’s parts. Several, can you say Mick Jagger?, realized that a higher level of success meant staying with the group. Other’s like Frankie Valli, had some initial success as singles but retreated too the safey of the group (Four Seasons). For others though,  David Byrne, Talking Heads? Deborah Harry , Blondie? Billie Corgan, Smashing Pumpkins?, Any of the Eagles?, Joe Strummer, Mick Jones, The Clash?, Robbie Robertson, The Band? David Ruffin, Eddie Kendricks The Temptations? Rick Ocasek, The Cars? Roger Waters, Pink Floyd?, Any member of Kiss? Frankie Lymon, The Teenagers?, Sam or Dave?

            1964-Saturday  Goin' to the chapel and we're
Gonna get married
Goin' to the chapel and we're
Gonna get married
Gee, I really love you and we're
Gonna get married
Goin' to the chapel of love
The Dixie Cups' Chapel Of Love hits #1 on the Billboard Charts. It was written by Jeff Barry and Ellie Greenwich, and versions were also recorded by The Ronettes and Darlene Love, produced by Phil Spector…..sort of like throw them all against the wall and see which one sticks for a hit. It was also covered by The Beach Boys, Bette Midler, and, gasp, Elton John.  

            1971- Sunday-  Soyuz (based on a 1964 Beatles song, " I Soyuz Standing There") 11 was launched into orbit.  It carried the first men to a space station, Salyut 1. Yes, it was an opportunity to salyut the flag. In a rush to beat the Americans to a space station, the Soviets launched this ill-fated mission two years before the American Skylab.  The main telescope was inoperative due to failure of cover to jettison. There was a fire in the space station nearly resulting in emergency evacuation and finally, a fail-safe valve opening during re-entry resulted in decompression and death of entire crew.  Other than that that, things went fine.    The return to Earth carried mutant space fullerene based microbes that ultimately caused the disease, Amazingius Awesomnium Dullius which caused acute overuse of the adjectives amazing and awesome in the everyday speech of susceptible humans.    

            1971 – Me on the Ed Sullivan show?
Ed Sullivan
Me, Henry McAfee appearing with
Ed Sullivan
Ed-Ed Sullivan
Ah Ah Ed Sullivan
Ed Sullivan
Ed Sullivan
Ed Sullivan, Ed Sullivan
We're gonna be on Ed Sullivan…………
Charles Strouse and Lee Adams…….. Ed Sullivan Show kaput. On Sunday June 6, 1971 The Ed Sullivan Show   was cancelled on CBS-TV after 24 seasons. Ed, a New York newspaper columnist had begun the show – then called Toast of the Town on June 20, 1948. Among the first guests were the comedy team of Dean Martin & Jerry Lewis and the writing team of  Richard Rogers and Oscar Hammerstein II. The last show, on this day, was a rerun of the March 28, 1971 show starring ….a bit of a come down from Martin and Lewis and Rogers and Hammerstein…..singer, Melanie, David Frye (impressionist),  Danny Davis & the Nashville Brass, and comedian, Lennie Schultz.

            1975-Friday-   An anticyclonic, or clockwise    tornado was seen west of Alva Oklahoma. Most tornadoes spin in a cyclonic, or counterclockwise fashion.  This tornado actually picked up a farm house, carried it for miles and dropped it on a witch.

            1980-Friday-  The premiere of Urban Cowboy, a movie starring John Travolta, looking silly in a cowboy hat, and still taking advantage of his dance moves from Saturday Night Fever and Grease, although Scott Glenn stole the picture. Debra Winger was in there too but Bonnie Raitt, we love Bonnie Raitt, played herself.

            1985 –Thursday- And thus I clothe my naked villany
With odd old ends stol'n out of holy writ,
And seem a saint, when most I play the devil…
Richard……King Richard III (I, iii, 336-338) Authorities in Brazil exhumed a body later identified as that of “Angel of
Death”, Dr. Josef Mengele, the Nazi doctor who conducted medical experiments on inmates at Auschwitz during World War II.  He had drowned in 1979 at a Brazilian beach resort and was buried under an assumed name- Wolfgang Gerhard.

            1993 –Sunday-  Mongolia held its first direct presidential elections.  The voting was completed on June 13 when all the voting yurts had been accounted for and yak votes were disqualified.  Punsalmaagiyn Ochirbat won 57% of the vote. Lodonggiyn Tudev wond 36%.  In Mongolia that adds up to %100.

            2002 –Thursday-  A near-Earth asteroid estimated at 10 meters in diameter exploded over the Mediterranean Sea between Greece and Libya. The resulting explosion was estimated to have a force of 26 kilotons, slightly more powerful than the Nagasaki atomic bomb.  The object disintegrated and no part was recovered. Since it did not reach the surface and it exploded over the sea, no crater was formed. However, fallout did distribute fine particulates of C type carbon and silicates, that when inhaled by susceptible humans cause the syndrome scholasticus ad nauseum moronia, participants who prolong class or a meeting by  asking the most inane questions

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1420–Wednesday-   Sad news ...just as we were developing an affection for the Patriarcate of Aquileia,  troops of the Republic of Venice captured Udine, ending the independence of the Patriarchate of Aquileia.  In 1348 Aquileia was destroyed by an earthquake, and its patriarchs all moved to Udine a town in northeastern Italy, in the middle of Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, between the Adriatic sea and the Alps. The Venetians were not happy about this, perceiving it as a threat.. When the patriarch Louis of Teck (1412-39) picked the wrong side in a  war between Hungary and Venice, the latter seized on all the lands donated to the patriarchate by the German Empire.

            1494 –Thursday- “So we’ll trade you Rio De Janero for the rest of Brazil and Paraguay……”Spain and Portugal signed  the Treaty of Tordesillas which divided the New World between the two countries. After Columbus returned to Spain breathless with news of his exciting discoveries, Pope Alexander VI – the Borgia Pope, who just happened to be from Spain- gave Spain a head-start in the quest for domination over newly discovered regions of the world. The Pope decreed that all lands discovered west of a meridian 100 leagues (one league is 3 miles or 4.8 km, two leagues are the National and the Americn) west of the Cape Verde Islands should belong to Spain while new lands discovered east of that line would belong to Portugal. This papal bull also specified that all lands already under the control of a "Christian prince" would remain under that same control. Understandably, this did not thrill the Portuguese. King John II (the nephew of Prince Henry the Navigator), making him John the Route Finder,  negotiated with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to move the line to the west.  On this day, they signed the treaty moving the line 270 leagues (that included the minors and even World Team Tennis)  west, to 370 leagues west of Cape Verde. This new line (located at approximately 46° 37') gave Portugal more claim to South America yet also provided Portugal with automatic control over most of the Indian Ocean.

            1654 Sunday- Je préférerais concilier toute l'Europe de deux femmes ….I could sooner reconcile all Europe than two women ……Louis XIV was crowned king of France. Born in 1638, he was named king in 1643 and would go on kinging until he went kaput in 1715.  Louis ruled ruled his country, principally from his palace at Versailles.  It was one of the  most brilliant periods in French history and he remains the symbol of absolute monarchy of the classical age. Or, as Louis said,  Il est légal parce que je le veux  “It is legal because I wish it “. Internationally, in a series of wars between 1667 and 1697, he extended France's eastern borders taking land from the  Habsburgs and then, in the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14), he engaged a European coalition in order to secure the Spanish throne for his grandson.

            1761 –Sunday-  Happy Birthday, John Rennie, Scottish civil (he was very polite) engineer.  He designed the Waterloo bridge across the Thames at London. Not content with going over water, he also designed water ways, notabley canals.  Among them were the Aberdeen, the Great Western, the Kennet and Avon, the Portsmouth, the Birmingham, and the Worcester

            1776 –Friday- That these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown; and that all political connexion between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.  Richard Henry Lee  (connection to Robert E ?) offered  the "Lee Resolution" – on independence to the committee of the whole  of  the Continental Congress.  The motion was seconded by John Adams but even in 1776, congress was congress being congress and they debated the resolution until June 10 and then it led  to the United States Declaration of Independence. Richard Henry Lee was the great uncle of of Robert E. Lee.

            1778 –Sunday-  Laugh, laugh, I thought I'd die
It seemed so funny to me
Laugh, laugh you met a guy who taught you how it feels to be
Lonely, oh so lonely…
….The Beau Brummells…..Happy Birthday……….Beau Brummel, born George Bryan, English fashion leader.  Sarah S.G. Frantz in her review of Ian Kelly’s book, Beau Brummell: The Ultimate Man of Style, says that he was one of the iconic figures of the Regency period, perhaps more culturally significant than the man for whom the era is named, the Prince Regent, the Prince of Wales - that would be between  1811 — when King George III was deemed unfit to rule and his son, the Prince of Wales, ruled as his proxy as Prince Regent — and 1820, when the Prince Regent became George IV on the kapution of his father. Beau Brummell, almost single-handedly changing the entire look of the male wardrobe in a revolution called The Great Masculine Renunciation—a revolution that still has a direct effect on modern culture every time a man wears a power suit.  He led the trend for men to wear understated, but beautifully cut clothes, adorned with elaborately tied neckwear. He claimed to take five hours to dress, and recommended that boots be polished with champagne. His style of dress came to be known as dandyism. A falling out with the Prince of Wales led to Brummell's downfall; his famous remark "Alvanley, who's your fat friend?" (referring to the Prince - who had just cut him) was not the most diplomatic of comments.

            1800 –Saturday-  David Thompson reached the mouth and then the tonsils of the Saskatchewan River in Manitoba. Thompson mapped most of the country west of Hudson Bay and Lake Superior, across the Rocky Mountains to the source of the Columbia River, and the length of the Columbia to the Pacific Ocean. He would be reincarnated as an American Basketball player at North Carolina St.in 1974.

            1811-Friday- Happy Birthday,  Sir James Simpson, Scottish inventor and obstertrician who was the the father of modern anesthetics. See our Gnus Who’s Your Daddy page for a list of Fathers (and Mothers) of………. http://sciencegnus.com/Who%27s%20Your%20Daddy.html

He introduced the terms ovariotomy - a surgical incision into an ovary - and occydynia.  Obviously they had never met before. He employed ether for the first time in Britain, and chloroform ("perchloride of formyle") for the first time as an anesthetic in an operation On on November 15, 1847, he gave the first public demonstration of his new anaesthetic, chloroform. He announced that chloroform was more effective than making people watch C-Span for hours at a time and within a matter of weeks, chloroform also replaced ether as the most commonly used anesthetic.  Anna Sthesia was a Greek philosopher renowned for putting people to sleep with her discourses.

 1848 – Wednesday-  The history of modern art is also the history of the progressive loss of art's audience. Art has increasingly become the concern of the artist and the bafflement of the public. ……Happy Birthday, Paul Gauguin, French painter.  Gaugin (Eugène Henri)was a postimpressionist (a late 19th-century reaction to Impressionism, emphasizing on one hand the emotional aspect of painting and on the other a return to formal structure)painter whose lush color, flat two-dimensional forms, and subject matter helped form the basis of modern art.  In 1891 Gauguin sailed for the South Seas to escape, as he claimed. European civilization and “everything that is artificial and conventional.”……he also escaped a few debts too.  The essential characteristics of his style changed little in the South Seas; he retained the qualities of expressive color, such as almond toast, burnt sienna, atomic tangerine, crème brulee, fossil butte, fossil butte, banana mania, fuzzy wuzzy, mango tango, and cerulean frost, denial of perspective, and thick, flat forms. His subjects ranged from scenes of ordinary life, such as Tahitian Women, or On the Beach, to brooding scenes of superstitious dread, such as Spirit of the Deadwatching. His masterpiece was the hilarious farcical rompish allegory Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?.

            1862- Saturday- Happy Birthday, Philipp Edduard Anton Lenard, German physicist and recipient of the 1905 Nobel Prize for Physics for his research on cathode rays. He also did some research on protestant and jewish rays. Interest in muslim rays was quickly squelched when a Fatwa was declared and thousands of unemployed young men with beards took to the streets in protest. Lenard investigated the photoelectric effect and why the effect could only be produced by ultraviolet or shortwaves.  He then became a virulent anti semite, later attacking Albert Einstein as a socialist, a pacifist, and, yes as a Jew. He then developed a non-Jewish physics and wrote a  four-volume work, Deutsche Physik

           1863 –Sunday- Not to be outdone by Winfield Scott’s capture of the city in 1847, Mexico City was entered by French troops. This was part of the Franco-Mexican War which was started  in January 1862, the conflict initially was the result of Mexican President Benito Juárez's suspension of interest payments on foreign debts. The French wanted to see  the cliff divers but were informed that occurred in Acapulco.  Then they wanted beach front condos.  Whoops, that was Cancun.  After overthrowing Juarez and installing one, Maximillian as Emperor, the French left Mexico and illegally emigrated to the U.S where  they got jobs as gardeners, cooks, and professional illegal aliens.  Poor Maximillan, with no support from France, was counter overthrown by Juarez in 1867.

            1877 –Thursday- ……Why did Carbon marry Hydrogen? They bonded well from the minute they met………Happy Birthday, Charles Glover Barkla,  British physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1917 for his work on X-ray scattering.  In 1903 he proved that molecular weight determines how a gas scatters radiation and in 1904 he proved that x-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation.  He then used x-ray scattering to ascertain the number of electrons in a carbon atom….in a neutral atom of carbon there are 6 electrons, but the electrons are distributed over 2 shells. In the first shell, there are 2 electrons, and in the second there are 4 electrons.

            1879 –Saturday – Happy Birthday,  Joan Voûte, Dutch astronomer (and one of the few men named Joan in history…yes, we include artist Joan Miro) who studied variable stars (like Cher, who started as a singer, won an academy award as an actress, retired like eight times and became a joke) double stars and parallax. His preliminary account of the parallax of Proxima Centauri (Proxima CentauriProxima Centauri is a red dwarf star about 4.2 light-years distant in the constellation of Centaurus and not really visible to the naked eye)  was published in 1917 as he demonstrated that Proxima was the same distance from the Sun as the Alpha Centaur system.

            1892 –Tuesday- We Americans have no commission from God to police the world ……Benjamin Harrison became the first President of the United States to attend a baseball game. We’ve also seen this as June 6….maybe it was a really long game….like today’s with instant replays, umpire conferences, batters stepping in and out of the batters box adjusting their wrist bands,  and “creeping LaRusss ism” of constantly changing pitchers for almost every batter…..  Harrison had twelve beers by the 3rd inning and was hurling presidential invective and presidential objects like pens and cabinet secretaries onto the field.  He watched the Washington Senators lose to the Cincinnati Reds 7-4 at Boundry Field, Washington. Harrison attended another game on June 25.  The Senators lost that one too.

            1892 –Tuesday, continuing our baseball theme of the day,  John J  (Dirty Jack) Doyle of the Cleveland  Spiders became the  1st batter to to pinch hit in a baseball game.  Didn’t help though as Cleveland lost to the Brooklyn  Grooms 2-1.

            1892 –Tuesday- While Benjamin Harrison was attending a baseball game and John J. Doyle was pinch hitting, see above,  George Sampson patented the clothes dryer.  Sampson's dryer used the heat from a hot stove to dry clothes and was a ventilator type machine. The first one known to be built was made by French inventor, Michele Pochon. The ventilator was a barrel-shaped metal drum with holes in it. It was turned by hand over a fire.The modern “tumble dryer” consists of a rotating drum called a tumbler through which heated air is circulated to evaporate the moisture from the load. The tumbler is rotated relatively slowly in order to maintain space between the articles in the load. In most cases, the tumbler is belt-driven by an induction motor.

            1892- Tuesday, Still on the same day as the presidential baseball game and the clothes dryer, J. F. Palmer of Chicago, Ill., was granted the first bicycle tire patent for a self-healing cord tire design.  Because the tread of the tire was under compression, punctures would close rather than open. Palmer's tires were more durable, so riders didn't have to replace their tires as often. The  B.F. Goodrich Company of Akron, Ohio began its manufacture the same year

            1896 –Sunday- Happy Birthday,  Robert S. Mulliken, American chemist.  He was called Mr. Molecule by his friends (Mr. Particle by casual acquaintences, and Mr. Smidgen by rivals) for his research on chemical bonds and unraveling the electronic structure of molecules for which he won the 1966 Nobel in Chemistry.

            1896 –Sunday –……A Soviet has saved up his money to buy a car. He goes down to the dealership and says to the salesman "I want that one!"
"The car will arrive in seven years." the salesman replies.
"Will it come in the morning or the afternoon?" the man asks.
"What difference does it make?" queries the salesman.
The man says back, "the plumber is coming in the morning."
……….Happy Birthday,  Imre Nagy, Hungarian politician and yet another of the millions of victims of the proletarian workers paradise of the Soviet Union. Nagy led the 1956 Hungarian Revolt agains Soviet rule.  Nagy led a coalition government that included three non-communists from the Petofi Peasants Party, the Smallholders Party and the Social Democratic Party. O.K with the Russians. Nagy announced that he would introduce “far reaching democracy” into Hungarian daily life, and a Hungarian form of socialism with its own national characteristics. Nagy announced that his top priority was to improve the daily life of the workers. He also announced that political prisoners would be released. Still O.K (grudgingly so) with the Ruskies. However, when he announced on November 1st that Hungary would leave the Warsaw Pact and become a neutral nation….the leaders of the proletarian workers paradise sent proletarian tanks into Hungry and crushed the reforms.  Nagy was executed and his body was put in an unmarked grave.

            1906 –Thursday-  Some of us lost a true sweet-heart,
Some of us lost a dear dad,
Some lost their mothers, sisters and brothers,
Some lost the best friends they had.
It's time they were stopping this warfare,
If women and children must drown,
Many brave hearts went to sleep in the deep,
When the Lousitania went down…
…..Charles McCarron and Nathaniel Vincent…..Cunard Line's RMS Lusitania was launched at the John Brown Shipyard, Glasgow (Clydebank), Scotland and and christened by Mary, Lady Inverclyde…really….we didn’t make that name up……On U-20 torpedoed and sunk Lusitania off the Old Head of Kinsale, Ireland.  The Lusitania sank in 18 minutes and of the 1,959 passengers 1,195 passengers died.

            1909 – Monday- Nobody, but nobody, is going to stop breathing on me. …..Happy Birthday, Virginia Apgar, American physician, anesthesiologist, and medical researcher who developed the Apgar Score System, a method of evaluating an infant shortly after birth.  A score of zero to two is assigned in each of the five areas at one and five minutes after birth. If prolonged resuscitation is needed, scoring continues at five minute intervals until the infant is stabilized. The five areas are: Activity—from no movement (0) to tone, movement, and flexion (2); Pulse—from absent (0) to more than one hundred beats per minute (2); Grimace—from no reflex irritability (0) to cough or pulling away (2); Appearance—from blue-gray color (0) to normal (2); and Respiration—from absent (0) to regular with crying (2). A score of seven to ten is normal. A score of four to seven signals a need for resuscitation. And a score of three or below signals the need for intense, and sometimes prolonged, resuscitation. A low score (less than three) of long duration (greater than ten minutes) may correlate with future neurological dys-function.

            1917 Thursday- I'd hate to be a teetotaler. Imagine getting up in the morning and knowing that's as good as you're going to feel all day…….Happy Birthday, Dean Martin, American actor and singer who went through several incarnations….singer, straight man in the highly successful comedy team of Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis, actor – 51 films (Martin & Lewis broke up in 1956 but Lewis leeched off the named for 50 years), singer (again), member of Frank Sinatra’s “Rat Pack”, and television host.- The Dean Martin Comedy Hour (1965) and from 1974 to 1984 it was renamed The Dean Martin Celebrity Roasts in which gossip column Kardaschianesquecelebrities with little or no professional credentials were kaputed and skewered over a large fire before being eaten by fans.

            1928 –Thursday-  Happy Birthday, Bernard F. Burke American astronomer who discovered that the giant planet Jupiter emits radio waves.  Thanks to Burke we know that Jupiter has sports talk radio, talk radio, bumpa thumpa make your car shake radio, all news radio, all commercials radio, obscure stations that you only hear at night, giggly woman co-anchors, and NPR. 

            1941 Saturday- In the  73rd Belmont Stakes Eddie Arcaro riding Whirlaway won in 2:31 to complete the Triple Crown – The Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes and the Belmont Stakes…..and in case you were wondering, they differ in name only. Technically, they are all classified as Grade 1 Stakes races….. Count Fleet would do it in 1943, Citation in 1948, Secretariat in 1973, Seattle Slew in 1977 and Affirmed in 1978.

            1944 –Wednesday. On the day after D-Day, still off of the coast of Normandy, France, the Susan B. Anthony , a military transport ship struck a mine near the "Omaha" Beachhead and sank In what still stands as the largest maritime rescue of people without loss of life, all 2,689 soldiers and crew aboard the ship were removed without incident onto waiting Tugs, Destroyers, Minesweepers and landing craft, a process which took just  over half an hour.        

            1948 –Monday- Edvard Beneš resigned as President of Czechoslovakia rather than signing a Constitution making his nation a  a proletarian workers paradise Communist state. Unlike Imre Nagy, see 1896, Beneš was not murdered.  In poor health, he died three months later of natural causes.

            1958 –Saturday-  You better open up honey its your lover boy me that's a knockin'
You better listen to me sugar all the cats are at the High School rockin'
Honey get your boppin' shoes Before the juke box blows a fuse
Got everbody hoppin' everybody boppin'
Boppin' at the High School Hop
Boppin' at the High School Hop
Shakin' at the High School Hop
I've rollin' at the High School Hop
I've been movin' at the High School Hop
Everybodys hoppin' Everybody's boppin'
Boppin' at the High School Hop
The premiere of High School Confidential (with Jerry Lee Lewis).  Directed by Jack Arnold, it starred Russ Tamblyn in his pre West Side Story day, Jan Sterling, bouncy Mamie Van Dooren, and an unknown Michael Landon in the story of an undercover copy masquerading as a high school student investigating the operation of drug lord (Jackie Coogan).Jerry Lee opened the movie with his recording of High School Confidential which he then turned into an album.

            1964 –Sunday- Knowing a good thing when he found it, Ed Sullivan reached into his British pipeline and unearthed,  Billy J. Kramer & the Dakotas in their American TV debut.  Billy J. performed Pride, Little Children and Bad to Me. Also appearing on the show were comedian, Nipsey Russell, singer/actor Robert Horton - Oklahoma medley & When The Sun Comes Out, singer Tessie O'Shea and foot juggler, Leo Bassi.
Ed’s British Invasion fetish would reach its nadir in 1965 with Freddy & the Dreamers

                        1965 –Monday The tired doctor was awakened by a phone call in the middle of the night.
"Please, you have to come right over," pleaded the distraught young mother. "My child has swallowed a contraceptive. "
The physician dressed quickly; but before he could get out the door, the phone rang again.
"You don't have to come over after all," the woman said with a sigh of relief.
"My husband just found another one."……
(Remember, it’s Monday for Supreme Court deciscions and Tuesday for patents…there will be a quiz).  The Supreme Court of the United States decided on Griswold v. Connecticut, effectively legalizing the use of contraception by married couples.  The Court ruled ruled in a 7-2 (Hugo Black and Potter Stewart dissenting) decision written by Justice William O. Douglas, that a state's ban on the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy. The case concerned a Connecticut law that criminalized the encouragement or use of birth control. The 1879 law provided that "any person who uses any drug, medicinal article or instrument for the purposes of preventing conception shall be fined not less than forty dollars or imprisoned not less than sixty days." The law was challenged by Planned Parenthood.

            1966 –Tuesday, the  historically maladroit New York Mets  Mets passed up Reggie Jackson to draft  catcher Steve Chilcott #1 in Baseball’s amateur draft. Jackson went on to a Hall of Fame career with the Oakland Athletics, Baltimore Orioles (most famously with) the New York Yankees, and the California Angels. Chilcott played in the minor leagues for seven seasons, never made it to the majors, got injured and (except for his family and friends) faded to obscurity and a trivia answer.

            1971 –Monday -  Supreme Court says pornography is anything without artistic merit that causes sexual thoughts; that's their definition, essentially. No artistic merit, causes sexual thoughts. Hmm. . . . Sounds like . . . every commercial on television, doesn't it?....Bill Hicks…..The United States Supreme Court was back at it again as ina a 5-4 decision, it overturned the conviction of Paul Cohen for disturbing the peace, setting the precedent that vulgar writing is protected under the First Amendment….that is until the 21st century and the advent of the militants of the land of the Politically Correct. Cohen had been running around wearing a jacket with the droll expression “F…..K the Draft”. 

            1975 – Saturday- Well, that certainly worked out well -Sony introduces the Betamax videocassette recorder for sale to the public. The Betamax joined New Coke, Polaroid Instant Home Movies, Apple’s Lisa, the DeLorean, Smith and Wesson Mountain Bikes, Bic Underwear, Bottled Water for Pets, the 1976 Olympics, R.J Reynolds Smokeless Cigarettes, and yes, the Edsel in the Hall of Fame of Great Ideas.

            1982Monday-  She really didn’t need the money but digging for every extra buck she could, Priscilla Presley opened Graceland to the public.  The bathroom where Elvis  bit the dust five years earlier is kept off-limits.  Flushed with excitement, visitors immediately headed for the site of fatal chamber pot.

            1988 Tuesday- When you cut a log, the sawdust builds up and makes the chain saw jam.  I thought, why not put on one of those brushes you see on snow scrapers?............ A patent was issued to 11-year-old  Richard G. Woodbridge for the brush he designed to clean out sawdust accumulating in chain saw cuts. This reduced sawdust build-up (worse than plaque )  that would otherwise can cause the chain saw to jam, possibly resulting in digital losses. The chain saw operator must turn the saw over to use the brush. An optional brush agitator, designed with help from the inventor's father, Richard C. Woodbridge…..surprise….a patent attorney, would transfer vibrations from the chain to the brush to speed sawdust removal.

            1991 –Friday-  The volcano, Mount Pinatubo on the island of Luzon in the Philippenes started acting up.  The first magma reached the surface. Because it had lost most of the gas contained in it on the way to the surface (like a bottle of soda gone flat), the magma oozed out to form a lava dome but did not cause an explosive eruption. However, on June 12 (Philippine Independence Day), millions of cubic yards of gas-charged magma reached the surface and exploded in the reawakening volcano's first spectacular eruption. When even more highly gas charged magma reached Pinatubo's surface on June 15, the volcano exploded in a cataclysmic eruption that ejected more than 1 cubic mile (5 cubic kilometers) of material. The ash cloud from this eruption rose 22 miles (35 kilometers) into the air.

            1993 –Monday Giving new meaning to room with a view, The Holbeck Hall Hotel in Scarborough, in the United Kingdom, fell  into the sea following a landslide.

The rotational landslide involving about 1 million tons of glacial till cut back the 60 m high cliff by 70 m. The likely cause of the landslide was a combination of: rainfall of 140 mm in the two months before the slide took place; issues related to the drainage of the slope; pore water pressure build up in the slope and the America’s Biggest Loser Jumping Jack Contest.           

Back to Calendar

8.        793 –Tuesday- AD. 793. This year came dreadful fore-warnings over the land of the Northumbrians, terrifying the people most woefully: these were immense sheets of light rushing through the air, and whirlwinds, and fiery dragons flying across the firmament. These tremendous tokens were soon followed by a great famine: and not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January in the same year, the harrowing inroads of heathen men made lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holy-island, by rapine and slaughter…….Entry for the year 793 in the Anglo Saxon chronicle. Vikings raided the abbey at Lindisfarne in Northumbria,.  The Lindisfarne defensive secondary, playing a Cover Two scheme could not cope with the extra receivers that the Vikings put on the  weak side.  The Viking quarterback, Jarlebanke, picked out the open receiver. 793 os commonly accepted as the beginning of the Scandinavian invasion of England http://www.lindisfarne.org.uk/793/      altlhough they had paid previous visits to purchas t-shirts, refrigerator magnets and coffee mugs.

            1191 –Saturday- Richard I (The Lionheart) arrived in Acre for the 3rd crusade. Religion aside, Richard regarded this venture as little more than a source of revenue. He is reported to have said "I would sell London itself if only I could find a rich enough buyer." Of Richard’s ten year reign, he actually spent about four months actually “kinging” in England.

            1405 –Saturday-  I've had a perfectly wonderful evening. But this wasn't it…… Groucho Marx…….Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, were executed in York on Henry IV's orders.  Henry, Bolingbroake, had useruped the rather effeminate King, Richard II in 1399.  Scrope joined forces with the nineteen-year-old Earl Marshal Thomas Mowbray  and drew up a manifesto against King Henry. Unfortunately, Scrope's army (made up of mostly peasants from York) was unable to join with the forces of Northumberland  (the enduring “Percy’s of Northumberland) and was isolated at Shipton Moor by the army of the Earl of Westmorland. The earl arrested the rebel leaders for treason. King Henry did not have decided to make an example of the rebels, including the Archbishop. Scrope, Mowbray and several other of the rebel leaders were kaputed  June 8, 1405.

            1625 –Sunday-  Saturn's density is less than that of water, so if you had a bathtub big enough to put Saturn in, it would float. But it would leave a ring………. Happy Birthday, Gian Domenico Cassini, Italian-born French astronomer who discovered Cassini's division, the dark gap between the A and B rings  of Saturn. The rings were discovered by Christian Huygens in 1655. There are over more than a dozen rings and gaps with the rings. The two densest parts of the rings are named as A and B rings. They are separated by the Cassini Division followed by the C ring. These 3 main rings are followed by smaller and dusty rings; the D ring, G ring and E ring. There is an F ring that is present just outside the A ring. Cassini correctly posited that Saturn's rings were composed of myriads of small particles. He also discovered four of Saturn's moons, Iapetus (1671), Rhea (1672), Tethys (1684), and Dione (1684) and referred to the ring particles near Dione as Dione and the Belmonts.  He also devised a first law on astronomical refraction (which alters the apparent position of a heavenly body near the horizon).

             1637-Monday-So Rene Descartes goes into a bar.  He orders a scotch.  The bartender asks if he wants ice with it.  He answers “I think not” and he disappears…….. Rene Descartes published his book Discourse on Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and Seeking Truth in the Sciences but it’s usually just referred to as The Discourse on Method.   In what was regarded as a major work in science and mathematics, he expressed his disappointment with traditional philosophy and with the limitations of theology- he had been educated by Jesuits in Aristotelian philosophy.   Descartes felt that only logic, geometry and algebra should be respected, because of the utter certainty which they can offer. He concluded: "I am thinking, therefore I exist." His knowledge of this claim is a "clear and distinct perception": it is not something that he learns through reasoning, but something that he simply knows because he is incapable of doubting it. He concludes further that he is essentially a thinking thing, and that his soul is distinct from his body. This paved the way for the "scientific revolution" of Galileo and Newton, Descartes' ideas swept aside ancient and medieval traditions of philosophical methods and investigation. But people had to be careful not to 'put Descartes before the horse."

            1724Thursday-  Happy Birthday, John Smeaton English civil engineer, who coined the term "civil engineering" (to distinguish from rude engineers).

            1745 –Tuesday-  Happy Birthday,  Caspar Wessel, Danish mathematician.  We like to put in items about mathematicians because the descriptions sound so erudite and yet Professor Sy Yentz has no idea what he is describing.  Wessel gets overlooked in mathematical history because he wrote in Danish and no one could read Danish, not even Danes.  His fundamental paper, Om Directionens Analytiske Betegning, was published in 1799 by the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters. Since it was in Danish, it passed almost unnoticed, and the same results were later independently found by Jean-Robert Argand and Carl Friedrich Gauss.

Wessel's priority to the idea of a complex number as a point in the complex plane is today universally recognised. His paper was re-issued in French translation in 1899, and in English in 1999 as On The Analytic Representation Of Direction and people said “oh, that’s what he was talking about”……

             1786 –Thursday- The first commercially-made ice cream in the U.S. was advertised in New York City by a  Hall’s Ice Cream of of 76 Chatham Street  which is now Park Row). Xeroxian Internet multiplication of duplication of items alert…this first appeared in David Wallechinsky & Irving Wallace’s The People's Almanac. Now it is everywhere.  The Gnus, after extensive research….20 minutes on internet research is a lot of time….could not find out Mr. Hall’s first name.   But the supply was limited. In 1851, Baltimore milk dealer Jacob Fussell decided to make mass produced ice cream commercially. He built larger versions of the hand-cranked machines still popular today for backyard picnics. However, ice cream didn’t become a widespread favorite until the advances in electrical power and refrigeration in the early 20th century. For non-commercial production ofice-cream, an earlier date of May 17 1784 is recorded in George Washington'sexpense ledger for the purchase of "a cream machine for ice". No mention of when it dripped on his shirt. April Holliday at the Wonder Quest site tells us that The first concoction resembling ice cream was made in China during the Tang (they made powdered orange drink for the astronauts too)  period (A.D. 618 to 907). Ice-cream makers for King Tang of Shang ( Tang of Shang eats mainly with a fang)  in the heated buffalo, cow, and goat milk together and then fermented the brew to form yogurt. They thickened the yogurt with flour and flavored it with camphor (an insect repellant, of all things). Refrigerating first, they served the confection to the king.

            1789 –Monday- The Constitution is not an instrument for the government to restrain the people, it is an instrument for the people to restrain the government - lest it come to dominate our lives and interests……Patrick Henry………. James Madison introduced twelve  proposed amendments to the United States Constitution in the United States House of Representatives. Ten of  them were ratified by the state legislatures and become the Bill of Rights.On September 25, Congress submitted to the states for ratification the original 12 amendments to the U.S. Constitution. They had been approved by two-thirds of the lawmakers in both houses.  And the two rejects?  One of them reflected Madison’s view that Congress should not be allowed to give itself pay raises without constituents being able to register their disapproval. Obviously, succeeding Congresses have found this feeble attempt at control by constituents to be hilarious.  The 2nd reject aka, “Article the First,” set out a detailed formula for the number of House members, based on each decennial (that’s 10 years fellow scholars) census. Some have calculated that had the amendment, which is still pending, been adopted, today’s House would have either 800 or 5,000 representatives, depending on whether the courts came to interpret the amendment’s somewhat esoteric and mysterious provisions

            1851 –Sunday-  Happy Birthday, Jacques-Arsène d'Arsonval, French physicist. D’Arsonoval most outstanding scientific contributions involved the biological and technological applications of electricity. Much of this work concerned muscle contractions. His invention in 1882 with Étienne-Jules Marey (1830-1904) and Deprez of what is now known as the Deprez-d'Arsonval galvanometer, came after he had studied muscle contractions in frogs using a telephone, he kept texting the frog…which operated on extremely low currents,  similar to animal electricity. As he said after one experiment that involved frogs, I was conducting an important experiment in animal behavior. He first trained a frog to leap forward when he gave the command "Jump." Next, I removed one of the frog's front legs and repeated the command. The frog jumped again. Then I removed the frog's other front leg. When I repeated the command, the frog jumped once more. I repeated the experiment after removing one of the frog's back legs with the same result. Finally, I removed the frog's last leg. When I said jump, nothing happened. Therefore, I  believe based on emperical data that  When one of the frog's legs are cut off, the frog is still able to jump. When two of the frog's legs are cut off, the frog is still able to jump. When three of the frog's legs are cut off, the frog is still able to jump.
 When all four of the frog's legs are cut off, however, the frog suddenly goes deaf.  He  also demonstrated how a human being could conduct an alternating current strong enough to light an electric lamp  

            1860 –Friday- Happy Birthday, Alicia Boole Stott, Irish mathematician.  Stott's father was the mathematician George Boole for whom Boolean logic is named. He was frequently cheered on by Yale students chanting “boola boola”.  She is famous for coining the term "polytope, a convex solid in four dimensions, none of which was the Twilight Zone.Stott discovered  that there were exactly six regular polytopes in four dimensions and that they are bounded by 5, 16 or 600 tetrahedra ,  8 cube s, 24 octahedra or 120 dodecahedra (A dodecahedra also battled Ghidra, The Three Headed Monster in a Japanese movie. )

In geometry, a dodecahedron is any polyhedron with twelve flat faces, but usually a regular dodecahedron is meant: a Platonic solid. It is composed of 12 regular pentagonal faces, with three meeting at each vertex, and is represented by the Schläfli symbol {5,3}. It has 20 vertices and 30 edges...           1861 –Saturday,  By a vote of By a vote of 108,339 to 47,233, Tennessee seceded from the Union. Tennessee was the last state to secede. South Carolina had been the first on December 20,  1860.

            1862 –SundayI had rather be a private in such an Army than a Field Officer in any other Army, …Confederate Soldier………..The  Battle of Cross Keys – Confederate forces under General Stonewall Jackson defeated led by the “Pathfinder” General John C. Fremont. With the retreat of the  US armies, Jackson was freed to join the CS army commanded by General Robert E. Lee in the Seven Days' Battles against McClellan's army before Richmond.

            1869-Sunday- Spaghetti can be eaten most successfully if you inhale it like a vacuum cleaner.….Sophia Loren……… Ives W. McCaffrey patented (he had invented it in 1868) the suction principle vacuum cleaner.  Prior to this time, vacuum cleaners were quite unscrupulous and had no “principles at all.  This machine had a suction fan driven by a hand crank on the handle, but it did not have a brush roll. McCaffrey called it the Whirlwind, it sold for $25, a high price in those days. Only two are known to have survived to this day, one of which can be found in the Hoover Historical Center and Professor Sy Yentz currently uses tlhe other one for for household cleaning. The first patent for an electrically driven "carpet sweeper and dust gatherer" was granted to Corinne Dufour of Savannah, Georgia in December 1900.

            1887 –Wednesday  A child of five would understand this. Send someone to fetch a child of five…….Groucho Marx…….Herman Hollerith receives a patent for his punched card calculator. …Now we know this is wrong since patents, (all together now) are issued on Tuesdays…but maybe he didn’t pick up the mail on Tuesday.  Anyway, Hollerith devised a system of encoding data on cards through a series of punched holes. This system proved useful in statistical work and was important in the development of the digital computer. Hollerith's machine, used in the 1890 U.S. census, "read" the cards by passing them through electrical contacts. Closed circuits, which indicated hole positions, could then be selected and counted. Hollerith’s  Tabulating Machine Company (1896) was a predecessor to the International Business Machines Corporation.

            1906 –Friday-  Theodore Roosevelt signed the Antiquities Act (had nothing to do with Larry King, Regis Philbin or Nancy Pelosi) into law, authorizing the President to restrict the use of certain parcels of public land with historical or conservation value. The law was the result of  concerns about protecting mostly prehistoric Indian ruins and artifacts-collectively termed "antiquities "-on federal lands in the West. It authorized permits for legitimate archeological investigations and penalties for persons taking or destroying antiquities without permission.

            1916- Thursday- DNA is an abbreviation for deoxyribonucleicantidisestablishmentarianism, a complex string of syllables………Dave Barry…………HappyBirthday Francis C. Crick.a British biophysicist, who, with James Watson and Maurice Wilkins, received the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their determinationof the molecular structureof deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA is chemical substance ultimatelyresponsible for hereditary control of life functions.. Rosilind Franklin, without who’s research and work none of this would come to fruition, had passed away in 1958. Nobels are only awarded to living scientists. Crick and Watson began their collaboration in 1951, and published their paper on the double helixstructure on April 2,1953 in the magazine, Nature. This discoverybecame a cornerstone of genetics and waswidely regarded as one of the most important discoveries of 20th-century biology. Before this discovery one might say that biophysicists were "up the Crick withouta paddle".
            1918-Saturday-  Nova Aquila, adjacent to the star Hava Nagilia, the brightest nova since Kepler's nova of 1604, was discovered in the constellation of Aquila the eagle, It is a  1st magnitude star 6 degrees north of the Scutum star cloud. For the months that it shone, it was the brightest star in the sky, briefly (very briefly)  half a million times brighter than Sirius. It was a star of the 10th magnitude, sort of like Gig Young, for thirty years before the discovery.

             1925 –Monday, (Eddie Gaedel) used to play shortstop when he was smaller, but went into semi-retirement several years ago when the big kids failed to pick him in a corner lot game.- …….Bill Veeck Press Release…………Happy Birthday,  Eddie Gaedel, American baseball player.  Eddie was 3' 7" and weighed 65 lb and the only midget ever to play baseball in the major leagues.  According to the Baseball Almanac, Mr. Gaedel made baseball history on August 19, 1951, when he popped out of a huge cake set up in Sportsman's Park in St. Louis as part of a between games show of a St. Louis doubleheader. Gaedel  was allowed to bat for the St. Louis Browns when he produced a contract signed by Bill Veeck, then president of the club. He was walked by the pitcher, Bob Cain and immediately replaced by a pinch runner in the Browns 6-2 loss to the Detroit Tigers.  It was the only time he appeared with the Browns. A few days later his contract was ruled invalid.

             1938-Wednesday,   A white sport coat and a pink carnation
I'm all dressed up for the dance.
…….Marty Robbins……The Amorphos Titanium, or giant calla lily ( nicknamed the “stinking corpse lily”, because of its scent) blossomed at the Bronx Botanical Garden.  The flower was 8 ft. in diameter.  It was plucked for use as a corsage for a local prom but whoever wore it got a hernia.

            1940- Saturday-  The discovery of element 93, neptunium (symbol Np) was announced by Edwin M. McMillan and Philip H. Abelson working at the University of California at Berkeley. McMillan had discovered neptunium as a decay product of uranium-239 by beta decay while working on fission Neptunium’s  later isolation in metallic form (Oct 1944) provided final proof. It was named neptunium after, yes,  Neptune, the planet immediately beyond Uranus. As the first element heavier than uranium, it was called a transuranium element. The atomic number for Np is 93.

            1948 –Tuesday A man is hit by a car while crossing a Beverly Hills street. A woman rushes to him and cradles his head in her lap, asking, "Are you comfortable?" The man answers, "I make a nice living…………Milton Berle hosted the debut of Texaco Star Theater.  Berle wouldn't become the official series star until the fall.  His guests include: Senor Wences, ( s’alright?  s’alright), singer Pearl Bailey, Spanish dancers Rosario and Antonio, and acrobatic act the Moroccans.

            1949 –Wednesday-  Every marriage of an intellectual with the communist party ends in adultery…….Nicholas Gomez Davila…..As part of a continuing campaign by the U.S. government to suggest that Hollywood was rife with communist activists who were using the medium of motion pictures to spread the Soviet party line, celebrities Helen Keller, Dorothy Parker, Danny Kaye, Fredric March, John Garfield, Paul Muni and Edward G. Robinson were named in an FBI report as Communist Party members. The FBI report relied largely on accusations made by "confidential informants

               1950 Thursday-  The Boston Red Sox eaked out a victory over the  St Louis Browns 29-4 (win by record 25 runs). The Red Sox scored 8 runs in the 2nd, 5 in the 3rd, 7 in the 4th, on w in the 5th and 7th but bounced back for 5 in the bottom of the 8th inning. Browns relief pitcher Sid Schacht managed to hold them to 13 hits and 12 runs in 3.1 innings. Red Sox first baseman Walt Dropo batted in 7 runs and 2nd baseman Bobby Doerr, 8.  

            1955 Wednesday-  Anyone who has lost track of time when using a computer knows the propensity to dream, the urge to make dreams come true and the tendency to miss lunch.…….Tim Berners-Lee………Happy Birthday, Al Gore, Tim Berners-Lee, English internet developer. During his work at CERN, the European particle physics laboratory in Geneva Berners-Lee developed the first prototype of the World Wide Web. Called Enquire, the program was designed to help Berners-Lee keep track of the vast web of researchers and projects connected with CERN. The program was never released for public use. Later, he envisioned  a global information space where computers around the world would be linked together, allowing researchers to move effortlessly from one body of data to another, gathering information related to their own work, while sharing their insights and suggestions with other researchers. Great moments in science history - when Berners-Lee submitted a proposal to CERN, in 1989, he received no reply (it was probably blocked as Spam).  After two years of waiting, Berners-Lee proceeded to set up the first web server, info.cern.ch. In 1991 he made his World Wide Web browser and web server software available on the Internet.

            1957-  Pilot Scott Crossfield made the first, unpowered glide flight of the  X-15 rocket plane.  The X-15 was to explore the problems of ballistic flight, winged reentry, and gliding recovery from space. It was a stepping stone to later developments.  Eventually, the X-15 reached high altitudes of 100 miles and speeds in excess of 4000 miles per hour….while returning with Thermospheric bacteria which, of course mutated at sea level causing the dread disease, Nicotinius Slobisium Earth Ashtrayisia, people who drop their cigarettes out of car windows.

            1959 –Monday-  (Stop)
Oh yes, wait a minute Mister Postman
Wait Mister Postman

Please Mister Postman, look and see
(Oh yeah)
If there's a letter in your guided missile for me
(Please, Please Mister Postman)
Why's it takin' such a long time
(Oh yeah)
For me to hear from that boy of mine….
apologies to The Marvelettes………….Oh, this is too easy….The USS Barbero and United States Postal Service attempted the delivery of mail via Missile Mail. In a technological leap ballyhooed by the Postmaster General, Arthur Summerfield, (remember, this is the same postal service  that take a week to get a letter from your house to the house down the street) "Before man reaches the moon," Summerfield said, "mail will be delivered within hours from New York to California, to Britain, to India or Australia by guided missiles - missile mail." the Navy submarine USS Barbero fired a an unarmed Regulus I missile carrying 3,000 letters at the Naval Auxiliary Air Station in Mayport, Florida.  Twenty-two minutes later, the missile and its postal payload arrived safely. So why don’t you have ICBMs dumping your Amazon.com packages at the door?  This was a publicity stunt demonstrating U.S missle capabilities to the party apparachniks in Moscow.

            1959 -Monday The Clovers recorded Love Potion #9.  Written by written by Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller, was a bigger hit for the Coasters and then The Searchers had a still bigger hit when they borrowed it in 1965 for their role in the British Invasion.

            1961 –Thrusday-  Elvis Presley's seventh film, Wild in the Country premiered.  Of Elvis’s thirty three movies, with Jailhouse Rock probably the best although Viva Las Vegas was the highest grossing, and there was a tie between Harem Scarem, Roustabout, Clambake for worst.  In Wild in the Country, Hope Lange provided the love interest as the counselor who encourages a “troubled” Elvis in his literary career, 50’s B Western star John  Ireland was along for the ride and Tuesday Weld who had jumped from her role as Thalia Menninger in TV’s The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis. Also on board was Rafer Johnson.  It couldn’t have been to capitalize on his fame as the 1960 Olympic Decathlon winner. Could it have?

            1967 –Thursday-  O, my offense is rank, it smells to heaven,
It hath the primal eldest curse upon't—
A brother's murther. Pray can I not,
Though inclination be as sharp as will. ….
The King……….Hamlet Act 3, scene 3, 36–39……. The USS Liberty (a 7725-ton Belmont class technical research ship) incident occured, killing 34 and wounding 171. During the Six Day War, Liberty, though clearly marked as a U.S. Navy ship, was struck by Israeli aircraft. Remember, these were our friends!!!!!! After suffering damage and many personnel casualties from gunfire, rockets and bombs, she was further attacked by three Israeli Navy motor torpedo boats. One torpedo hit her on the starboard side, forward of the superstructure, opening a large hole in her hull. Israel subsequently apologized for the incident, explaining that its air and naval forces had mistaken the Liberty for a much smaller Egyptian Navy ship…..oh sure!

            1968 –Saturday-  James Earl Ray was arrested for the murder of Martin Luther King, Jr. Somehow, low level career criminal, Ray ended up in London.  At 11 o’clock in the morning  an immigration officer at Heathrow Airport took a look at a passenger’s Canadian passport and said;“Would you please step into our office for some routine questions, Mr Sneyd”.The man he called Mr Sneyd entered the office but when he saw a policeman standing there, all he could say was “Oh God, I feel so trapped” and allowed himself to be arrested. The spectacled Mr Sneyd was found to have a .38 caliber revolver in his back pocket and he also, rather suspiciously, had another passport on him under another name. Ray, an escaped convict escaped convict, rented a room in Memphis across from the Lorraine Motel where King was staying while mediating a sanitation workers' strike. Using a rifle with a sniper scope, he shot King from his bathroom window as King stood on the balcony of the motel. The single bullet severed King's spinal cord and killed him.

            1969 –SundayWe piss anywhere man……… Slide and rhythm guitarist and founding member, Brian Jones left the Rolling Stones. By 1969, the mentally fragile Jones simply wasn't suited to the lifestyle. As the drug busts, mental and physical health problems took their toll, his contribution to the band diminished and dwindled.  He was replaced by Mick Taylor formerly of John Mayall's Bluesbreakers.

A month later, on July 1969, Jones was found motionless at the bottom of his pool at Cotchford Farm. The death was ruled an accident. Jones was 27, making him a member of the “27 Club” along with Jim Morrison, Janis Joplin, Jimi Hendrix, and Kurt Kobain.

            1969 – Sunday- More monsterous than the monsters he created!.... The premiere of  Frankenstein Must Be Destroyed. This one starred Peter Cushing.  Miraculously, he wasn’t – After this one came – thanks to http://www.wsu.edu/~delahoyd/frankenstein.films.html
 Horror of Frankenstein (1970)—

 Dracula vs. Frankenstein (1971)--Lon Chaney, Jr.
Lady Frankenstein (1971)--woman builds man.
Frankenstein's Bloody Terror (1972)--Spanish.
Frankenstein (1972)--Dan Curtis Productions, made-for-tv.
Frankenstein: The True Story (1973)--Michael Sarrazin; and see Jane Seymour get her head ripped off.
Frankenstein's Castle of Freaks (1973)--brain transplants.
Andy Warhol's Frankenstein (1974)--French-Italian.
Frankenstein and the Monster From Hell (1974)--Hammer.
Young Frankenstein (1974)--Mel Brooks parody.
The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975)--the cult musical.
Terror of Frankenstein (1977)--fairly literal adaptation of the Shelley novel.
Frankenstein Island (1981)--John Carradine plus spiders, snakes, and Amazons.
Frankenstein (1982)--stars Robert Powell.
Frankenstein 90 (1984)--Frankenstein descendent and cultured creature.
Frankenweenie (1984)--resurrected pet dog.
Transylvania 6-5000 (1985)--tabloid scoop on return of monster.
Weird Science (1985)--nerds create woman.
Frankenstein's Great-Aunt Tillie (1985)--inheritance comedy.
Gothic (1987)--account of the 1816 stay of the Shelleys with Byron.
Dr. Hackenstein (1988)--comedy resurrection of late wife.
Frankenstein General Hospital (1988)--med. student "hi-jinks."
Frankenstein Unbound (1990)--Roger Corman's return to directing.
Frankenhooker (1990)--New Jersey mad doctor.
Edison's Frankenstein (1990)--Researched remake of the 1910 one.
Frankenstein: The College Years (1991)--Augh.
Frankenstein (1993)--Randy Quaid.
Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1994)--Kenneth Branaugh, Robert De Niro.
Frankenstein and Me (1995)--carnival sideshow exhibit.
Mr. Stitch (1996)--A humanoid military weapon made from 88 corpses.
Lust for Frankenstein (1998)--Dr.'s ghost tells daughter to resurrect project: lesbian monster.
Frankenstein Reborn! (1998)--13-year-old Anna Frankenstein is curious about her uncle's experiments.
Rock & Roll Frankenstein (1999)--Music agent has nephew piece together rock star from pieces of greats.
Mistress Frankenstein (2000)--Lesbian nympho's brain in the dead Mrs. Helena Frankenstein.
Frankenthumb (2002)--Spoof of the Frankenstein films done "digitally."
Frankenstein Reborn (2005)

            1975- Sunday-  Venera 9 from the U.S.S.R. was launched to make the first orbit of Venus. On October 20, 1975, this spacecraft was separated from the Orbiter, and landing was made on October 22. During next 53 minutes, the lander streamed data to the orbiter, which in turn relayed it back to Earth. The transmission of priceless imagery started some two minutes after the landing and continued until the end of communications when the craft was seized by a group of Amazons in short skirts led by Zsa Zsa Gabor.  Transmissions back to Earth resulted in electronically mutated sound waves that caused the development of a new religion described in the Washington Post as Frisbeetarianism, the belief that, after death, the soul flies up onto the roof and gets stuck there.

            1986 Zees papers say you are a Dutch merchant.  Zees papers are no goot…..Kurt Waldheim, former Secretary-General of the United Nations, was elected president of Austria.  Whoops.  Not so fast.  The Kurtster had a history as a Nazi war criminal.  While was never proved conclusively, that Waldheim himself committed atrocities during World War II, he was a lieutenant in army intelligence attached to German military units that executed thousands of Yugoslav partisans and civilians and deported thousands of Greek Jews to death camps between 1942 and 1944.
Waldheim concealed his wartime service in the Balkans, saying his military career ended in 1942, after he was wounded on the Russian front.  Waldheim did not seek a second six-year term when his presidency ended in 1992.

            1992 –Monday-  What sits at the bottom of the ocean and shakes? A nervous wreck…………The first World Ocean Day was  proposed by the Government of Canada at the Earth Summit and Samba Festival in Rio de Janeiro. As a result of a United Nations General Assembly resolution passed in December 2008, World Oceans Day is now officially recognized by the UN as June 8th each year.    

            1992 –Monday- I can resist everything except temptation……..Oscar Wilde…… “O.k, o.k, o.k, your suspended from baseball.  Whoops, you did it again, you’re suspended again. Whoops, you did it again, you’re suspended again. Whoops, you did it again, you’re suspended again Whoops, you did it again, you’re suspended again. Whoops, you did it again, you’re suspended again. Whoops, you did it again, you’re suspended again”.  Former Dodger and on and off Yankee pitcher Steve Howe was banned from baseball for 7th time

            2004 –Tuesday-  Walkin' along my merry way
Singin' a song I will be gay
I found a love and love is here to stay
Walking along just feeling glad
Singin' a song I won't be sad
Oh, happy day
I'm just walkin' along
When I'm walkin' feel just like a king
When I'm singin' don't care 'bout a thing
The reason I feel the way I do
You love me, whoo
I love you, who-ooh
Walkin' along my merry way
Singin' a song I will be gay
Oh, happy day
I'm just walkin' along……
The Diamonds………..Nate Olive and Sarah Jones, ecologists from the University of Georgia, dreading that Pacific Coast highway traffic,  began the first known continuous hike of the 1,800-mile trail down the U.S. Pacific Coast. Starting at Washington’s Cape Flattery, they completed the slog at the U.S.-Mexico border on September 28 after averaging twenty miles per day.

Back to Calendar


  53 –Monday- She got a mudpack and looked great for two days. Then the mud fell off……………Henny Youngman……. A social note: So Nero yet so faro away…Roman Emperor Nero married Claudia Octavia. Claudia was the daughter of the emperor Claudius and his third wife the trollope,  Messallina, and, by the way, Nero’s step sister. The blusing bride wore a polyester stola by Vera Wangus of the Palatine.  The looney groom, a gabardine toga by Steve’s Formal Wear of the Field of Mars. The reception was held at Anthony’s Pier 9 of the Capitoline. Music was provided by Flutinius and His Lyre Lyre Pants on Fire Etruscan Orchestra. 

62 –Friday-  A woman says to a man, "I haven't seen you around here." "Yes, I just got out of jail for killing my wife." "So you're single!" …….Henny Youngman………..Nero’s marriage to Claudia Octavia was not a happy one so after divorcing her on charges of adultery….so he could marry his mistress Poppeia, he had her exiled to Campania and then to the island of Pandataria off the coast, and finally slewn on this day. Her severed head was then sent to Rome.

 68 –Saturday, The 3rd of three important June 9th s for Nero as he committed suicide during a general coup against his excesses by the Gallic and Spanish legions, along with the Praetorian Guards, and then the SenateThe senate declared him a public enemy and he committed suicide by watching 24 consecutive hours of Oprah Winfrey interviewing herself.  Nero’s kapution launched was is known as the Year of the Four Emperors.  He was replaced by Galba, who was then replaced by Otho, who was then replaced by Vitellius, who was then replaced by Vespasian.

721 –Thursday-  Odo of Aquitaine defeated the Muslims in the Battle of Toulouse. The Islamic armies had besieged the city attempting to spread Islam throughout Europe.  We note this was long before the Crusades.  In 711 - Tariq (after whom Gibraltar is named: the Rock of Tariq - Gib al-Tariq) invaded Spain. By 718 the  conquest of Spain complete. 

They were finally stopped at Toulouse but would return in 732  to be defeated at the Battle of Tours,  regarded as one of the turning points in world history by the Franks, under their leader Charles Martel (the grandfather of Charlemagne). They would not be driven out of Spain until 1492. 

1310 –Monday- Duccio's altarpiece, nicknamed the "Maesta", or Majesty, one of the founding monuments of European painting was unveiled and installed.  Made for Siena cathedral, it is not only subdivided but double-sided. Its A-side is dominated by a single big image, the Virgin and Child sitting in majesty among a throng of saints and angels. Its B-side, which is illustrated here, is packed with rows of small images. They tell the story of Jesus Christ, his life, death and afterlife.  Duccio di Buoninsegna was  a rival to Giotto as founding father of the European pictorial tradition. Not much is known about him. His only certainly attributed work was the Maesta altarpiece and an oil on velvet painting of Elvis.

1534 –Saturday, Hear about the blonde explorer?
She bought a piece of sandpaper thinking it was a map of the Sahara Desert.
Jacques Cartier became the first European to discover the Saint Lawrence River.  Sailing under a commission by King Francis I of France Cartier set out in search of a north-west passage to Cathay (China) and to discover countries where “there is to be found great quantity of gold and other riches”. With sixty-one men aboard his ship, Cartier ventured north up the St. Lawrence River to Prince Edward Island, where he made his first contact with members of the native Iroquois Nation. The first interactions were friendly. The tribe's chief, Donnacona, let two of his sons, Taignoagny and Domagaya, return to France with Cartier on the condition that they would return home. Cartier actually kept his promis and brought them back on his next voyage the following year.  Cartier was believed to have accompanied Giovanni da Verrazzano on his expeditions to North America exploring the northeast coast of North America from Cape Fear, North Carolina to Maine and also a voyage to Brazil

1650 –Thursday- The Harvard Corporation, the more powerful of the two administrative boards of Harvard, was established. It was the first legal corporation in the Americas.  The oldest corporation in the Western Hemisphere, the Harvard Corporation - known formally as the President and Fellows of Harvard College - is the University's executive board. It is the smaller of Harvard's two governing boards; the other is the Board of Overseers.  The Board of Overseers is a bunch of big sweaty guys with whips that makes the President and Fellows of Harvard College row harder.

1667 –Thursday-  In June 1942 the Battle of Midway was fought in the Pacific. Earlier, it was Medway not Midway as during the Second  Anglo Dutch War, a rare Dutch victory in The Raid on the Medway –attacking the English fleet on the Medway River- by the Dutch fleet..  It lasted for five days and results in a decisive victory by the Dutch over the English in the Second Anglo-Dutch War.  In case you were wondering, the First Anglo Dutch War (there would be four in all) 1652-1654 was fought entirely at sea between the navies of  England and the Netherlands over trade.  The English refused to give their 1909 T206 Honus Wagner baseball card  for a 1951 Topps Mickey Mantle rookie card with original bubble gum. The war began with English attacks on Dutch merchant shipping, but expanded to vast fleet actions.

1672Thursday-  I have conquered an empire but I have not been able to conquer myself. …………….Take me for a ride in your Czar Czar….Tsar Czar  Peter I of Russia. Also known as Peter the Great, he transformed Russia from an isolated agricultural society into an Empire, the equal of the European powers. Peter was the son of Czar Tsar Alexis. After Alexis went kaput, Peter and his half-brother Ivan were co-czars tsars who served under the regency of Ivan's sister, Sophia. Ivan went kaput and Peter emerged from the aristocratic maneuvering to rule alone as czar tsar in 1689. He spent much of his time fighting wars, first against the Turks of the Ottoman Empire, then (from 1700) against the Swedes in the Great Northern War and succeeded in conquering land on the Baltic Sea, where he founded St. Petersburg which he intended as gateway to Europe, St. Petersburg became the new capital of Russia. St. Petersburg was renamed Petrograd in 1914, then renamed Leningrad after the death of protletarian workers paradise apparachnik, Vladimir Lenin. In 1991 it was changed back to St. Petersburg.

1732 –Monday- Georgia, Georgia
The whole day through (the whole day through)
Just an old sweet song
Keeps Georgia on my mind (Georgia on my mind)
I said a Georgia, Georgia
A song of you (a song of you)
…………..Ray Charles………. King George II granted a charter for creating Georgia and named James Oglethorpe as one of twenty-one Trustees to govern the new colony. This was to be the first new English colony in almost fifty years.  Later that year he led the expedition of colonists that landed in Savannah early in 1733. Oglethorpe spent most of the next decade in Georgia, where he directed the economic and political development of the new colony

1768 –Thursday-  
Good name in man and woman, dear my lord,
Is the immediate jewel of their souls.
Who steals my purse steals trash; 'tis something, nothing;
'Twas mine, 'tis his, and has been slave to thousands;
But he that filches from me my good name
Robs me of that which not enriches him,
And makes me poor indeed……
.Iago……….Othello Act 3, scene 3, 155–161

Happy Birthday, Samuel Slater, American industrialist who began his career seeped in industrial espionage.  Several American textile companies had offered rewards and bounties to mill workers who would emigrate from England--bringing their knowledge of textile machinery with them, of course. For some strange reason, the English textile owners wouldn’t share their secrets with the Americans. One of the men lured across the ocean in this way was Samuel Slater where he reproduced versions of Richard Arkwright's spinning and carding machines from memory….nowadays the use tiny little cameras or they just hack into a computer system.  In 1793 Slater established the first successful American cotton mill at Pawtucket, R.I., the first of several plants. He founded the town of Slatersville, R.I. He is regarded as the founder of the U.S. cotton textile industry.

 1781 –Saturday, I put up with every rebuff, and went on with my plans, determined not to be put down………………..Happy Birthday, George Stephenson, English mechanical engineer and inventor of the first steam locomotive engine for railroads.  In 1815 he formulated what he called a  “steam blast” system that made the locomotive practical. In 1825 he built a steam locomotive for the first passenger railway, from Stockton to Darlington, (England) which could carry 450 people at 15 mph (24 km/hr). In 1829, with his son Robert Stephenson, he built his improved locomotive, the Rocket, which won a speed competition at 36 mph (58 km/hr) and became the model for later locomotives. Stephenson became the leading manufacturer of railroads and locomotives in England at the height of the Industrial Revolution

1812 – Tuesday- Happy Birthday, Johann Gottfried Galle, German astronomer who shares in the discovery of the planet Neptune.  Galle made the first observation of Neptune in 1846 based on mathematical calculations by Urbain Jean Adams and Joseph Le Verrier  who had predicted where Neptune would be based on observations of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. Though Galle was the first to observe Neptune, its discovery is usually credited to John Couch Adams (who made an earlier calculation) and Leverrier. Adams a Cambridge mathematician predicted the existence of an unseen planet, to account for the fact that Uranus was being pulled slightly out of position in its orbit. Adams attributed this pull to the gravitational effect of an unknown body, and calculated its position.  However when Adams visited the Royal Observatory at Greenwich to present his findings to the Astronomer Royal, Sir George Airy, Airy was unavailable and although Adams left a note of his calculations Airy at first took little interest, believing that the Royal Observatory should not be diverted from its publicly funded work on timekeeping and navigation, to search for new planets. So Adams work was discovered only after Galle’s success. Galle also discovered the crêpe ring of Saturn which is a very thin pancake, made from wheat flour.

1815 – Friday- -Diplomacy is to do & say the nastiest things in the nicest way………….. Isaac Goldberg-……….. The favorite of every college history student, the Congress of Vienna came to a conclusion.  The Great Powers of Europe met at Vienna to settle the future boundaries of the continent. Almost every state in Europe was represented. The emperors of Austria and Russia, the kings of Prussia, Denmark, Bavaria and Württemberg and many German princes including the Elector of Hesse, the Grand Duke of Baden and the dukes of Saxe-Weimar, Brunswick and Coburg, attended in person. It began in November 1814.  Following the wrap up of the Congress, there was just one teeny tiny detail to take care of….Napoleon…..but fortuitously, and in what Wellington called “a close run thing”, the French would be defeated at Waterloo on June 18, 1815. Influenced heavily by Klemens von Metternich of Austria, “the Coachman of Europe”, the  first goal of the Congress was to establish a new balance of power in Europe which would prevent imperialism within Europe, such as the Napoleonic empire,  and maintain the peace between the great powers. The second goal was to prevent political revolutions, such as the French Revolution, and maintain the status quo.

            1822-Sunday-  I don't have false teeth. Do you think I'd buy teeth like these?.....Carol Burnett……………….Charles Graham received the first patent for false teeth ("Graham Crackers"?). Plaster modeling of the mouth wasn't even invented until about 1745. Porcelain teeth were first crafted around 1820; they fit better, and looked more natural than other artificial teeth. But they were incredibly heavy! Graham’s were not the first false teeth in use, however. In June of 2006, archaeologists in Mexico discovered the skeleton of a 4500 year old man. These archaeologists were shocked to realize that this ancient human may have actually been wearing a set of ceremonial dentures at the time of his death; the oldest false teeth yet discovered. The ancient Greeks designed special kinds of pliers for tooth extraction. They even had a mouthwash made of castoreum and pepper to be used to prevent tooth decay. It is known that the rich Etruscans were quite proud of their gold-banded sets of human teeth. The human teeth used to make those sets of false teeth were teeth recently bought and pulled from poor people who sold their healthy teeth to buy food and other necessities of life. In the Colonial years, rotten teeth were considered the cause of many illnesses, and they would be extracted. Varied ways of replacing them were tried. For example, George Washington had at least four sets of false teeth (though none were wooden, despite a myth to that effect).

         1822-Sunday- Happy Birthday,  Peter Henderson, Scottish-American scientist, known as the "Father of American Horticulture." – see The Gnus “Who’s Your Daddy” for a list of fathers and mothers of http://sciencegnus.com/Who%27s%20Your%20Daddy.html
Henderson was born in Scotland in 1822, came to America in 1843, and began market gardening…a garden in which vegetables are grown for sale in a market.

            1836 Thursday- Happy Birthday Elizabeth Garret Anderson, English physician who became  the first woman officially approved to practice medicine in Great Britain in 1865. The road to doctordom was a bit difficult as she was refused admission by the medical schools because it was their policy not to train women as doctors. In 1866 Garrett established a dispensary for women in London (later renamed the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital) and four years later was appointed a visiting physician to the East London Hospital. She was also the first female member of the British Medical Association (1873-92).

            1863Tuesday- The  Battle of Brandy Station, Virginia. Union cavalry corps under Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton launched a surprise attack on J.E.B Stuart’s cavalry at Brandy Station. After an all-day fight (22,000 combatants) in which fortunes ebbing and flowing repeatedly, the Federals retired without discovering Lee’s infantry camped near Culpeper. This battle marked the high water mark of the Confederate cavalry in the East. From this point in the war it was down hill as the Federal cavalry gained strength, confidence and better leadership (Philip Sheridan). Brandy Station was the largest cavalry battle of the war and the opening engagement of the Gettysburg Campaign.

            1873 –Monday-  Hold tight wait till the party's over
Hold tight We're in for nasty weather
There has got to be a way
Burning down the house
….Talking Heads…………Alexandra Palace in London burned down after being open for only 16 days. Built  as a place where people form the city could go to get away from it all. thousands of people flooded the facility when it opened. But alas poor Alexandra Palace we hardly knew ye.  Just sixteen days after it opened, the place burned to the ground. Within two years it was open again.  In 1936, ‘Ally Pally’ became the headquarters of the world’s first regular public ‘high definition’ television service, operated by the BBC.  And yes, the Palace is still there…in 2011 it hosted the World Darts Championship.

1875 – Wednesday-  Happy Birthday, Sir Henry Hallett Dale,  English physiologist who in 1914 isolated the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from ergot fungi. So this mushroom walks into a bar, orders a scotch and is refused service.  The bartender says “We don’t serve mushrooms here.  The muschroom says “Why not? I’m a fungi”. Dale showed that acetylcholine, as well as electrical stimuli are involved in nerve action. In 1936 he shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (with the German pharmacologist Otto Loewi) for the discovery.

 1885 –Tuesday-- You can kill ten of my men for every one I kill of yours, but even at those odds, you will lose and I will win…--Ho Chi Minh to the French, late 1940s …….A peace treaty was signed to end the Sino-French War, with China eventually giving up Tonkin and Annam - most of present-day Vietnam - to France.  These territories were later included into French Indochina. Of course after the French defeat to the communists of Ho Chi Ming in 1954, the Americans gradually moved in and….well, that ended badly too.

1891 –Tuesday-  I get no kick from champagne, Mere alcohol doesn't thrill me at all, So tell me why should it be true, That I get a kick out of you?  Happy Birthday, Cole Porter, American composer and lyricist.  His works include the musical comedies Kiss Me, Kate (1948) (based on Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew), Fifty Million Frenchmen and Anything Goes, as well as songs like Night and Day, I Get a Kick Out of You, and I've Got You Under My Skin. He was noted for his sophisticated lyrics, clever rhymes, and complex forms.  Porter’s life story was told in the films Night and Day and De-Lovely.

1901 –Sunday -  NY Giants got a  record 31 hits to beat the Cincinnati Reds in a 25-13 pitcher’s duel at Cincinnati’s League Park II. With the score favoring the Giants 25 to 13 in the last of the ninth, the fans were bored and started home, many going on the field to reach the exits and the game couldn't continue. With only one out to go Cincinnati was a good bet to lose so the fans made sure of it as they caused a forfeit.

1902- the first restaurant with vending machine service was the Automat Restaurant at 818 Chestnut Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was Horn & Hardart

1905- Friday- It's not that I'm so smart, it's just that I stay with problems longer. …….Albert Einstein published his analysis of  Max Planck's quantum theory and its application to light. His article appeared in Annalen der Physik. Though no experimental work was involved, it was for these insights that Einstein earned his Nobel Prize. Einstein submitted five papers during 1905, three of them have been called the greatest in the history of physics, One examined the photoelectric effect, One the behavior of small particles in suspension (Brownian motion), and one outlined the special Theory of Relativity.  Having just solved several of the deepest mysteries of the universe……Einstein then applied for a job as a university lecturer and was rejected.
He applied for a job as a high school teacher. He was rejected again He went back to his job as a patent examiner 3rd class.

         1913-Monday - What is the coolest thing about being a test tube baby?

... having a womb with a view. ……………Happy Birthday, Patrick  Steptoe  a British scientist and medical researcher who, with Robert Edwards, perfected in-vitro fertilization of the human egg. In this process, a mature egg  (immature eggs need not apply) is removed from the female ovary and is fertilized in a test tube. After a short incubation period, the fertilized egg is implanted in the uterus, where it develops as in a typical pregnancy. This procedure gave women whose fallopian tubes were damaged or missing, and were thus unable to become pregnant, the hope that they too could conceive children. Their technique made possible in the birth of Louise Brown, the world's first "test-tube baby," on  July 25,  1978

            1915 –Wednesday Take this job and shove it I ain't workin' here no more
My woman done left and took all the reason I was working for
Ya, better not try and stand in my way
Cause I'm walkin', out the door
Take this job and shove it I ain't working here no more
……Johnny Paycheck…..William Jennings Bryan resigned  as Woodrow Wilson's Secretary of State over a disagreement regarding the United States' handling of the sinking of the RMS Lusitania. Bryan wrote a wimpy note protesting the sinking that had all effect of United Nations resolutions condemning North Korea or Iran.  Wilson wrote a stronger, nastier note…..”you backstabbing krauts, your tourists are obnoxious, everything you cook is sausage, you name your children Helmut and your going to become Nazis”.  Objecting to the strong position taken by Wilson in this second Lusitania note, and believing it could be taken as a precursor to a war declaration, Bryan tendered his resignation

            1915 –Wednesday-  It has to be said, we must all own up that without Les Paul, generations of flash little punks like us would be in jail or cleaning toilets. This man, by his genius, made the road that we still travel today. I don't know how he did it, but I'm so grateful he did,….. Keith Richards…… While Bryan was resigning, Les Paul, Lester William Polsfuss, was being born.  Happy Birthday, Les Paul, American guitarist and inventor.  Paul is the musician and inventor generally credited with inventing the solid-body electric guitar in 1941 marketed (1952) by Gibson. Let’s face it, the electric guitar IS rock music and has been played by many of its greatest stars including, Paul McCartney, Jimmy Page, Pete Townshend, Billie Joe Armstrong (Green Day), Bumblefoot (Guns N' Roses), Lindsey Buckingham, Vivian Campbell (Def Leppard), Chris Chasse (Rise Again), Graham Coxon (Blur), Eric Clapton, Steve Clark (Def Leppard), Sheryl Crow, Al Di Meola, Andy Dunlop (Travis), Elliot Easton (Cars), David "The Edge" Evans (U2), Don Felder (Eagles), John Frusciante (Red Hot Chili Peppers), Noel Gallagher (Oasis), Jerry Garcia (The Grateful Dead), David Gilmour (Pink Floyd), Stone Gossard (Pearl Jam), Peter Green (Fleetwood Mac), Steve Hackett (Genesis), Kirk Hammett (Metallica), George Harrison, Jimi Hendrix, James Hetfield (Metallica), Noel Hogan (The Cranberries), James Honeyman-Scott (The Pretenders), Brian Jones (The Rolling Stones), Steve Jones (Sex Pistols), Terry Kath (Chicago), Frank Lero (My Chemical Romance), Kerry Livgren (Kansas), Mike McCready (Pearl Jam), Bob Marley, Joe Perry (Aerosmith), Tom Scholz (Boston), Neal Schon (Santana, Journey), Earl Slick (David Bowie),Brad Whitford (Aerosmith), Nancy Wilson (Heart), Neil Young according to the Gibson-Les Paul website.  Several versions of Paul’s guitars are still manufactured. Paul also created techniques in his home studio that allowed him to overdub numerous tracks, producing the distinctive sound of Les Paul and Mary Ford (his wife) in such 1950s hits as Vaya Con Dios and How High the Moon. The multitrack recording originated by Paul has since been widely used to make popular recordings.

            1923 –Saturday-   A Bulgaria note because as the world turns, things have been going on in Bulgaria and its important that we don’t neglect Bulgaria…..Bulgaria's armed forces under General Ivan Valkov's Military Union, legitimized  by a decree of Tsar Czar Boris III of Bulgaria, overthrew the government of the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union headed by Aleksandar Stamboliyski and replaced it with one under Aleksandar Tsankov.  Here it is in Bulgarian, Бележка България, тъй като се превръща света, нещата са се случва в България и нейните важно да не пренебрегват България ... .. въоръжени сили на България по Военния съюз генерал Иван Вълков е, легитимира с указ на цар Борис III, цар на България , разори правителството на Българския земеделски народен съюз начело с Александър Стамболийски и го заменя с един по Александър Цанков.

            1928 –Saturday,  Charles Kingsford Smith completed the first trans-Pacific flight in a Fokker Trimotor monoplane, the Southern Cross with a crew of four. They took off from Oakland, California, for  the first stage of 2,400 miles to Hawaii. This stage took 27 hours and 27 minutes. Stage two was to Fiji, 3,100 miles away. Almost immediately they ran into a storm but luckily, they reached Suva some 33 hours later, and then on to Brisbane to be greeted by  25,000 cheering fans greeted them at Brisbane's Eagle Farm Airport (now named simply Brisbane Airport, where the Southern Cross is still on display).

            1930 –Monday- Never pick a fight with someone who buys ink by the barrel
…………  Chicago Tribune reporter Jake Lingle was killed during rush hour at the Illinois Central train station by the Leo Vincent Brothers, (most folks think Brothers was a patsy….he was even turned in by Al Capone) allegedly over a $ 100,000 gambling debt owed to Al Capone. Lingle, who danced to close to crime flame, entered the underground tunnel leading to the train station on the other side of Michigan Avenue.  As he approached the far east end of the tunnel, a man walked up behind Lingle and fired a single bullet into the back of his head rendering him kaput.

            1930 –Monday- There's something in a flying horse,
There's something in a huge balloon.
— William Wordsworth, Peter Bell, Prologue. Stanza 1………With Jake Lingle exiting the world, Ben Abruzzo entered.  Happy Birthday Ben Abruzzo, American balloonist who, with Maxie Anderson and Larry Newman, made the first transpacific balloon flight that was also the longest nonstop balloon flight, in the Double EagleIV in 1978. Abruzzo was also on the Double Eagle V team. The Double Eagle V was the first team to cross the Pacific Ocean in a gas balloon in November 1981. This flight also set a record for longest trip by a team in a balloon.
Ironically, after setting records and safely flying in a gas balloon, Abruzzo died a few years later when his private plane crashed near Albuquerque

            1931-Tuesday-  Robert Goddard patented the first rocket- powered aircraft design. On December 30th, he fired an 11 foot liquid fueled rocket, to a height of 2000 feet at a speed of 500 miles per hour. The launch took place near Roswell New Mexico. However, it drew no military interest from either the Army or the Navy, since even the government following the great Depression had limited resources to fund proper research.  Goddard launched rockets of increasing complexity and capability. He developed systems for steering a rocket in flight by using a rudder-like device to deflect the gaseous exhaust, with gyroscopes to keep the rocket stabilized in flight. Goddard described many of his results in 1936, in a his study, the scintillating, yet droll,  Liquid-Propellant Rocket Development. The culmination of this effort was a successful launch of a rocket to an altitude of 9,000 feet in 1941.

            1934 –Saturday- Who's got the sweetest disposition?
One guess, that's who?
Who'd never, ever start an argument?
Who never shows a bit of temperament?
Who's never wrong but always right?
Who'd never dream of starting a fight?
Who gets stuck with all the bad luck?
No one - but Donald Duck!
….Donald Duck Song……..Donald Duck made his debut in The Wise Little Hen. , a fable about a mother hen who needs help planting corn and harvesting it. When Donald and his friend, Peter Pig, sole members of the Idle Hour Club, refuse, she does it herself with the help of her chicks. Clarence Nash (uncredited) was the voice of Donald as he would up until 1983.

           1953-Tuesday- The poets have been mysteriously silent on the subject of cheese……G.K Chesterton………... John H. Kraft was granted a U.S. patent for "manufacture of soft surface cured cheese", aka soft-ripened.  Soft-ripened (or surface-ripened) cheeses are neither cooked nor pressed. Today in Science History recounts that the invention related in general to the manufacture of soft, surface cured, mold ripened cheeses, such as for example, Camembert, Brie, and the like and in particular, to the provision of a soft, surface cured cheese whose mold pad may be readily removed since they are rather yuchhy tasting.

             1954 – You've done enough. Have you no sense of decency, sir, at long last? Have you left no sense of decency? …………Joseph Welch, special counsel for the United States Army to lashes out at Senator Joseph McCarthy (Republican, Wisconsin) during hearings on whether Communism had infiltrated the Army. Welch’s ire was aroused when McCarthy attacked a young legal aide of  Welch , the Army Chief Counsel. The aide, Fred Fisher, had once worked for the National Lawyers Guild (an organization with communist ties) and Welch had advised him to stay away from the hearings for his own good. Even though the man was not present, McCarthy impugned his character. McCarthy then called Welch a poopy head. Welch responded - Doesn't know much, but leads the league in nostril hair. McCarthy: Your birth certificate is an apology from the condom factory, Welch: Shut up, you'll never be the man your mother is. McCarthy: It looks light your face caught on fire and someone tried to put it out with a fork. Welch: If you were twice as smart, you'd still be stupid. McCarthy: Do you have to leave so soon? I was just about to poison the tea. Welch: We all sprang from apes, but you didn't spring far enough. McCarthy: If art imitates life, you'd be a black velvet painting. Welch then hit him in the face with a pie. McCarthy dumped a plate of spaghetti on Welch’s head.  Welch stuck mashed potatoes down McCarthy’s pants.  Rodney King said, “Please can’t we all just get along”.

            1958 –Monday-  While taxiing at London's Gatwick Airport, the crew of a US Air flight departing for Ft. Lauderdale made a wrong turn and came nose to nose with a United 727. An irate female ground controller lashed out at the US Air crew, screaming: "US Air 2771, where the hell are you going?!  I told you to turn right onto Charlie taxiway! You turned right on Delta! Stop right there. I know it's difficult for you to tell
the difference between C and D, but get it right!" You can expect progressive taxi instructions in about half an hour and I want you to  go exactly where I tell you, when I tell you, and how I tell you! You got that,
US Air 2771?" "Yes, ma'am," the humbled crew responded.
 Just then an unknown pilot broke the silence and keyed his microphone asking:
"Wasn't I married to you once?
"……….So, along with Heathrow, they could now have twice as many delays,  Queen Elizabeth II officially opened London  (22 miles from London) Gatwick Airport, (LGW) in Crawley, West Sussex, United Kingdom.

            1958-Monday-   True story—A woman was sucked thorugh the window of her home during a tornado and carried 60 ft.  Found next to her when she landed was a phonograph record entitled Stormy Weather.

            1973 –Saturday,  Secretariat won the Belmont Stakes and the Triple Crown. As we reseached, we saw that quite a few Belmont Stakes (and some Pork Chops) occurred on June 9, to wit: 1877 - 11th Belmont: C Holloway aboard Cloverbrook , 17th Belmont: Jim McLaughlin aboard George Kinney, 1887 - 21st Belmont: Jim McLaughlin aboard Hanover, 1888 - 22nd Belmont: Jim McLaughlin aboard Sir Dixon , 26th Belmont: W Hayward aboard Patron,  55th Belmont: Earl Sande aboard Zev, 60th Belmont: Clarence Kummer aboard Vito, (Vito?),  66th Belmont: Wayne D Wright aboard Peace Chance , 94th Belmont: Bill Shoemaker aboard Jaipur, 105th Belmont: Ron Turcotte aboard Secretariat, 1975 - 107th Belmont: Bill Shoemaker aboard Avatar, 111th Belmont: Ruben Hernandez aboard Coastal, and 116th Belmont: Laffit Pincay Jr aboard Swale.

            1979 – Saturday- The Ghost Train Fire at Luna Park Sydney (New South Wales, Australia) killed seven people, a father and his two children and seven college students.  A fire broke out inside the ride at approximately 10:15p.m., and due to a combination of low water pressure, understaffing within the park, and inadequate coverage of the Ghost Train by the park's fire hose system, the fire was able to completely consume the ride.[ Luna Park Sydney's Ghost Train was designed and constructed in 1931 at Luna Park Glenelg. Along with the other rides, it was moved to Milsons Point in 1934 and reassembled prior to the park's first opening.

            1985 –Sunday-  Thomas Sutherland, former Dean of Agriculture at the American University of Beirut in Lebanon was kidnapped by Islamic Jihad members near his Beirut home.  He would not be released until 1991.

            1986 – Monday - The Rogers Commission, composed of people named Roger -      Bannister, Clemens, Corman, Roger, Ebert, Federer, Maris, Moore, Peterson, Roger Tory, Vadim, Waters, Roger released its report on the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. The Commission, chaired by William Rogers and including, Neil Armstrong, Sally Ride, Richard P. Feynman and Chuck Yeager found that the Challenger accident was caused by a “failure in the O-rings sealing the aft field joint on the right solid rocket booster, causing pressurized hot gases and eventually flame to "blow by" the O-ring and make contact with the adjacent external tank, causing structural failure”. The failure of the O-rings was attributed to a design flaw, as their performance could be too easily compromised by factors including the low temperature on the day of launch…..and the days preceding the launch. 

             1993- Wednesday- The US Postal Service introduced a new series of  .32 cent stamps called "Legends Of American Music." This was its first to feature rock stars, and included  Elvis Presley, Buddy Holly, Otis Redding, Bill Haley, Clyde McPhatter, Ritchie Valens, and Dinah Washington, the guy who sang Feelings, Olivia Newton John, any “boy band”, Freddy and the Dreamers, Herman’s Hermits, any “big hair group”, Pat Boone & Debbie Boone, the guys who sang Macarena, Michael Bolton, Baha Men, Tony Orlando & Dawn, Richard Harris talking MacArthur Park, Shocking Blue, Wild Cherry, Cher, Gilbert O’Sullivan, Helen Reddy, Blue Swede, Paper Lace, The Captain & Tennille, Silver Convention, C.W McCall, Walter Murphy and the Big Apple Band, Rick Dees, Air Supply, Toni Basil, Toto, Wham, aHa, Falco, Bananarama, Tiffany, Rick Astly, The Dixie Chicks, Color Me Badd, Laurie London, Coolio, Ricky Martin, Menudo, Sheb Wooley, Jennifer Lopez, Clay Aiken, Taylor Hicks, Avril Lavigne, Britney Spears, Zacherly, and David Seville & the Chipmunks. 

1999 –Wednesday- The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and NATO sign a peace treaty ending the Kosovo War.  One needs a score card to keep track of all the ethnic wars fought after the break up of Yugoslavia.  They were mostly between Serbs (and some, Montenegrins) on the one side and Croats and Bosniaks (and some Slovenes) on the other.  But they still found time for violence between Bosniaks and Croats in Bosnia, not to mention  a a separate conflict fought between rival Bosniak factions in Bosnia.  The Kosovo War was fought in 1999 between NATO and Serbia, the main remnant of the former Yugoslavia, over the status of the Yugoslavian province of Kosovo. In 1998, Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic sent Serbian troops to take back areas of Kosovo controlled by ethnic Albanian guerrillas. This set off a NATO air campaign in 1999. The war ended when Serbia agreed to a peace agreement sponsored by the United Nations and sent take out orders (for a million people)  of ćevapčići, pljeskavica, sarma  podvarak, musaka, gibanica, proja and, for a libation, some šljivovica (plum brandy) and lozovača (grape brandy).

2000 –Friday- Canada could have enjoyed English government, French culture and American know-how. Instead, it would up with English know-how, French government, and American culture…….. J. R. Colombo:………Canada and the United States signed a border security agreement. The agreement called for the establishment of a border-enforcement team.  

2008 – Monday-    The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars,
    But in ourselves, that we are underlings…… Cassius……Julius Caesar (I, ii, 140-141) “Hey let’s go down  to the lake for a swim and some fishing. What the ………………..? In the town of Lake Delton, Wisconsin, 267 acre Lake Delton drained as a result of heavy flooding breaking the dam holding the lake back.  The put a bit of a damper on the Lake Delton cognum, "waterpark capital of the world" "The property's still fine," spokeswoman Heidi Fendos said, "but Lake Delton's not there."

Back to Calendar


1190 – Sunday- Take me to the river, drop me in the water
Push me in the river, dip me in the water
Washing me down, washing me
….Talking Heads………. During the Third Crusade, Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the river Saleph while leading an army to Jerusalem. While the English and French kings, Richad I and Philip II,  traveled by sea to the Holy Land with their forces, Barbarossa's army was too large and was forced to march overland. Moving through Hungary, Serbia, and the Byzantine Empire, they crossed the Bosporus into Anatolia. After fighting two battles, they arrived at the Saleph River in southeast Anatolia. While stories vary, it is known that Barbarossa died on June 10, 1190, while doing either the butterfly or the backstoke

            1619 –Monday- -  During the Thirty Years' War (which actually lasted 30 years as opposed to the Hundred Years War that actually lasted 116 years)  the Battle of Záblatí, during the Bohemian phase – soldiers grew van dyck beards, listened to the poetry of Lawrence Ferlinghetti, issued orders as “like charge man”, and drank lots of coffee- turning point in the Bohemian Revolt.  Ernst von Mansfeldt and the Protestant Bohemian rebels were defeated by the Habsburg’s Catholic army led by Karel Bonaventura Buquoy  at Zablati.  The whole magilla started in 1618 when a crowd of Protestants stormed the royal castle in Prague and threw two members of the Catholic government and their secretary out the window. This incident became known as the Defenestration of Prague and marked the official beginning of the Thirty Years' War.

            1637 –Wednesday-  Dere's an ol' man called de Mississippi
Dat's de ol' man dat I'd like to be!
What does he care if de world's got troubles?
What does he care if de land ain't free?
Jerome Kern…….Happy Birthday- Jacques Marquette, French Jesuit missionary and explorer.  He met Louis Joliet in 1673 who came to Quebec with orders from Louis Frontenae, governor of Canada, to take Marquette as companion and guide on his expedition of discovery. Marquette had already heard of Mississippi river from the Illinois Indians that came to La Pointe. He now spent the winter in making the necessary preparations, drew up a rude map of the river from information that he received from the Indians, and carefully entered facts of any value in his note­book. “We took all possible precautions,” he says, “that, if our enterprise was hazardous, it should not be rash.” They traveled west along the north shore of Lake Michigan to Green Bay, then up the Fox River. They reached the Mississippi in mid-June. Marquette and the others continued down the Mississippi, but by now they realized that it did not lead to the Pacific Ocean. Since the river continued south, they believed it led into the Gulf of Mexico. On their way south, they saw the Missouri River, which they thought would lead west to the Pacific Ocean. They continued traveling as far south on the Mississippi to the border between Arkansas and Louisiana. There, friendly Native Americans warned the explorers that hostile Indians (the Cleveland Indians and Milwaukee Braves)  with guns were waiting further south along the river. Descretion being the better part of valor,  they turned back while singing Ole Man River, that Ole Man River …….

            1692 – Tuesday- - Why did the witch keep turning people into Mickey Mouse? She was having Disney spells.During the Salem witch trials, Bridget Bishop was hanged at Gallows Hill near Salem, Massachusetts, for "certaine Detestable Arts called Witchcraft & Sorceries" and making her husband wear a Hogwarts striped tie with a purple window-pane checked button down shirt  On her third marriage, Bishop was the first person to be hanged in Salem for being a witch.  Bishop had been accused by more people of witchcraft than any other so-called witch had been. In fact, she had been charged with witchcraft and acquited twelve years earlier. Bishop was known for fighting with her various husbands in public, entertaining guests in her home until very late at night and for even drinking. After an eight day trial, and while still protesting her innocence, Bishop was taken to Gallows Hill were she was hung by Sheriff George Corwin in front a large crowd of towns people.

            1706 – Thursday- Happy Birthday, John Dollond, English optician.  Isaac Newton had stated in his Optics " that all refracting substances diverged the prismatic colours in a constant proportion to their mean refraction," and consequently " that refraction could not be produced without colour," for which reason " no improvement could be expected in the refracting telescope." Dollond, however, said “noooooooo, you foony noony”, and found that as flint glass causes a greater dispersion in proportion to its refractive power than crown glass, achromatic magnified images could be obtained by using a combination of a doubly concave lens of the former substance with a doubly convex lens of the latter. He  was able to make the aberrations equal, so that, as the refractions of the two glasses were contrary, they corrected each other. In 1761 Dollond was appointed optician to the king, George III.

            1719 – Saturday- During the Jacobite (Jacobites were supporters of the exiled Stuart king James II (in Latin, Jacobus) and his descendants after the Glorious Revolution of 1688.) Rising in Britain, Major General Joseph Wightman defeated the Scots and Spanish at the  Battle of Glen Shiel. The defeat at Glen Shiel effectively ended the "Little Rising" and its leaders were forced to flee to the Continent. The Jacobite cause would not be revived in earnest until the arrival of Prince Charles (Bonnie Prince Charlie) Edward Stuart in 1745.

            1735-Friday- - The doctor gave a man six months to live. The man couldn't pay his bill, so he gave him another six months. The Doctor called Mrs. Cohen saying "Mrs. Cohen, your check came back." Mrs. Cohen answered "So did my arthritis!" The Doctor says "You'll live to be 60!" "I AM 60!" "See, what did I tell you?" …Henny Youngman………Happy Birthday, John Morgan American pioneer of U.S. medical education, surgeon general of the Continental armies during the U.S. War of Independence. Morgan was also the founder of the United States' first medical school - the College of Philadelphia (University of Pennsylvania) in 1765

            1770 –Sunday-  I'm gonna stick like glue
Stick, because I'm
Stuck on you……….
Elvis Presley……….Captain James Cook  discovered the Great Barrier Reef when he  ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef. Cook’s ship, was HM Bark Endeavour and he went armed with a team of top scientists on a mission primarily to make astronomical observations of the planet Venus. However, the voyage was also one to discover and claim new lands for the British flag. While sailing merrily along the coast of Australia, Endeavour stopped dead in the water after striking the south-eastern tip of a coral reef, holing her bow. Working through the night, all unnecessary objects were thrown overboard, including the ships guns and ballast, in an effort to lighten the ship's weight. After nearly 24 hours aground, Endeavour finally refloated at 10.20pm the following night.

            1786 –Saturday-  A landslide dam on the Dadu River created by an earthquake ten days earlier  finally collapsed causing a flood that killed  100,000 in the Sichuan province of China.  This may have been  the most disastrous event ever caused by landslide dam failures in the world.  

            1793 –MondayThe Jardin des Plantes museum opened in Paris. A year later, it became the first public zoo, The Ménagerie du Jardin des Plantes featuring a petting zoo with porcupines,  lions, grizzly bears, tigers, cobras, piranha , and crocodiles.  The Jardin du Roi was created in 1635 for King Louis XIII, and transformed, by the Count de Buffon in the 18th century, into the Jardin des Plantes, one of first sites dedicated to the study of nature

            1793 –Monday- We need the real, nation-wide terror which reinvigorates the country and through which the Great French Revolution achieved glory…Vladimir Lenin……..During  French Revolution, following the arrests of Girondin leaders the Jacobins gained control of the Committee of Public Safety installing the revolutionary dictatorship. Led by Maximilien Robespierre and Louis de Saint-Just, among others, the Jacobins relied mainly on the strength of the Paris commune and the Parisian “sans-culottes”. As the Committee for Public Safety (one of the great ironies of history)  Jacobin leaders instituted the Reign of Terror. Under Robespierre, who came to dominate the government, the Terror was used not only against counterrevolutionaries, but also against former allies of the Jacobins, such as the Cordeliers and the Dantonists (followers of Georges Danton, Robespierre’s former friend).

            1803 –Friday-  Henry Darcy, French scientist, he could really cut the mustard.  Born in Dijon, he made many important contributions to hydraulics. Darcy invented the modern style Pitot tube, a device for measuring the velocity of water. He stated Darcy’s Law (1856), a mathematical relationship that governs the flow of groundwater through granular media or the flow of other fluids through permeable material, such as petroleum through sandstone or limestone. He was also the aloof romantic hero, and a romantic interest of Elizabeth Bennet, in Pride & Prejudice.

            1809, Saturday- The Phoenix, a paddlewheel steamboat took thirteen days to sail from New York City to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. During the voyage passengers got to climb the rock wall, frolic in the pool, dance to the music of  D J Lewsinclark, eat nine meals a day, and search for missing honeymooning brides or grooms.  It was the first steamboat to navigate the open seas, having previously sailed to Delaware in 1808. This was John Stevens' first commercial steamboat, 100-ft long, built at Hoboken, N.J. Because of the Fulton monopoly in Jersey-New York waters – thanks to his Cleremont, which voyaged from New York City to Albany (nearly 150 miles) in 32 hours - the Phoenix went to Philadelphia

            1829 –Wednesday- -  Misery's the river of the world
Misery's the river of the world
Everybody row! Everybody row!
Everybody row! Everybody row!
……Tom Waits……….The first Boat Race between the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge at Henley-on-Thames. On 12 March 1829, Cambridge sent a challenge to Oxford  starting what has become a tradition which has continued to the present day, where the loser of the previous year’s race challenges the opposition to a re-match. The race was stopped soon after the start and, following the restart, as several rowers forgot their oars, life jackets, fancy hats, and bathing suits. Oxford were clear winners. The event was such a resounding success that the townspeople later decided to organize a regatta of their own which became Henley Royal Regatta.

            1832- Sunday - If the automobile had followed the same development cycle as the computer, a Rolls-Royce would today cost $100, get a million miles per gallon, and explode once a year, killing everyone inside……..Robert X. Cringely, InfoWorld magazine Ridin around in my ottomobile…. Speaking of strokes..see Oxford-Cambridge above- Happy Birthday, Nicholas A. Otto (ottomobile) German engineer who (along with Gottfried Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach) developed the four-stroke internal-combustion engine, which offered the first practical alternative to the steam engine as a power source. As first described in 1876, the stroke is an upward or downward movement of a piston in a cylinder. In a gasoline engine the cycle begins with the induction of a fuel mixture as the piston goes down on its first stroke. Going up, the piston compresses the mixture in the top of the cylinder. An electric spark ignites the mixture, and the gases produced force the piston down on its third, power stroke. On the fourth stroke the piston expels the burned gases from the cylinder into the exhaust. Otto's patent was invalidated in 1886 when it was discovered that another inventor, Alphonse Beau de Rochas, had already described the four-stroke cycle principle in a privately published pamphlet in 1862, although he never built a working model.

            1861 –Monday- - If the aim of physical theories is to explain experimental laws, theoretical physics is not an autonomous science; it is subordinate to metaphysics……Happy Birthday………… Pierre Duhem, French physicist wlho’s conception of science was that it is simply a device for calculating: science provides a deductive system that is systematic, economical, and predictive, but not one that represents the deep underlying nature of reality.  Duhem, a conservative and Catholic, thought that such representation was only achieved by rational thought . Duhem is also known  for stressing the holistic character of verification and falsification in science.

            1862- Tuesday-- The first recorded tornado occurred in New Haven, Connecticut at  about 2:30 p.m..  It picked up a house, carried it a half mile and dropped it on a which (see Salem Witch Trials 1692 above).  A young girl came along and poof! The witch’s ruby red slippers ended up on her feet. 

           1864 –Friday- Never stand and take a charge... charge them too ….Nathan Bedford Forrest………In the Battle of Brice's CrossroadsConfederate troops under Nathan Bedford Forrest defeated, as usually occurred with Forrest led troops,  a much larger Union force led by General Samuel D. Sturgis in Mississippi. In a classic double envelopment, Forrest’s cavalry got around both flanks of the Union force. The line crumbled, then broke. This was one of the worst routs suffered by Union forces in the west. By the next morning some of the retreating troops had already reached Ripley, 24 miles from the battlefield. It proved impossible to properly stop the retreat until the defeated men had returned to the relative safety of Memphis.  Forrest captured the entire Union wagon train, 14 artillery guns, 52 officers and 1,571 men as well as inflicting over 500 casualties. This was his most impressive victory, and one of the worst Union defeats in the west.

            1869- Thursday-- A lady was picking through the frozen turkeys at the grocery store, but couldn’t find one big enough for her family. She asked a stock boy, “Do these turkeys get any bigger?” The stock boy replied, “No ma am, they re dead……...Machine-frozen food was transported a significant distance in the U.S. for the first time. A shipment of frozen Texas beef had been processed by refrigeration equipment invented by John Gorrie, considered the father of air conditioning and refrigeration (see the Gnus page – Who’s Your Daddy http://sciencegnus.com/Who%27s%20Your%20Daddy.html) and delivered by the steamship Agnes in New Orleans, La. The meat was served in meals at hospitals, and celebration banquets at hotels and McDonalds, Burger King, Wendy’s, White Castle and Sonic.. Ironically,  John Gorrie had unsuccessfully sought financial support to develop his invention in New Orleans, had the financial rug pulled out from under him, suffered a nervous breakdown  and had died shortly thereafter in 1855.

            1886 –Thursday--  Mount Tarawera in New Zealand erupted killing 153 people and destroying the famous Pink and White Terraces. The eruption began with a swarm of earthquakes, followed by what was thought to be hail. It turned out to be stones and scoria. This was soon followed by thick ash and mud. The weight of this collapsed many of the buildings. The dense air also suffocated many of the residents of the area. Thick ash and mud covered the surrounding countryside for many miles around.  Other than that, things were fine. Mount Tarawera is not far from Rotorua, a city on the North Island.

            1895 – Monday- It's a waste of energy to be angry with a man who behaves badly, just as it is to be angry with a car that won't go …Bertrand Russell……..On Nicholas Otto’s birthday (four stroke engine), Charles E. Duryea received the first U.S. patent granted to an American inventor for a gasoline-driven automobile. The design had been mostly done by brother Frank. (see http://www.uniquecarsandparts.com.au/lost_marques_duryea.htm) On September 20 1893, the Duryea and his brother Frank's first automobile was constructed and successfully tested on the streets of Springfield, Massachusetts. Charles Duryea founded the Duryea Motor Wagon Company in 1896, the first company to manufacture and sell gasoline powered vehicles.

            1898 –Friday-  During the Spanish-American War, U.S. Marines landed at Guantánamo Bay on the island of Cuba.  For the next month, American troops fought a land war in Cuba that resulted in the end of Spanish colonial rule in the Western Hemisphere. The U.S still occupies Guantanamo Bay although it is a quarantine site for virgin obsessed Islamic terrorists.

            1902  Monday-  After experimenting with casement, bay, double hung, and jalousie windows, the first U.S. patent for a window envelope was issued to Americus F. Callahan of Chicago, Ill., which he called the outlook envelope.  The patent was described as cutting holes in the envelope to see the paper inside. The holes would then be covered with a transparent material. Callahan suggested "with a section of transparent material--as, for example, very thin rice paper."This made the envelopes convenient for reading addresses and delicious with black beans.

            1909 –Wednesday-- Houston, we have a problem The SOS distress signal was used for the first time. The Cunard liner SS Slavonia used the signal when it wrecked off the Azores.  It took a little while to get to SOS.  Guglielmo Marconi had invented the wireless telegraph.  In 1904, the Marconi company filled the need for an international distress signal by suggesting the use of "CQD" for a distress signal.  Although generally accepted to mean, "Come Quick Danger," that is not the case. It is a general call, "CQ," followed by "D," meaning distress. A strict interpretation would be "All stations, Distress." The Slovonia SOS is a bit confusing.  Ships were still using CQD at the time (in fact the Titanic interspersed SOS and CQD distress calls even though SOS was officially ratified in 1908) .  Neal McEwen at the Telegraph Office website had a detailed account of the history of distress signals. http://www.telegraph-office.com/pages/arc2-2.html
 He mentions the S.S Arapahoe as the first American ship to use SOS but there is no note of the SS Slovenia. 

            1910 – Friday- I couldn't do no yodelin', so I turned to howlin'. And it's done me just fine.….Happy Birthday, Howlin' Wolf, American musician born Chester Arthur Burnett in West Point, Mississippi.  Burnett changed his name soon after learning to play the harmonica in the 1930s and developing his gutteral 'howlin' style under the tutelage of country blues man Charley Patton. He helped to define the postwar Chicago blues style. Among his multiply covered songs were; Smokestack Lightening, Ain't Superstitious, Back Door Man and Little Red Rooster.

            1918 –Monday- The Austro-Hungarian battleship SMS Szent István was rendered kaput after being torpedoed by an Italian MAS motorboat. Battleships were/are the most majestic of war ships but by late in WW I and after they were more targets than weapons.  The Szent István was one of four dreadnought battleships built by the Austro-Hungarian Empire prior to the First World War. Launched in January 1914 she spent the majority of the war based at Pola naval base in modern day Croatia. On 9 June 1918 she merrily sailed from Pola with her sister ship SMS Tegetthoff  finally getting some action taking part in an attack on the Otranto barrage – an Allied naval blockade of the Straits of Otranto between Italy and Albania. They encountered two Italian MAS motor torpedo boats returning from a patrol off the Dalmatian coast. The torpedo boats – MAS.15 and MAS.21 – managed to penetrate the dreadnoughts escort screen and attacked both ships. Alas poor SMS Szent István…..four years in the harbor and one day at sea….

            1919 – Tuesday- Sir Barton became the first horse to capture the Triple Crown when he won the Belmont Stakes in New York City. Note it was run on a Tuesday.  Other Triple Crown – Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes have been: 1930 -Gallant Fox, 1935-Omaha,1937-War Admiral,1941-Whirlaway,1943-Count Fleet1946 –Assault, 1948-Citation, 1973-Secretariat, 1977-Seattle Slew,1978-Affirmed, and Princess Anne of England.  

            1921 –Friday-  How to hit home runs: I swing as hard as I can, and I try to swing right through the ball... The harder you grip the bat, the more you can swing it through the ball, and the farther the ball will go. I swing big, with everything I've got. I hit big or I miss big. I like to live as big as I can………New York Yankee Babe Ruth became all time HR champ with  number 120 passing another right fielder, the immortal Clifford “Gavvy”  Cravath. Ruth would end up with 714 home runs (remember, he was a pitcher for the first four years of his major league career) subsequently be passed by Henry Aaron and a drug cheat with a big giant head. Cravath had accumulated his home runs over eleven seasons with the Red Sox, White Sox, Senators and Phillies.   His highest yearly home run total was 24 in 1915

            1922 –Saturday- Behind every cloud is another cloud …Happy Birthday Judy Garland, American musical actress, born Frances Ethel Gumm in Grand Rapids, Minnesota. She had a hugely successful, yet troubled , career in film and music that lasted over four decades and produced hit records, films, and spectacular live concerts overflowing with effeminate men. Her more notable movies included, The Wizard of Oz (1939), Meet Me in St. Louis (1944), Easter Parade (1948) and A Star Is Born (1954). Songs include Zing! Went the Strings of My Heart , The Trolley Song, Meet Me in St. Louis, Louis , On the Atchison, Topeka and the Santa Fe, Over the Rainbow ,  I Can't Give You Anything But Love, April Showers , When You're Smiling (The Whole World Smiles With You)
and  Rock-A-Bye Your Baby With a Dixie Melody

            1929 – Monday – Happy Birthday,  Edward Osborne Wilson, American biologist recognized as the world's leading authority on ants who conducted extensive studies of the ecology and evolution of the ant. He collected all of the hits of  Adam Ant including Kings Of The Wild Frontier.

            1935 – Monday-  Dr. Robert Smith took his last drink, and Alcoholics Anonymous was founded in Akron, Ohio, by Smith and Bill Wilson. They started the organization  in an upstairs room at Smith’s home at 855 Ardmore Avenue, in Akron, the two men began helping alcoholics one person at a time. In took four years to get the first 100 alcoholics sober in the first three groups that formed in Akron, New York, and Cleveland.

            1941 –Tuesday- -  Ever have a day when just about everything goes wrong? We call it a “Shirelle’s Day” as in Mama said there'll be days like this,
There'll be days like this Mama said
(Mama said, mama said)
Mama said there'll be days like this,
There'll be days like this my Mama said
(Mama said, mama said) …….
Happy Birthday, Shirley Owens, - later known as Shirley Alston, then Shirley Alston Reeves-  lead singer of  the Shirelles, who included Doris Coley (she sang lead on Dedicated to the One I Love), Beverly Lee, and Addie 'Micki' Harris. The quartet formed in Passaic New Jersey in 1958. Hits include; Soldier Boy Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow, Dedicated To The One I Love, Mama Said, Baby It's You, Foolish Little Girl, What A Sweet Thing That Was, Boys and, I Met Him On A Sunday (our personal favorite -Doo ronde ronde ronde pa pa
Doo ronde ronde ronde pa pa
Doo ronde ronde ronde pa pa
Doo oo oo oo ooo.

            1942 –Wednesday- Hitler was frantic with rage and, characteristically, what he called for was not justice but vengeance. He ordered the instant execution of 30,000 Czechs as a reprisal………….Richard Livingstone………..During World War II,  Nazis burned the Czech village of Lidice in reprisal for the partisan killing of Reinhard Heydrich, one of the cruelest and most brutal mass murderers in Nazi Germany. On May 27th, 1942, Heydrich was attacked by British-trained freedom fighters - one born in the current Czech Republic and the other, Jozef Gabcik, born in Slovakia. A grenade attack on his car left him fatally wounded and he died on June 4th. Lidice was about 10 miles from Prague. Citing tenous connections with the assassins, on this day, 198 women and 98 children were put onto trucks and taken to  Ravensbruck concentration camp. The men were brought out of the farm houses and lined up in front of mattresses laid against a wall.  The execution squad brought them out in batches of ten. 173 were shot. Those men who were in Lidice at the time visiting relatives and friends, but who were not from Lidice, were also shot. The village was then destroyed – literally wiped off of the map. Houses were destroyed, orchards dug up and the graveyard desecrated. Even pet dogs were shot. When this was done, pioneer troops were sent in to plough the land flat. Seemingly nothing was left of the village, not even the outline. The whole episode was filmed by the SS.

            1943-Thursday-  The pen is the tongue of the mind……Cervantes……..The ball point pen was patented by Laslo Biro. He had invented the pen with quick-drying ink in 1938 while working as  a journalist in Budapest, Hungary. Biro was also a sculptor and hypnotist.  Ball point pens had been around a while.  In 1888 John Loud, an American leather tanner, patented a roller-ball-tip marking pen. Loud’s invention featured a reservoir of ink and a roller ball that applied the thick ink to leather hides. The problem was that Loud’s and the other 350 ball point patents issued prior to Biro, pens leaked (see shirt pocket protector – see Hurley Smith, inventor of the pocket protector) leaked, and if ink was was too thick, they clogged. As often as not, the pen would sometimes do both.  Biro’s design featured a ball.  It relied on design, capillary action – think plant stems-  rather than gravity to feed the ink.  The rough "ball" at the end of the pen acted like a metal sponge, and with this improvement ink could flow more smoothly to the ball, and the pen could be held at a slant rather than straight up

            1944 –Monday-  With many major leaguers serving in the armed forces,  15-year old Joe Nuxhall of the Cincinnati Reds became the youngest player ever in a major-league game. The teenager gave up five runs in two-thirds of an inning against the St. Louis Cardinals in a hard fought, close, 18-0 loss (winning pitcher was Mort Cooper).  Mercifully, this was ihis only appearance during 1944. He returned to the club in 1952 and won 130 games in his career.

            1952 – Tuesday- -There's so much plastic in this culture that vinyl leopard skin is becoming an endangered synthetic………Lily Tomlin……… Mylar® was registered as a DuPont trademark for an extraordinarily strong polyester film that grew out of the development of Dacron®  in the early 1950s.  Mylar, the trade name, signifies a family of plastics, which are made from the PET or the Polyethylene Terephalate.  It is an extremely sturdy polyester film. Cellophane was gradually replaced by Mylar due to its better potency, heat resistance, plus exceptional insulating properties. Mylar is the possessive for of Lar, as opposed to Yourlar.

             1955-Friday- The first U.S. report was made of the separation of a virus into component parts- Capsid, Nucleic Acid, Glycoproteins, sometimes envelopes and enzymes.  After the separation the viruses hired lawyers to renegotiate the prenuptual agreement.  This work was performed on the tobacco virus, which furthermore could be reconstructed from those parts to produce a material as effective as the virus in its original form in producing disease in tabacco and other plants.

        1966 –Friday- If I hold back, I'm no good. I'm no good. I'd rather be good sometimes, than holding back all the time. ……Janis Joplin  made her debut in concert with Big Brother & the Holding Company at the Avalon Ballroom in San Francisco.  They didn’t even get billing with the other groups; Grateful Dead/Quicksilver Messenger Service/New Tweedy Brothers.  See the poster at Rock Prosopography 101 http://rockprosopography101.blogspot.com/2009/11/avalon-ballroom-june-10-11-1966.html.  They did, however, became the house band.

            1977 –Friday--  The organization man is dead. He thrived when smokestack America thrived. When airlines, banks and telephones were highly regulated. When Japan built shoddy cars. When computers were huge and an apple was something you ate.”……………. Bruce Nussbaum………………Apple shipped its first Apple II personal computer priced at $1298 with 4K RAM and  $2638 with 48K RAM .  it had color graphics (a first for a personal computer), and used an audio cassette drive for storage.          

            2000, Saturday-  Oscillation is funny, it makes a cloudy day sunny
Makes a bee think of honey just as I think of you
Oscillation is crazy, your whole perspective gets hazy
Starts you asking a daisy "What to do, what to do?"
……...apologies to Frank Sinatra and Ella FitzgeraldThe Millenium Bridge - a footbridge across the Thames River - was opened by Queen Elizabeth.  Unfortunately, as  the first few thousand people crossed the bridge, it developed an unexpected and potentially dangerous sideways "wobble". This caused people to reflexively walk "in step", which increased the oscillation and created a new dance, The Brobble- wide step right, wide step left, wide step right, wide step left…..lean right, lean left……….. It turned out that the bridge design had been adapted from a computer model typical for a car bridge, but which did not take into account the lateral forces associated with human walking. A major engineering blooper  After structural damping was added to stop the oscillation, and  the bridge re-opened in 2002.

            2002 –Monday- Our robots have roughly the equivalent of 50 to 100 brain cells. That means they are about as intelligent as a slug or snail or a Manchester United supporter ……Kevin Warwick……… The first direct electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans was carried out by Kevin Warwick, scientist and professor of cybernetics at the University of Reading, UK Unfortunately, the humans were of the species celebutardus parasitus (see Kardashian) who cannot act, sing, write, speak or think …producing dubious results. Warwick is also known for his pioneering experiments involving a neuro-surgical implantation into the median nerves of his left arm to link his nervous system directly to a computer to assess the latest technology for use with the disabled.

            2003 –Tuesday - Oh man! Wonder if he'll ever know
He's in the best selling show
Is there life on Mars?
…………..David Bowie……….The Spirit Rover was launched, beginning NASA's Mars Exploration Rover mission.  It would reach the  Red Planet on January 4, 2004. The Opportunity Rover would be launched on July 7, 2003 and  reach Mars on January 25, 2004.  Spirit’s last communication was in March of 2010 when it reported seeing a mirage that resembled the movie Santa Claus Conquers the Martians starring Pia Zadora. Opportunity was still chugging along in 2011.  Each rover was sort of the mechanical equivalent of a geologist walking the surface of Mars. The mast-mounted cameras were mounted 1.5 meters (5 feet) high and provided 360-degree, stereoscopic, humanlike views of the terrain. The robotic arm was capable of movement in much the same way as a human arm with an elbow and wrist, and can place instruments directly up against rock and soil targets of interest. In the mechanical "fist" of the arm was a microscopic camera that served the same purpose as a geologist's handheld magnifying lens. The Rock Abrasion Tool served the purpose of a geologist's rock hammer to expose the insides of rocks, and the Chopstick Attachment came in handy for Martian Sushi.

Back to Calendar


1184 BC –Monday- A generation of men is like a generation of leaves; the wind scatters some leaves upon the ground, while others the burgeoning wood brings forth - and the season of spring comes on. So of men one generation springs forth and another ceases. ……Homer…………According to calculations by Erastothenes, the Greek mathematician famous for his work on prime numbers and for measuring the diameter of the earth , the city of Troy was sacked and burned.  Homer's masterpieces, the Odyssey and the Iliad are highly influenced by the Trojan War. According to the mythological versions, some of the Greek gods also played key roles in the story of Troy. Homer was most likely a blind, Greek poet who lived around 700 BC.  Little is known about Homer, and whether he actually existed is also a mystery.  However, what is certain is that his name has been passed in tandem with the two works attributed to him--The Iliad and The Odyssey.  These poems were first created as lyrical, spoken poems, in the language of ancient Greece. The historical facts of Homer's life remain unknown and will most likely never be known. Some scholars, and television talk show hosts today doubt the existence of Homer the man. However, this was not always the case: it wasn't until the publication of Prolegomena ad Homerum (The Homeric Problem), a  book, written by F.A. Wolf and published in 1795, which, for the first time, seriously questioned whether the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey truly existed.  The siege of Troy ended with the Achaeans presenting the Trojan Horse as a peace gift to the Trojans. The Trojan Horse was actually hollow and had many Greek soldiers were hidden in it. The Trojans were massacred when the Greeks within the horse came out and opened the city gates to let in the massive Achaean force that had pretended to sail away, but were actually waiting on a nearby island.

            1292- Wednesday-  Happy Birthday, Natural scientist Roger Bacon went kaputThe English friar (did also did some boiling and fricasseeing) held that experimentation and observation were fundamental to  science.  We could say that he invented Inquiry Science.

            1429 –Thursday-  The start of the Battle of Jargeau during the Hundred Years' War (which lasted 116 years). This was It was Joan of Arc's first offensive battle. Jargeau was a small town on the southern bank of the Loire river in central France, about ten miles east of Orléans. Joan had relieved the siege at Orléans in early May. This campaign would be the first sustained French offensive in a generation (they had lost badly at Agincourt in 1422) in the Hundred Years' War as victories at the Battles of Meung-sur-Loire, Beaugency, and Patay would follow later that month.  A year later, May 1430, Joan would be captured by the Burgundians and turned over to the English and roasted.

            1488 –Monday- James III of Scotland was murdered after his defeat at the Battle of Sauchieburn, Stirling. He was succeeded by his son James IV. James followed the familiar pattern of violent death accruing to James I, II, IV, and V….VI would become King of England. James II had blown himself up with a cannon. James III had flirted with the English and alienated the Scottish lords.  J III  raised an army and met the rebel force at Sauchieburn, outside Stirling. At some point in the battle or just after it James was rendered kaput.  There are two versions of the kapution…. One version has James fall from his horse to be finished by the enemy soldiers, while another had James survive the battle only to be assassinated whilst taking shelter. James IV lasted a while but his reign ended with the disastrous defeat at the Battle of Flodden, where he became the last monarch from Great Britain to be killed in battle.  James V was crushed at the Battle of Solway Moss and went to that big Stone of Scone in the sky shortly afterwards.  His two sons had died in infancy, and his successor was his only legitimate child, Mary,later Mary, Queen of Scots (her son would become James VI) .  Oh, and James I was stabbed and generally run through by nobles in 1437.

            1509 –Friday- - To know, know, know him is to love, love, love him
Just to see him smile, makes my life worthwhile
To know, know, know him is to love, love, love him
And I do
I'll be good to him, I'll bring love to him
Everyone says there'll come a day when I'll walk alongside of him
Yes, just to know him is to love, love, love him
And I do ……..
Teddy Bears………… On a social note, King Henry VIII married his first of six wives, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine had already (sort of) been down the matrimonial aisle once before as she had married Henry VII’s oldest son, Prince Arthur a, by proxy, at Prince Arthur's manor house at Bewdley in 1499. Arthur went kaput in 1502 at age 16.  When Henry became VIII, he decided to marry the widowed Catherine.  At the wedding, the groom was glowing in a gabardine doublet designed by Calvin Klein.  The bride, resplendent in apadded skirts held up with loops. Over it she wore a bodice and a white  floor-length gown from the Martha Stewart K-Mart Collection.  The reception was held at Anthony’s of Blackfriar Bridge with music by the Cardinal Wolsey Orchestra featuring  Biff of Bath on the Rebec, the lovely Loretta Liverpool on the Psaltery, and  Donald of Dorseet on the Dulcimer. The wedding feast featured a First Course of
 Brawn (boar meat)

Roast Tongue
Leg of Pork
Roast Beef
 Roast Venison (deer)
Meat Pie
Vegetables in season

Second Course
Roast Lamb

Dessert - Tarts and Custard

            1644-  Saturday- Probably nor'east to sou'west winds varying to the southard and westard and eastard and points between; high and low barometer, sweeping round from place to place; probably areas of rain, snow, heat and drought, succeeded or preceded by earth quakes …….Mark Twain………Florentine scientist, Evangelista Torricelli described in a letter to Michelangelo Ricci, the invention of a barometer, or "torricellian tube." to make an instrument which will show the changes in the atmosphere, as it is now heavier and more gross and now lighter and more subtle. http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/torr.html
At the suggestion of Galileo Galilei,  Torricelli used mercury in his vacuum experiments. He filled a four-foot long glass tube with mercury and inverted the tube into a dish. Some of the mercury did not escape from the tube and Torricelli observed the vacuum that was created. He became the first scientist to create a sustained vacuum and to discover the principle of a barometer realizing that the variation of the height of the mercury from day to day was caused by changes in the atmospheric pressure. Torricelli built that first mercury barometer in 1644.

            1723 – Friday- Happy Birthday- Johann Georg Palitzsch, German astronomer. At Christmas, 1758 (December 25-26,), while stepping outside from the big Christmas party due to flatulance,  he made the first sighting of comet Halley on its first predicted return - predicted by Edmond Halley 1705 for 1758-59. Besides astronomy, he studied agricultural botanics, and helped to introduce the potato as a common food in Saxony. Comets to potatoes, whew!

            1742- Monday-Put your hand on a hot stove for a minute, and it seems like an hour. Sit with a pretty girl for an hour, and it seems like a minute. THAT'S relativity….Albert Einstein……….. Benjamin Franklin invented the Franklin stove. Rather than patent it, he chose to write about it in a book so that others could freely copy his design. He called the cast iron stove the Pennsylvania Fireplace.  It had metal baffles to increase its heating efficiency.  .  Once again proving that great minds don’t always get it right, unfortunately, he designed it so the smoke would come out from the bottom. Since smoke rises, this made it impossible for his original stove to work properly. But, even with this major flaw it was better and safer than previous methods as everyone ran around the room gasping for air.

            1776 –Tuesday- We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness…….. After rejecting suggestions for The Gang of Four, The Magnificent Seven, and Ten Little Indians, The Continental Congress appointed Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston as the Committee of Five to draft a declaration of independence. The committee assigned Jefferson the task of writing the original document which he wrote at Graff House in PhiladelphiaAfter minor alterations were subsequently made by Franklin and Adams, the document was submitted to Congress.

Two passages in Jefferson's draft were rejected by the Congress — an intemperate reference to the English people and a scathing denunciation of the slave trade. Otherwise, the Declaration was adopted without significant change       

            1776 –Tuesday- Happy Birthday,  John Constable, English painter.  His 1821 master work The Haywain was exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1824. Constable's technique greatly influenced the French artist Delacroix (see semi naked lady as Liberty), and the so-called "Barbizon School", who followed Constable's lead in working outdoors. Later still, the French Impressionists built on Constable's efforts to capture the moods of light.

            1788 –Wednesday- “Gee, I can see Gerasim Izmailov from from my house....apologies to Tina Fey as  Sarah Palin....... Russian explorer Gerasim Izmailov reached Alaska. Izmailov is important to fans of the game of Risk since he was born in Yakutsk and later got caught up in the Benevsky mutiny on Bol'sheretsky island in Kamchatka. Yakutsk and Kamchatka, as Risk fans know are very hard to defend unless you have lots of armies. From 1775 he led expeditions to the Aleutian Islands as commander of the St. Paul. In October 1778 he encountered Captain James Cook at Unalaska and presented him with a letter of introduction to the Russian authorities; this letter was used by Cook's successor Captain Charles Clerke after Cook went kaput in Hawaii.  Cook meanwhile handed a letter to Izmailov for delivery to London.

            1793- Tuesday- Speaking of BenjaminFranklin and his FranklinStove, see 1742 above.  Since Franklin had refused patent rights, they were still out there waiting to be grabbed so Robert Haeterick of Pennsylvania was issued the first American patent for a stove design of cast iron. This was one of the first stoves developed for just cooking His patent was issued about three years after the very first U.S. patent, and like the  other patents of the period, it was not numbered. The original record of this patent was destroyed in the 1836 Patent Office fire, which did not occur in a stove. In 1800, Count Rumford aka American ex-patriot and rogue, Benjamin Thompson now living in Germany,  invented a working iron kitchen stove called the Rumford stove that was designed for very large working kitchens. The Rumford had one fire source that could heat several cooking pots, the heating level for each pot could be regulated individually.

            1805 – Tuesday- speramus meliora; resurget cineribus. We hope for better things; It shall rise from the ashes.....Father Richard of St. Anne’s Church..... Beginning a long time Detroit tradition of burning down their city,a fire consumed large portions of Detroit in the Michigan Territory. Detroit wasn’t exactly a giant metropolis at the time.  The entire town was about twenty acres.  Detroit was founded in 1701 when French Explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac landed in what is now the Civic Center area of the city.  Tragically, the great fire of 1805 destroyed nearly all of Detroit's historic sites.

            1842 Saturday- A woman goes to a psychiatrist and says, "Doctor, you've got todo something about my husband -- he thinks he's a refrigerator!" "I wouldn't worry too much about it," the doctor replies. "Lots of people have harmless delusions. It will pass. " "But you don't understand," the woman insists. "He sleepswith his mouth open, and the little light keeps me awake. "...........Happy Birthday, Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde, German engineer who invented mechanical refrigeration through a  continuous process of liquefying gases in large quantities. This formed a basis for the modern technology of refrigeration. His first refrigeration equipment was, happily, tested in a Munich brewery.  Speaking of breweries, In 1894, following a request from the Guinness brewery in Dublin for a new cooling technique, Linde developed a revolutionary new method (Linde technique) for the liquefaction of large quantities of air. Linde's method was based on the works of James Prescott Joule and Lord Kelvin.

            1844-  Tuesday- Like a rubber ball I come bouncing back to you…..Bobby Vee……..Charles Goodyear dropped a mixture of rubber and sulphur on a hot stove and discovered the vulcanization process for rubber. Unfortunately, the hamburger was a bit too chewy. Goodyear discovered that if you removed the sulphur from rubber then heated it, it would retain its elasticity and you would not sulpher the consequences.  Vulcanization made rubber waterproof and winter-proof and opened the door for a enormous market for rubber goods and Spock of Star Trek.  Goodyear got his patent on June 24, 1844.

            1860- Monday- Happy Birthday, MaryJane Rathbun, American marine zoologist known for establishing the basic taxonomic information on Crustacea. "A white sport coat and a pinkcrustacean"..... but let's not get crabby over this. She also She also established a systematic catalogue of the thousands of specimens of marine invertebrates

            1867 – Tuesday- Charles Fabry, French physicist and co-inventor of Fabry-Perot interferometer with, yes, with Alfred Pérot. The interferometer makes use of multiple reflections between two closely spaced partially silvered surfaces. Part of the light is transmitted each time the light reaches the second surface, resulting in multiple offset beams which can interfere with each other. The large number of interfering rays produces an interferometer with extremely high resolution, somewhat like the multiple slits of a diffraction grating increase its resolution. Yeah, great, but what do you use it for?
It is ideal for measuring laser linewidth, longitudinal mode structure and frequency stability of a laser source.

            1879 – Wednesday- You have to have a catcher because if you don't you're likely to have a lot of passed balls ……Casey Stengel………Happy Birthday, Roger Bresnahan, baseball player  who played all nine positions (not at once) but was most famous a catcher.  One reporter described him as "highly strung and almost abnormally emotional,". He was also an innovator. According to Joan M.Thomas of the Baseball Biography Project, after a hospital stay necessitated by a beaningbeing conked on the head by a pitch, he experimented in 1905 with the Reach Pneumatic Head Protector, which was essentially a leather football helmet sliced in half to protect the left side of a right-handed hitter's head. More influential were his efforts with shin guards. After discovering in a home-plate collision that Red Dooin of the Phillies wore papier-mâché protectors under his stockings, Bresnahan showed up on Opening Day 1907 wearing a huge pair of shin guards modeled after a cricketer's leg pads.

            1888 – Monday- Bartolomeo Vanzetti, Italian anarchist (of the anarchist comedy team of Sacco and Vanzetti – “Say Sacco, how many anarchists does it take to change a light bulb?” I’d don’t know Vanzetti, how many anarchists does it take?” “The light bulb can't be changed, it can only be smashed!”  Born in Italy, Vanzetti emigrated to the United States when he was twenty years old. Vanzetti settled in Plymouth, where he worked as a fish peddler. While attending Anarchist meetings he became friendly with fellow left winger, Nicola Sacco. On May 5, 1920 several witnesses to a robbery/murder claimed the perpetrators “looked Italian”. Some people who saw the crime taking place identified Vanzetti and Sacco as the robbers. Others disagreed and both men had good alibis. Vanzetti was selling fish in Plymouth while Sacco was in Boston with his wife having his photograph taken. Both men were found guilty of first degree murder and sentenced to death.

            1895- Tuesday- Beep beep. Beep beep.  His horn went beep beep beep…..The Playmates…………The  first U.S. patent for a gasoline-driven automobile (a “road vehicle”) by a U.S. inventor was issued to Charles E. Duryea.  Early in 1896, the Duryea Motor Wagon Co. set up shop in Springfield, Mass. to manufacture multiple units to a gasoline-powered vehicle that he built with his brother, Frank, who had really done all the work. Attempting to  keep his brother informed of his work, Frank had mailed a set of drawings of the new car to Peoria and Charles promptly patented them in his own name, sparking (pun intended)  off a dispute that would outlive them both.Gottlieb Diamler, in Germany, had invented a petrol engine in 1885.

            1901 –Tuesday-  New Zealand annexed the Cook Islands (Julia Child Island, Wolfgang Puck Island, Gordon Ramsey Island – natives very hostile-, Emeril Lagasse Island, Antoine Careme Island and George Auguste Escoffier Island). Between 1773 and 1779 Captain James Cook sighted and landed on many of the southern group. Cook named the islands the Hervey Islands. In fact, he gave this name to the first island he discovered – Manuae. The name "Cook Islands" was given to the group by the Russians in honor of the great English, yet kaput, navigator when it appeared for the first time on a Russian naval chart in the early 1800s. The Cooks were formally annexed by New Zealand on October 7 1900 when a deed of cession was signed by five ariki and seven lesser chiefs without any debate or examination of its ramifications or implications.   The following year, on this day,  Niue was annexed by New Zealand and included in the Cooks although it had always been associated previously with Samoa and Tonga.

            1910-  Saturday- Man, of all the animals, is probably the only one to regard himself as a great delicacy. ………….Happy Birthday,  Jacques Cousteau, French oceanographer and electrifying television personality.  Cousteau was the  co-inventor, with Emile Gagnan,  of the aqualung (a Jethro Tull Album) in 1943. He also pioneered techniques in underwater photography and explored the oceans aboard his vessel Calypso. His filmmaking career included three Oscars, frequent television specials and the series, The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau  in 1966.

            1913 – Wednesday-Leaders aren't born, they are made. And they are made just like anything else, through hard work. And that's the price we'll have to pay to achieve that goal, or any goal…………. Happy Birthday, Vince Lombardi, one of the most successful NFL football coaches of all time. In 1954, the Fordham graduate, and West Point assistant coach became the Offense coach for the New York Giants.  He left the Giants, to become coach of  the Green Bay Packers in 1959. Note the Giants Defensive coach, Tom Landry would go on to fame as the coach of the Dallas Cowboys.  When head coach Jim Lee Howell retired in 1961, the Giants were left with Allie Sherman, who after brief early success, was booed out of town.  Lombardi and Landry went to the Hall of Fame. Lombardi led the Packers to 105-35-6 record that included five NFL Championships and two winning Super Bowls. He retired from the Packers in 1967 but changed his mind about coaching and retuned as coach of the Washington Redskins in 1969. He led the team to their first winning season in 14 years but fell ill later that year and died of intestinal cancer  in 1970.

            1915 – Friday- Happy Birthday, Nicholas Metropolis, aka Nick the Greek, Greek-American mathematician, physicist and computer scientist. Metropolis At Los Alamos, he was one of the original scientists of the Manhattan Project, and collaborated with Enrico Fermi and Edward Teller on the first nuclear reactors. The Metropolis algorithm, ….I’ve got algorithm. I’ve got algorithim……first described in a 1953 paper by Metropolis, A. Rosenbluth, M. Rosenbluth, A. Teller, and Edward Teller, was cited in Computing in Science and Engineering as being among the top 10 algorithms having
the"greatest influence on the development and practice of science and engineering in the 20th century."
One starts from an arbitrary point and generates thesequence by repeating the following cycle, with being the previously selected point at each iteration….or as Johann von Neumann said,  In mathematics, you don't understand things. You just get used to them.

             1935 – Tuesday- No static at all
[No static at all]
No static at all
FM, no static at all
…..Steely Dan………… Inventor Edwin Armstrong, of  Yonkers, NY,  gave the first public demonstration of FM broadcasting in the United States, at Alpine, New Jersey featuring disc jockey Rick Dees performing Disco Duck. FM a broadcast technology that uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity broadcast radio sound. The demonstration was made in 1935 from the home of his friend C.R. (Randy) Runyon at 544 North Broadway in Yonkers. The Runyon living room served as a studio for a demonstration of different kinds of sound that were broadcast to a meeting of the Institute of Radio Engineers at the Engineer’s Building on West 39th Street in New York City. Water was poured, paper was crumpled, and live and recorded music were beamed from the Runyon tower to the audience forty miles away. http://www.yonkershistory.org/arms.html

            1936 – Thursday- The International Surrealist Exhibition (Exposition Internationale du Surrealisme ) opened ay at the New Burlington Galleries in London London, England…..we think…..words flow……images swim congruently……..it may have been American Idol auditions……………Lara Thompson at the Luxline website tells us that the Exhibition included work by Dalí, Miró and Ernst alongside primitive art.  The  the show was the first of its kind in Britain with crowds were so large on opening day that traffic in Piccadilly was brought to a standstill. During its three-week run, over thirty thousand people visited the exhibition. Throughout the exhibition, the show’s organisers delivered lectures on the theories and intentions of surrealism to large audiences. Salvador Dali gave the most famous of these lectures on the  July 1st. The surrealist caused a furore when he stepped on stage and began to deliver his lecture in a full deep-sea diving suit. Only minutes later, a shocked audience watched with a mixture of horror and disbelief, as he began to suffocate and had to be prised out of the helmet with pliers.

            1937 – Friday- A single death is a tragedy; a million deaths is a statistic.………….Joseph Stalin…………….Adding another eight to his millions of dead during the  Great Purge of 1937/38, Stalin’s proletarian workers paradise, the  Soviet Union executed  eight army leaders.  Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky and the senior military officers Iona Yakir, Ieronim Uborevich, Robert Eideman, August Kork, Vitovt Putna, Boris Feldman and Vitaly Primakov (as well as Yakov Gamarnik, who committed suicide before the investigations began) were accused of anti-Soviet conspiracy and sentenced to death; they were executed on the night of June 11–12. The goal was to sweep away all of Stalin's real and imaginary enemies and to infuse all levels of Soviet society, especially upper echelons, with a sense of insecurity and abject dependence on and obedience to the "Great Leader."

            1938 –Saturday- Whoever controls the Yellow River controls China," ….. the Great Yu, who is credited with the first "taming" of the river around 2200 BC.  During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Nationalist government created the 1938 Yellow River flood by blowing up the levees on  June 9, to halt Japanese forces. 500,000 to 900,000 peasants were  killed …….and the Japanese army was not stopped

            1940 –Tuesday- Well they've got a new dance and it goes like this
(Bop shoo-op, a bop bop shoo-op)
Yeah the name of the dance is Peppermint Twist
(Bop shoo-op, a bop bop shoo-op)
Well you like it like this, the Peppermint Twist….
Happy Birthday, Joey Dee of Joey Dee and the Starlighters.  Joey Dee was one of the principal beneficiaries of the Twist mania of 1961/62. The Peppermint Lounge was the predecessor of Studio 54 and any other dance club de jour to be infested with celebrities that has appeared and disappeared ever since. This particular virus started with actress Merle Oberon and Prince Serge Oblinski dancing the night away at the Peppermint Lounge. When this was reported the next morning by columnist Earl Wilson, it took barricades and mounted police to keep the crowds in line, which had backed up to Broadway, the next night. Sound familiar?  Celebrity visitors continued to pour into the Peppermint Lounge, including Judy Garland, John Wayne, Jackie "Ted Kennedy, Nat "King" Cole, Shirley MacLaine, Tennessee Williams, Truman Capote and, gasp,  Liberace.  Joey Dee and The Starliters became the house band and wrote the tune that would extend the Twist craze for another 6 months. And there  would be flood of twist songs unleashed on an unwitting public: The Twist-Chubby Checker
The Twist -Hank Ballard and The Midnighters
Do You Know How To Twist -Hank Ballard and The Midnighters
The Basie Twist -Count Basie
Percolator (Twist) -Billy Joe & Checkmates
Twist-Her -Bill Black's Combo
Twistin' - White Silver Sands  (Really!)-Bill Black's Combo
Dear Lady Twist -Gary U.S. Bonds
Twist, Twist Senora-Gary U.S. Bonds
Twistin' All Night Long
-Freddy Cannon
Tequila Twist -The Champs
Let's Twist Again -Chubby Checker
Twistin' U.S.A. -Chubby Checker
Slow Twistin'-Chubby Checker
La Paloma Twist -Chubby Checker
Twist It Up-Chubby Checker
The Alvin Twist -The Chipmunks
Twistin' The Night Away -Sam Cooke
Kissin' And Twistin-Fabian
The Twist -Ernie Freeman
Twist And Shout -The Isley Brothers
Twistin' With Linda-The Isley Brothers
Soul Twist-King Curtis
Twistin' Postman-The Marvelettes
Meet Me At The Twistin' Place-Johnnie Morisette
The Peppermint Twist -Joey Dee & the Starliters
The Peppermint Twist-Danny Peppermint & the Jumping Jacks
Patricia - Twist -Perez Prado
Ev'rybody's Twistin'-Frank Sinatra…Yes! Frank Sinatra!
Twistin' Matilda -Jimmy Soul

            1955 –Saturday- Dead man's curve
Dead man's curve
Won't come back from dead man's curve
…….Jan & Dean………Eighty-three  people were killed and at least 100 a injured after an Austin-Healey and a Mercedes-Benz collided at the 24 Hours of Le Mans.  The entire front part of the Mercedes flew into the crowd in flames. 250,000 spectators had gathered for Europe's classic sports car race, the 24-hour test around an 8.38-mile course. As the race entered its third hour the cars were breaking speed records at every lap when Jaguar Driver Mike Hawthorn received a signal from his pit crew to stop for gas. As he braked, an Austin-Healey driven by Lance Macklin swerved to avoid him.  Macklin raised his hand, signaling a Mercedes, driven by Pierre Levegh, to slow up. Hitting the Healey, the Mercedes took off like a rocket, struck the embankment beside the track, hurtled end over end and then disintegrated over the crowd. The hood decapitated tightly jammed spectators like a guillotine. The engine and front axle cut a swath like an artillery barrage. And the car's magnesium body burst into flames like a torch, burning others to death.

            1962 – Monday- we incurred a problem when we escaped frank:what happened?
they saw us!!
…..Escape from Alcatraz, 1979) ………..Frank Morris, (played by Clint Eastwood) John Anglin and Clarence Anglin became the only prisoners to escape from the prison on Alcatraz Island. On the morning of June 12, 1962, guards at Alcatraz Prison discovered dummy faces in the bunks of Frank Morris and brothers John and Clarence Anglin. They used prison-issued raincoats to make crude life vests and a pontoon-type raft to assist in their swim. A water search found two life vests (one in the bay, the other outside the Golden Gate), oars, and letters and photographs belonging to the Anglins that had been carefully wrapped to be watertight. But no sign of the men was found. Several weeks later a man's body dressed in blue clothing similar to the prison uniform was found a short distance up the coast from San Francisco, but the body was too badly deteriorated to be identified.Morris and the Anglins are officially listed as missing and presumed drowned. ……but we know that would never happen to Clint Eastwood, maybe Fred Ward and Jack Thibeau (who played the Anglins in the movie) but never Clint. Thirty-six prisoners were involved in various attempts to escape Alcatraz: seven were shot and killed, two drowned, five unaccounted for, the rest recaptured. Two prisoners made it off the island but were returned.

             1963-Tuesday- Your bureaucracy at work...... The Mercury space capsule was patented. It was assigned to NASA. Of course the patent was applied for four years earlier on October 6, 1959. Mercury 1 had already flown, on May, 5 1961, in a 15-min sub-orbital flight carrying Alan B. Shepard  2 YEARS !!!!!before the patent was issued.

            1982 –Friday-  Steven Spielberg's movie  E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial, opened. Oh, it was sooooooooo cute as a group of Earthian children helped a stranded alien botanist return home .  Written by Melissa Mathison and directed by Steven Spielberg, the movie starred Henry Thomas, Drew Barrymore, Peter Coyote, Dee Wallace, and Pat Welsh as the uncredited voice of E.T. We note that in the cinematic world of aliens visiting the Earth, featuring multiple limbs, multiple eyes, noses, mouths, giant heads, small heads, multiple heads, various forms of communication, mutant animals, and levels of  intelligence, the actual closest to what a really alien may be is The Blob – no shape, no communication, no space ship, just absorbing Earthlings.    

            2001 – Monday- Timothy McVeigh was executed for mass murder for his role in the Oklahoma City bombing.   The right wing terrorist right-wing terrorist had killed 168 people when he blew up the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995.  The the executioners administered sodium pentothal, to make him lose consciousness. Then pancuronium bromide and potassium chloride were fed into his body, to stop his heart and lungs.

            2002 – Tuesday - If the phone doesn't ring - It's Me. …..  Jimmy Buffett ………Antonio Meucci was  acknowledged as the first inventor of the telephone by the United States Congress.  Sense of the House Honoring the Life and Achievements of 19th Century Italian-American Inventor Antonio Meucci." Congressman Vito Fossella who sponsored the bill ….later resigned in disgrace after a sex scandal.  Meucci had developed a telephone prototype in 1860.  Unfortunately,  he discovered his wife had sold his designsUnable to raise the sum for a definitive patent ($250, considerable in those days), he filed the caveat or notice of intent, on December 28, 1871 and renewed in 1872 and 1873 but, fatefully, not thereafter. For two years after delivering a model and technical details the newly established Western Union Telegraph Company, he asked for permission to demonstrate his "Talking Telegraph" on the wires of the Western Union system.  Meucci demanded the return of his materials, only to be told that they had been "lost." It was then 1874.  In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell filed his patent When Meucci learned of this, he instructed his lawyer to protest to the U.S. Patent Office in Washington only to learn that all the documents relevant to the "Talking Telegraph" filed in Meucci's caveat had been "lost."   In a court case of 1886, although Bell's lawyers tried to turn aside Meucci's suit against their client, he was able to explain every detail of his invention so clearly as to leave little doubt of his veracity, although he did not win the case against the superior - and vastly richer - forces fielded by Bell. Despite a public statement by the then Secretary of State that "there exists sufficient proof to give priority to Meucci in the invention of the telephone," at the death of Meucci in 1896, the case was dropped.

            2004 –Friday-  Cassini-Huygens made  its closest flyby of  Saturn’s outermost moon, Phoebe. The  the  spacecraft began orbiting the system in July Beaming home valuable data that helped us understand the vast Saturnian region. Huygens eventually entered the murky atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's biggest moon, and descended via parachute onto its surface. The moon is named after Phoebe, a Titan in Greek mythology. Phoebe’s orbit is in the opposite direction (retrograde) and inclined at a different angle to Saturn's regular satellites (with ‘prograde’, low-inclination circular orbits).  Phoebe's generally dark surface shows evidence of water ice, but otherwise the surface most closely resembles that of asteroids and small outer Solar System bodies such as Chiron and Pholus that are thought to have originated in the Kuiper Belt. Mutant rays from Phoebe’s core managed to follow radio waves back to Earth and escape into the atmosphere. There they mixed with nitrogen in the atmosphere and infected susceptible Earth humans with the syndrome, Canus Minisculius Accessorinium, people who own a small dog, and treat it like it's their child, putting stupid sweaters on it and taking it with them everywhere they go.

            2004  Friday-  And speaking of irritants, Tthe execrable remake of  the fairly good 1975, The Stepford Wives starring Nicole Kidman, Bette Midler, and Matthew Broderick, earned a place in the Worst Movie Remakes Hall of Fame along with the senseless 1988 version of Psycho (Anne Heche and Vince Vaughn????????). The Pink Panther-2006 (did it sound like a good idea Steve Martin?) , Carrie -2002 (yes, they did a remake of Carrie.  Did you miss it?), Get Carter- 2000 (original starred Michael Caine, this had Sylvester Stallone), The 1998 Godzilla, Alfie-2004 (original starred Michael Caine), Planet of the Apes -2001, Wax Museum-2005 (putting Paris Hilton in a movie should mean a permanent ban from all filmmaking forever), The Invasion, Nicole Kidman back at it again, this time destroying the 1956 Invasion of the Body Snatchers, It’s a Wonderful Life- 2004 (Jim Carrey channeling his inner James Stewart), A Nightmare on Elm Street -1999 (Nathan Lane as Freddy ), Swept Away-2004 (Madonna!!!!!), and  any King Kong.

Back to Calendar


Happy birthday—oh, that’s right, no U.S. presidents were born in June.            Aren't you glad you know that now?

            1381 –Tuesday- The first duty of a revolutionary is to get away with it …..Abbie Hoffman…….During the  Peasants' Revolt in England,  the rebels, led by Wat Tyler,  arrived at Blackheath looking for 20,000 ensuite hotel rooms in London.  What began as a local revolt in Essex quickly spread across much of the south east of England, while some of the peasants took their grievances direct to the then young King, Richard II, in London. On June 14th, the king met the rebels at Mile End. At this meeting, Richard II gave the peasants all that they asked for and asked that they go home in peace. Some did. Others to go back into the city, see a show, get on line for the Tower of London Tour  and murder the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Treasurer - their heads were cut off on Tower Hill by the Tower of London. Richard II spent the night in hiding in fear of his life. The immediate cause of the revolt was the unprecedented amount of taxation the peasantry faced from the Government. The poll tax of 1380 was three times higher than that of the previous year and, unlike its predecessor, taxed rich and poor at the same rate. Hence, it was very unpopular with the peasantry. However, the main call of the peasant rebels was for the abolition of serfdom.

            1418 – Friday- Following an insurrection the Burgundians occupied Paris. They took a nice little pied–à–terre in the 5th Arrondisement with in walking distance of Notre Dame and just minutes from the Museé D’Orsay. Civil war had broken out in 1407 between the royal family - the Armagnacs (supporting the legitimate line of the  loony king Charles VI and his son the dauphin) and their rivals, the Burgundians. The The dauphin, son of Charles VI and Isabella, escaped with the Armagnacs to Bourges where he declared himself to be regent of France. Enter stage right, voices in her head ringing…………..

            1429 – Friday- Joan of Arc led  the French army in their capture of the city of Jargeau and the English commander, William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk in the second day of the Battle of Jargeau…..What's the difference between a rowing boat and Joan of Arc?" "One is made of wood and the other is Maid of Orleans…..baddump bump.

            1560 –SundayOkehazama, where the wind comes sweepin' down the plain
And the wavin' wheat can sure smell sweet
When the wind comes right behind the rain.
Okehazama, Ev'ry night my honey lamb and I……..apologies to Rogers and Hammerstein….  At the Battle of Okehazama, Oda Nobunaga defeated Imagawa Yoshimoto. The hopelessly outnumbered – 1,800 to 25,000- Nobunaga ordered his men to erect numerous banners to make it appear that his force was larger in size. Then, he had his men construct straw dummies wearing extra helmets and holding weapons, again to magnify the number of his men. He left behind a few hundred men to move about his camp to give the impression of that this was his main force. With the remainder, 1500-2000 men, Nobunaga marched his force through the forest surrounding the gorge and Imagawa’s army, escaping detection and arriving in the rear of the enemy camp.  When the attack came, the disordered Imagawa soldiers, caught completely by surprise, were either cut down, fled or surrendered. Yoshimoto came out of his tent and was decapitated t with one stroke of a samurai sword. After fighting of less than an hour, the battle of Okehazama was over. Of course after conquering most of Honshu, Nobunaga went kaput in 1582, when he was surprised by a rival warlord, defeated in a duel and forced to commit seppuku by watching the 1998 remake of Godzilla for 24 hours straight.

            1665 –Friday- You can have her.  I don’t want her. She didn’t love me anyway……Ral Donner…….. England installed a municipal government in New York City (the former Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam).  In 1626, the settlement of New Amsterdam was established at the mouth of the Hudson River. Peter Minuit, director general of the company, purchased all of Manhattan Island from the local natives for 60 Dutch guilders, which some have calculated to equal $24, a Chuck Connors baseball card, a 45 rpm record of Sugar Sugar by the Archies, and a promise to “be your best friend”.  In 1664, James, Duke of York and brother to King Charles II, asserted his claim to the entire region between the Connecticut and Delaware rivers…..except for the cast of Jersey Shore…….. English troopships arrived in New Amsterdam harbor and prepared for battle. Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant tried to get  the citizens to defend the colony, but could not motivate them. New Netherland became New York without a shot fired and Richard Nicolls became the first English Governor.        

            1775 – Monday- American Revolution: British general Thomas Gage declares martial law in Massachusetts.  He sent in Marshal Matt Dillon, Marshal Will Kane, Marshal Wyatt Earp, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery, and Marshal Reuben J. 'Rooster' Cogburn.  He implemented the Marshal Plan. The British offer a pardon to all colonists who lay down their arms. There would be only two exceptions to the amnesty: Samuel Adams and John Hancock, if captured, were to be hanged.

            1798 –Tuesday The Battle of Ballynahinch in County Down during the Irish Rebellion of 1798 was fought between Presbyterians and forces of the English Crown (the ubiquitous George III). While Presbyterians were well educated and generated a lot of the wealth in County Down, they were effectively excluded from the political system. Indeed they suffered varying degrees of political and religious discrimination including the fact that Presbyterian schools had to have special licenses to operate and that many Presbyterian marriages were deemed unlawful and their children illegitimate. Having put up with this kind of persecution, they were inspired by the Presbyterians in America who successfully rebelled against the English crown and had installed the world’s first working democracy. The result was a violent rebellion in County Down and County Antrim in 1798 and the Battle of Ballynahinch.  This was a different result.  They lost. The rebel leader Munro was hanged and the town burned.  One of the dead was a young woman named Betsy Gray.

            1806 –Thursday  I would rather be the man who bought the Brooklyn Bridge than the man who sold it …….Will Rogers………..Happy Birthday, John A. Roebling, German-American civil engineer and designedr of the Brooklyn Bridge. On June 28, 1869, Roebling was standing on a set of wood pilings at the edge of the East River taking observations for his new bridge. A boat moved against the pilings, crushing several of Roebling's toes. The injury itselfwas not life threatening, but tetanus set in, and  Roebling's went kaput July 22nd. His son, Washington Augustus Roebling, took over the Brooklyn Bridge project and saw to its completion in 1883.

            1837- Monday -The wireless telegraph is not difficult to understand. The ordinary telegraph is like a very long cat. You pull the tail in New York, and it meows in Los Angeles. The wireless is the same, only without the cat. …….Albert Einstein……… British inventors William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone received a patent for their electromagnetic telegraph. The Wheatstone-Cooke telegraph or needle telegraph was the first working telegraph in Great Britain, put into operation on the London and Blackwall Railway. Their invention was put in public service in 1839, five years before the more famous Morse telegraph.  The electromagnetic telegraph operates on a very straightforward principle. The transmitter opens and closes an electric circuit at one point. The receiver uses the electric current at any other point in the closed circuit to establish a magnetic field, the forces arising from which cause some observable mechanical effect.  The requirements for designing an outdoor circuit of great length were a crucial breakthrough in the technology  and were established by Ohm (1827), Steinheil (1833)and Wheatstone (1836). This rested mainly on an appreciation of Ohm's Law, V = IR

            1839 - Wednesday Take me out to the ball game,
Take me out with the crowd.
Buy me some peanuts and cracker jack,
I don't care if I never get back,
Let me root, root, root for the home team,
If they don't win it's a shame.
For it's one, two, three strikes, you're out,
At the old ball game…
..Jack Norworth and Albert von Tilzer…… Abner Doubleday, (who later became a major name in book publishing), created the game we know as baseball (or so the story goes). It happened in Cooperstown, NY which, coincidentally, is the present home of the Baseball Hall of Fame.  By now we know that’s about as true as Barry Bond’s setting records without the use of steroids.  So where did the story originate?  The Game -  website informs us that The "Mills Commission," appointed by Albert Spalding,  to look into the origins of the game,  based their final decision almost exclusively on the testimony of one 71-year-old Abner Graves, from Denver, Colorado. After reading a 'call for people who had knowledge of the beginnings of the game' in the April 3, 1905, edition of the Beacon Journal in Akron, Ohio, Graves fabricated his story of 1839, Abner Doubleday (1819–1893; Major General of the U.S. Army and Civil War hero), and Cooperstown, where Graves had attended school with Doubleday. He claimed to recall seeing drawings of a field in the dirt and on paper by Doubleday. Graves sent his story to the Beacon Journal and it was published with the title "Abner Doubleday Invented Baseball." Why bother to even meet with Graves? The Mills Commission had the story that they were searching for. Big deal, so what if Abner Graves was five years old in 1839 or that Doubleday was enrolled in the military academy at West Point in 1839 and not in Cooperstown, NY…..picky picky picky…… A few years after he delivered Doubleday to the world, Graves killed his wife and spent his final days in an asylum. The final report was issued on December 30, 1907, claiming that Abner Doubleday had invented Baseball.  Actually, Alexander Joy Cartwright (1820-1892) of New York invented the modern baseball field in 1845. Cartwright and the members of his New York Knickerbocker Base Ball Club, devised the first rules and regulations for the modern game of baseball.

          1851 –Thursday  Happy Birthday- Sir Oliver Lodge, English physicist and writer . June 12 is a very magnetic day.  First Wheatstone and Cooke’s telegraph (based on electromagnetism) and now Oliver Lodge famous for his investigations into the propagation of electromagnetic waves. He made valuable contributions to the development of wireles telegraphy.  In 1894 he perfected the “coherer,” an electrical device used to detect radio waves. He conducted research on electrons, lightning and the ether at the time  believed to be a medium that filled all space.

             1862 – Thursday Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart began his ride around the Army of the Potomac during the Peninsula campaign, after being sent on a reconnaissance of Union positions by Robert E. Lee. Four days later, Stuart had circled the entire Yankee force, 105,000 strong, and provided Lee with crucial information. Unfortunately, Stuart was so taken with his success that he did it again in late June 1863. While he was merrily riding around the Union Army Lee did not know the army’s exact location until a chance encounter July 1, at Gettysburg

             1897-Saturday The Swiss have an interesting army. Five hundred years without a war. Pretty impressive. Also pretty lucky for them. Ever see that little Swiss Army knife they have to fight with? Not much of a weapon there. Corkscrews, Bottle openers. 'Come on, buddy, let's go. You get past me, the guy in back of me, he's got a spoon. Back off. I've got the toe clippers right here.…..Jerry Seinfeld…..The Swiss Army Knife was patented by Carl Elsener. Elsener developed a new, elegant and light weight pocket knife, with six practical tools to compete with the Germans who were supplying knives to the Swiss Army at the time.  The original had a wooden handle and featured a blade, a screwdriver, a can opener and a punch. In 1896 he second blade and a corkscrew.  Elsner called this new model the "Officers and Sports Knife".  In 1909 the Swiss Cross was added to the red handles. At that time Elsner named the company "Victoria" after his mother upon her death. All Swiss Army Knives were made of Stainless Steel as of 1921. The international name for stainless is "inox"(not oxidizable) Elsner add "inox" to "victoria" making the new company name Victorinox.

          1889 –Wednesday  Eighty eight people were  killed in the Armagh rail disaster near Armagh in what is now Northern Ireland.  The train was filled t with passengers on the Armagh Methodist Church Sunday School Excursion. In total there were approximately 1,200 passengers. Approximately 3 miles out of the city the engine and cars reached a steep gradient and, due to the volume of passengers, stalled.  The train crew decided to divide the train and take the first four cars on to another station. The engine would then come back and take the remaining eight and rejoin the train. They cleverly put stones  under the wheels of the cars.   Whoops! The rear car (filled with passengers) crushed the stones and started back downhill towards Armagh. They collided with the 10.35am passenger train

1899 –Monday-  Happy Birthday- Fritz Albert Lipmann, American biochemist born in Königsberg,Germany,  now Kaliningrad, Russia. Lipman shared (Sir Hans Krebs)the 1953 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. Lipmann won for his isolation of coenzyme A an important catalytic substance substance that helps the body produce energy from food. Coenzyme A is present in all living cells that functions as an acyl group carrier and is necessary for fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, pyruvate oxidation, and other acetylation reactions.

1906- Friday-  If it's a good movie, the sound could go off and the audience would still have a perfectly clear idea of what was going on……Alfred Hitchcock…….Sound movies were patented by John Ballance.  This was a tough one.  The original reference found by the Gnus research department was in Today in Science History.  Follow ups failed to find Balance references even though the patent number is 823022. We know that patents are issued on Tuesdays.  This was a Friday.   Also in 1906,  Eugene A. Lauste, formerly an Edison employee, with Robert R. Haines and John S. Pletts filed a patent application on "method and means for simultaneously recording and reproducing movements and sounds".  The website, FilmHistory mentions that Ballance received a similar patent in 1906. In 1907, Dr. Lee De Forest patended the audion tube.  It was the first vacuum tube in which a control grid as well as a cathode and an anode was incorporated. The audion tube allowed a very small electric signal to be amplified and played over loudspeakers.  It was used for radio, public address, television, and film sound.

1913-Thursday Originally filmed in 1910, the first animated cartoon, The Artist's Dream (also known as The Dachsund and the Sausages) was released. The Ingmar Bergmanesque plot involved a dog eating too many sausages and exploding. The director,  John Randolph Bray invented and patented the process.  Historically and technically, the first animated film (in other words, the earliest animated film ever made) was Humorous Phases of Funny Faces (1906) by newspaper cartoonist J. Stuart Blackton, one of the co-founders of the Vitagraph Company. It was the earliest surviving example of an animated film. It was the first cartoon to use the single frame method, and was projected at 20 frames per second. In the film, a cartoonist's line drawings of two faces were 'animated' (or came to life) on a blackboard. The two faces smiled and winked, and the cigar-smoking man blew smoke in the lady's face; also, a circus clown led a small dog to jump through a hoop. However, The first real breakthrough in animation technology came with cel animation, invented by Earl Hurd, an employee of the John Bray Studio. Now the actual drawings were traced from the animator’s originals onto transparent sheets of celluloid, laid over prepared backgrounds on the animation stand, and photographed.

 1924 –Thursday  Happy Birthday, George H. W. Bush, 41st President of the United States famous for saying “read my lips – no new taxes” and then implementing new taxes, failing to follow through the victory in the Gulf War thus allowing Saddam Hussein to remain in power, eventually causing the Iraq War which goes on as we speak, and most importantly, tossing his cookies onto the lap of the Japanese Prime Minister at a state dinner.

     1935 –Wednesday-  The Chaco War ended with a  a truce between Bolivia and Paraguay who had been fighting since 1932.  The Chaco War  was the result of a territory dispute between Bolivia and Paraguay, two  landlocked countries.  Feeling claustrophobic, each  sought an expansion of territory in an effort to gain better access to the River Paraguay.  A river runs through it and this river runs through a stretch of territory between Bolivia and Paraguay known as the Chaco Boreal. In 1932, Bolivia attempted  gain access to the Atlantic ocean through capture of the River Paraguay.  Naturally the Paraguayans were not thrilled with this. The  route lay  also was adjacent to the Chaco Boreal, which the Bolivians thought had large oil preserves. War was resultant. As with many wars, this one was  disastrous for both sides. Bolivia and Paraguay lost more than 100,000 soldiers. In 1935, Paraguay would eventually claim victory over Bolivia, andfirmly established the Chaco Boreal as a part of Paraguay.  But when all was said and done they were both still landlocked.

1939 – Monday –Baseball is ninety percent mental and the other half is physical……..Yogi Berra………..Harkening back to days of yore when Abner Doubleday didn’t invent baseball in 1839, baseball, still suffering from the Depression like everyone else in the eighth year of FDR’s New Deal came up with  a gimmick that might start the turnstiles spinning again -- began making elaborate plans for the game’s 100th birthday. Fortuitously, Stephen Clark, who owned and operated the Singer Sewing Machine Company in Cooperstown, New York was looking to resusistate the dying town. Quicker that you can say Abbott and Costello, the two needs met.  Those plans, announced in March 1936, would tie the Centennial with the museum, Hall of Fame, and Doubleday Field in a nationwide party, sponsored in part by a $100,000 grant from the major leagues.The Baseball Hall of Fame opened in Cooperstown, New York.  During the summer of 1936, That summer, the BBWAA elected five players for enshrinement: Babe Ruth, Ty Cobb, Honus Wagner, Walter Johnson and Christy Mathewson.From 1937 through 1939, the BBWAA elected Cap Anson, Eddie Collins, Charles Comiskey, Candy Cummings, Buck Ewing, Lou Gehrig, Willie Keeler, Hoss Radbourn, George Sisler, Albert Goodwill Spalding- 1938: Grover Cleveland Alexander, Alexander Joy Cartwright, Henry Chadwick.  In 1937 they had elected Morgan Bulkeley, Ban Johnson, Napoleon Lajoie,Connie Mack, John McGraw, Tris Speaker,George Wright, and Cy Young.  At this stage the Hall of Fame was like the Rock n Roll Hall of Fame.  They kept electing members but there wasn’t really a “hall”. Stephen Clark spent $44,000 of his own money -- about half the original construction cost -- to help convert the village gym into the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum and served 21 years as its first president and it opened on this day, 1939.

1942 –Friday And Then They Came for Me……………- Anne Frank received a diary for her thirteenth birthday.  Anne Frank was one of over one million Jewish children who died in the Holocaust. She was born Annelies Marie Frank on June 12, 1929, in Frankfurt, Germany, to Otto and Edith Frank. During the first half of July, 1942 Anne and her family went into hiding in an apartment which would eventually hide four Dutch Jews as well -- Hermann, Auguste, and Peter van Pels, and Fritz Pfeffer. For two years, they lived in a secret attic apartment behind the office of the family-owned business at 263 Prinsengracht Street, which Anne referred to in her diary as the Secret Annex. She kept the diary until August 4, 1944 when the Gestapo seized her and her family.  She and her sister, Margot, died of typhus at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp near Celle, in northern Germany in March 1945, just a few weeks before British troops liberated Bergen-Belsen on April 15, 1945.

1943 –Saturday Germany liquidated the Jewish Ghetto in Berezhany, western Ukraine. 1,180 Jews were led to the city's old Jewish graveyard and shot.

1959- Friday-Sam Cooke insistd on racially integrated seating for the night’s dual-headlining show with Jackie Wilson (Mr. Excitement)  in Norfolk, VA.  That’s it. We couldn’t find the details of the concert even though we really looked hard and kept changing the question to find the exact “open sesame” question that opens the doors to information.  We did find a poster for a June 10 concert in Chattanooga, Tennessee and since most concerts were concert tours in those days, we can presume that Cooke performed Everybody Likes to Cha Cha Cha and You Send Me.  Wilson did That is Why and Lonely Teardrops.  Other performers probably on the bill were Hank Ballard and the Midnighters, Marv Johnson, Jesse Belvin and The Pips (no mention of Gladys Knight).

1963 – Wednesday A bullet from the back of a bush took Medgar Evers' blood
A finger fired the trigger to his name
A handle hid out in the dark
A hand set the spark
Two eyes took the aim
Behind a man's brain
But he can't be blamed
He's only a pawn in their game.
………Bob Dylan……….Civil rights leader Medgar Evers was murdered in front of his home in Jackson, Mississippi by Ku Klux Klan member Byron De La Beckwith.  As NAACP state field secretary, Evers recruited members throughout Mississippi and organized voter-registration efforts, demonstrations, and economic boycotts of white-owned companies that practiced discrimination.

As early as 1955, Evers’ activism made him the most visible civil rights leader in the state of Missisippi. As a result, he and his family were subjected to numerous threats and violent actions over the years, including a firebombing of their house in May 1963.

1963 – Wednesday-  Several movies premiered on June 12 and they tell a story, There was Panic in the Streets (1950) when 20th Century Fox released its bomb, Cleopatra (1963). The negative reaction of critics was A View to a Kill (1985) The movie, featuring sordid affairs and battles between directors and cast and directors and studio was a Clash of the Titans (1981), Cleopatra star Elizbeth Taylor, a Predator (1987) when it came to men, made a career of almost fatal illnesses coinciding with movie releases but she knew, You Only Live Twice (1985) and the movie Cleopatra was director, Joseph L. Mankiewicz’, baby, not Rosemary's Baby (1968)

1965 – Saturday- The Big Bang theory of the creation of the universe was supported by the announcement of the discovery of new celestial bodies know as blue galaxies.  A galaxy is a massive, gravitationally bound system that consists of stars and stellar remnants, an interstellar medium of gas and dust, and an important but poorly understood component tentatively dubbed dark matter. It also used to be a brand of car for Ford.  appear blue probably because they contained enormous numbers of hot, blue stars.  The Big Bang (the term was sarcastically coined by astronomer Fred Hoyle) theory of universe formation can be used to explain the expansion of the universe. According to the standard theory, our universe sprang into existence as "singularity" around 13.7 billion years ago. What is a "singularity" and where does it come from? Well, to be honest, we don't know for sure. Singularities are zones which defy our current understanding of physics. They are thought to exist at the core of "black holes." And then it went boom! Over extended periods of time, small bits of matter have gravitationally attracted other particles of matter to form denser regions that became stars and galaxies.  Radioastronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered a 2.725 degree Kelvin (-454.765 degree Fahrenheit, -270.425 degree Celsius) Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB) which pervades the observable universe and defrosts hamburgers very quickly . This is thought to be the remnant which scientists were looking for. Penzias and Wilson shared in the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physics for their discovery.

    1966 - Sunday- The Dave Clark Five were Glad All Over as they set a dubious record by becoming the first rock band to make twelve  appearances on CBS-TV's Ed Sullivan Show. Ed wasn’t done with them (even though the American public was) as they popped up for a thirteenth in March 1967 as they butchered Marv Johnson’s (see 1959 above) You Got What it Takes. The appearences outnumbered the hits that the Dave Clark Five had in their career but they were clean cut as opposed to those dirty other groups so………..The Clark performed the obscure Look Before You Leap and Please Tell Me Why.. Also appearing was the pre-surgical Wayne Newton  who warbled, The Good Old Days, My Country Tis of Thee (yes, My Country Tis of Thee!!!) , tap dancing Peter Gennaro. with six female tap dancers dancers, The University of North Carolina Men's Glee Club with a capella versions of Hey Look Me Over  and Dixie, a cultural highlight as  Solvi Wang sand Getting to Know You  in English and Norwegian and comedians,Joey Adams, and two Jackies, Vernn and Kahane           

            1979-Tuesday –Straighten up and fly right
Straighten up and fly right
Straighten up and fly right
Cool down, papa, don't you blow your top
…Nat King Cole………. Seeking to avoid long lines at the ferry and customs, the Gossamer Albatross , made of mylar and Kevlar, flew across the English Channel.  It was an airplane powered solely by human power. Cyclist Bryan Allen used a pedalling mechanism.........and no training wheels!  The record-breaking flight covered a distance of 22.25 statute miles (35.6 km) in 2 hours and 49 minutes.

            1987 Friday General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall! President Ronald Reagan spoke the people of West Berlin at the base of the Brandenburg Gate, near the Berlin wall. Due to the amplification system being used, the President's words could also be heard on the Eastern (Communist-controlled) side of the wall. The address Reagan delivered that day is considered by many to have affirmed the beginning of the end of the Cold War and the fall of communism. On Nov. 9-11, 1989, the people of a now free Berlin tore down that wall.

            1993 –Saturday An election took place in Nigeria which and was later annulled by the military Government led by Ibrahim Babangida…shocking events in the otherwise stable African continent, normally a bastion of good government with “people first” policies.  A list of African coup d’etats (does not take account of  fraudulent elections, the afore mentioned military invalidations or the loon in Zimbabwe) includes: Burkina Faso in 1983 Burkina Faso in 1987 by Blaise Compaoré against Thomas Sankara Burundi in November 1966 Burundi on July 25, 1996 Central African Republic in 1966
Central African Empire in 1979 Central African Republic in 1981 Central African Republic in 2003 Chad in 1975 Congo-Brazzaville (Republic of the Congo) in 1963 Congo-Brazzaville (Republic of the Congo) in 1968 Congo-Brazzaville (People's Republic of the Congo) in 1979 Congo-Léopoldville (Democratic Republic of the Congo) in 1960 Congo-Léopoldville (Zaire) in 1997 Côte d'Ivoire in 1999 Dahomey in 1963 Dahomey in 1972 Ethiopia in 1974 Ethiopia in 1991 Ethiopia in 1991 Gambia in 1994 Ghana in 1966 Ghana in 1972 Ghana in 1978 Ghana in 1979 Ghana in 1981 Guinea in 1984 Guinea in 2008 Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau in 2003 Lesotho in 1986Liberia in 1980 Liberia in 1990 Mali in 1968Mali in 1991 Mauritania in 1978 Mauritania in 2005 Mauritania in 2008 Niger in 1974 Niger in 1996 Niger in 2010Nigeria in 1966 Nigeria in 1983 Nigeria in 1985 Rwanda in 1973 Sierra Leone in 1967
Sierra Leone in 1968 Sierra Leone in 1992 Sierra Leone in 1996 Sierra Leone in 1997
Somalia in 1969 Somalia in 1991 Sudan in 1958 Sudan in 1969 Sudan in 1985
Sudan in 1989 Togo in 1963 Transkei in 1987 Uganda in 1966 Uganda in 1971
Upper Volta in 1966 Upper Volta in 1980 Upper Volta in 1982 Upper Volta in 1983

            1994 Sunday What did Johnny Cochran say when accused of beating his wife?
- At least I didn't kill her like some people I know.
…….Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman were brutally murdered outside her home in Los Angeles, California. O.J. Simpson, who did everything but leave his number 32 Buffalo Bills jersey at the scene of the crime was later acquitted thanks to an astonishing display of incompentence by the prosecution and a conspicuously inept, bungling judge, of the killings. Simpson was later held liable in wrongful death civil suit. He claimed to be penniless but managed to keep playing golf.

1994 –Sunday- The Boeing 777, the world's largest twinjet, made its first flight.  FAA and JAA certification were awarded on April 19 1995.  The wing span 60.93m (199ft 11in), or folded 47.32m (155ft 3in), length 63.73m (209ft 1in), height 18.51m (60ft 9in). Wing area 427.8m2 (4605sq ft).  The best seats in Economy Class (steerage) are cdefg in row 20, b&h in row 31, and cdfg in row 41.  Boeing also makes 737, 747, 767, and 787.  They discontinued the 757 but that seems to be the one the Gnus editorial staff always gets for flights to California…..it’s a really lousy, crumby, uncomfortable, plane. Smelly too.

1997 –Thursday- Queen Elizabeth II reopened the Globe Theatre in London.  The original Globe was an octagonal-shaped building with an open-air stage that could hold as many as 3000 people built during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I.  The current Globe is actually Globe number four.  After moving from the original to a larger building in 1599, in 1613, during the premiere of Shakespeare's Henry VIII, a cannon fired during a scene and set fire to the roof. Within an hour, the Globe had burned to the ground. Old joke……Actor: “Hark! I hear the cannon’s roar.  Hark! I hear the cannon’s roar.  Hark! I hear the cannon’s roar.”  Cannon fire sound effect off stage.  Actor, turns to the audience and says,  “What the f-------k was that?” Most of the costumes, props, and Shakespeare's plays were rescued from the flames.The theatre was soon rebuilt, but in 1642 the Puritans came to power and, frowning on entertainment of any kind, after viewing the Tuesday night NBC show schedule, attending a Lady Gaga concert, and seeing Mama Mia in summer stock, the new government ordered all the theatres closed. The Globe was torn down in 1644. With the  help of American actor, Sam Wanamaker and the Shakespeare Globe Playhouse Trust, interest in the Globe  was rekindled in 1970. Construction of the new Globe began in 1989 roughly a hundred yards from the site of the last Globe. After Elizabeth’s ceremonial reopening (daughter Anne got to play a horse), the Globe reopened in 1999 with a performance of Henry V, one of the first plays performed in the original Globe.

1997 - Thursday- Interleague play began in baseball. This  ended a 126-year tradition of separating the major leagues until the World Series. The first game was on June 12 as the Texas Rangers lost to  the San Francisco Giants 4-3,  at The Ballpark in Arlington.  Ironically, the teams would meet again in the 2010 World Series. For the first five seasons of Interleague Play, each division played against the same division from the other league (NL East vs. AL East, NL Central vs. AL Central and NL West vs. AL West). As of the 2002 season, a new format to Interleague Play was instituted where teams play Interleague games against various divisions. This provides the thrill of a Kansas City Royals vs. Pittsburgh Pirates game.

2009 – Friday-I find television very educating. Every time somebody turns on the set, I go into the other room and read a book. ……Groucho Marx ……..The switch from analog TV transmission to digital was completed in the United States.  Of course it was originally supposed to occur on on February 17, 2009 but  that government mandate didn’t work out too well (surprise!) since after years of warnings and announcements and commercials, With millions of U.S. viewers still apparently unprepared for the nation's switch to digital TV So after a series of “this is final, no backsies” “we’re really going to do it this time” “no kidding”, “ we mean it”, …. two major reasons for the switch from analog TV broadcasts to digital TV. First, digital signals offer superior image quality and allow for the transmission of high-definition signals over the air. This means that a properly equipped HDTV can receive local high-definition broadcasts that will look about as good as what you'd get from cable or satellite television. Second, switching from analog to digital frees up real estate on the broadcast spectrum for other uses, as digital signals are more efficient and take up less bandwidth. Telecommunications companies like Verizon (nyse: VZ - news - people ) and AT&T (nyse: T - news - people ) have spent nearly $20 billion to secure the rights to the frequencies that were previously occupied by channels 52 through 69, in the hopes of using that airspace to improve their wireless communication networks.

Back to Calendar


Apologia:            As the Gnus expands, deepens and becomes more meaningful in the existential, yet Sisyphian quest for the subject essentials of history, the intrepid reader may note the occasional day with only a few items.  This has been caused by our epistemological quest to become barely adequate at golf.  Therefore, bright sunny days are dedicated to whacking a little white, dimpled ball in all different directions.  Item bereft days will arebeing completed as we speak.

            323B.C. –Wednesday I am dying from the treatment of too many physicians.Alexander the Great ………..(we also listed this as June 11) …..Kapution of Alexander the Great the young Macedonian military genius who conquered lands stretching from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Mr."The Great" went to that big battlefield in the sky, in present-day Iraq, at the age of 33 after a prolonged banquet of eating and drinking. The date of The Great’s kapution is also given as June 10 or 11. The website, http://www.livius.org/aj-al/alexander/alexander_t28.html claims Alexander died on 11 June 323 BCE, in the late afternoon, basing it on Astronomical diaries, a Babylonian source. In typical academician snitology, it says, several scholars have argued for 13 June and 10 June, but the first of these dates is based on an inaccurate Greek source that uses a confused Egyptian calendar –nyah, nyah,nyah, and the second is based on inaccurate reading of the Astronomical diary.  At any rate, one of the great military geniuses of history and while the date is in dispute….and even the cause of death can be debated,……malaria, typhoid and alcohol poisoning…….the details of Alexander’s death have been preserved. The initial symptoms were agitation, tremors, aching or stiffness in the neck, followed by a sudden, sharp pain in the area of the stomach.  He then collapsed and suffered acute and excruciating agony wherever he was touched.  Alexander also suffered from an intense thirst, fever and delirium, and throughout the night he experienced convulsions and hallucinations, followed by periods of calm.  In the final stages of the condition he could not talk, although he could still move his head and arms.  Ultimately, his breathing became difficult and he fell into a coma and died.

            823 –Tuesday-  Happy Birthday, Charles II, aka Charles the Bald, Holy Roman Emperor and King of the West Franks .   Also affectionately known as, Charlie the Hairless, Chas the Receding, Chip the Thin on Top, Chuck the Bare and  Chick the Unadorned……..King The Bald (in French Charles le Chauve; in German Karl der Kahle) was the  grandson of Charlemagne and youngest son of Louis the Pious, was king of the West Frankish kingdom and, later, Western Emperor.

            1249 –Sunday-  The Coronation of Alexander III as King of Scotland.  The king wore a crown by Harry Winston Jewelers and a Mel Gibson kilt. The only son of, yes, Alexander II, Mr. The Third was eight years old as he was crowned at Scone.  Alexander III was a rarity in Scottish history. His 37 year reign was one of the most stable, prosperous and peaceful in Scottish history. On the one hand, he successfully maintained Scotland's freedom resisting his more powerful neighbors' ----England, France, the Norse…..territorial ambitions. On the other hand, his traders sold produce across Europe, so he did not isolate his small nation from the world beyond.  

            1373 –Sunday-IIt's friendship, friendship,
Just a perfect blendship,
When other friendships have been forgot
Ours will still be hot!
 ……Cole Porter…………The first formal Anglo-Portuguese Alliance between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) was signed in 1373 in St Paul’s Cathederal by Edward III and envoys of King Dom Fernando. The alliance included an agreement that English archers would go to Portugal to ward off attacks from Castile. In August 1385  the Portuguese with the help of the English archers overwhelmingly defeated the invading Castilian forces which greatly outnumbered them at the Battle of Aljubarrota.

English aid to the Royal House of Aviz set the stage for co-operation with England that would be the cornerstone of Portuguese foreign policy for more than 600 years. It is the oldest alliance in the world which is still in force.

            1525 – Saturday- There is no more lovely, friendly, and charming relationship, communion, or company than a good marriage……Martin Luther………A social note as Martin Luther married former nun Katharina von Bora, against the celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for priests and nuns. Luther believed priests should be allowed to marry.  Together they had six children. Four of the six lived to adulthood. Luther was  handsome and dashing in a Tommy Hilfiger cowel. The bride was resplendent in habit by Vera Wang.  The reception was held at Anthony’s of Wittenburg with choral polyphony music by the Ludwig Bacciagaluppi Reformation Ensemble.

            1584 –Wednesday-  In fighting and in everyday life you should be determined though calm. Meet the situation without tenseness yet not recklessly, your spirit settled yet unbiased. An elevated spirit is weak and a low spirit is weak. Do not let the enemy see your spirit……………………Happy Birthday, Miyamoto Musashi, a legendary Samurai warrior, artist of of the early Edo (Tokugawa) period (1603–1867), and the author of The Book of Five Rings (Gorin no sho)….Musashi was a ronin at the time when the samurai were formally considered to be the elite, but actually had no means of livelihood unless they owned lands and castles. Many ronin put up their swords and became artisans, but others, like Musashi, pursued the ideal of the warrior searching for enlightenment through Kendo, the Way of the Sword………….the art of Japanese Samurai Swordsmanship

            1773 –Sunday- Happy Birthday, Thomas Young, English scientist. His most important “lab” was his double-slit experiment. In 1801, he passed a beam of light through two parallel slits in an opaque screen, forming a pattern of alternating light and dark bands on a white surface beyond. This led Young to hypothesize that light was composed of waves. He also made a number of other contributions in physics and medicine, and was the first to decipher some of the Egyptian inscriptions on the Rosetta Stone.

            1774 –Monday -Rhode Island became the first of Britain's North American colonies to ban the importation of slaves. The act to ban slavery was passed in Newport by General Assembly.  The John Carter Brown Library reminds us that Rhode Island played a leading role in the transatlantic slave trade. Not only did Rhode Islanders have slaves—they had more per capita than any other New England state—“but they also entered with gusto into the trade”. By the close of the eighteenth century, Rhode Islanders had mounted at least a thousand voyages from Africa to the Americas. Considering the size of the state, it’s amazing that 1,000 voyages actually found it. Rhode Island would free all slaves in 1784.

            1777 –Sunday- Humanity has won its battle. Liberty now has a country ……Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de La Fayette arrived in South Carolina … He played some golf at the Witch Course in Myrtle beach, rented a beach front condo in Hilton Head, made sure to visit the beachwear stores, to purchase flip flops, t-shirts, and shell clocks…and then headed north to join the forces of George Washington, just in time for the travails at Valley Forge.

Serving as an unpaid volunteer on Washington's staff, Lafayette was wounded at Brandywine and served later at Monmouth and in New Jersey. His service was rewarded with a promotion to major general.  In 1779 he returned to France to promote America's interests. Later in 1779, Lafayette returned, bearing news of imminent French naval aid. In 1781, Lafayette led American forces in Virginia against both Benedict Arnold and Lord Cornwallis

            1798 –Wednesday-  My love is higher than a mission bell……..Donnie Brooks……….Mission San Luis Rey de Francia was founded by Father Fermin Francisco de Lasuen at 4050 Mission Avenue Oceanside, CA 92057.  San Luis Rey de Francia was the ninth and last mission to be founded by Father Lasuen, but the eighteenth in a series of missionsand it closed a critical gap between San Diego and San Juan Capistrano.

            1816- Thursday The first U.S public building to use gas lighting was the Rembrandt Peale Museum in Baltimore, Md. This was obviously an "appealing" idea. The lighting had been demonstrated on June 11 to local businessmen and socialites. When you visit Baltimore, go to - the corner of N. Holliday Street and E. Baltimore Street and see the  monument to the first gas street lamp in the United States.

            1822 –Thursday-  Happy Birthday, Carl Schmidt, German chemist. Much of Schmidt’s work was a “bile experience” as he  studied studied bile and pancreatic juices. He determined that bile juice was more effective that bile Protestants or Catholics. Schmidt studied the typical crystallization patterns of many important biochemicals such as uric acid, oxalic acid and its salts, lactic acid, cholesterin, stearin and showed that animal and plant cell constituents are chemically similar and studied reactions of calcium albuminates.

             1831- Monday- Bang bang Maxwll’s silver hammer came down on her head….The Beatles……..Happy Birthday, James C. Maxwell, Scottish physicist and mathematician who published physical and mathematical theories of the electromagnetic field. Maxwell edited the papers of the reclusive and very odd, Henry Cavendish by which time the credit for most of Cavendish’s discoveries had gone to others. Maxwell wanted to present electricity in its most simple form. Maxwell's formulation of electricity and magnetism was published in the shocking A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (1873), which included the formulas today known as the Maxwell equations. Maxwell also showed that these equations implicitly required the existence of electromagnetic waves traveling at the speed of light. Maxwell went kaput at the age of 48.Some of the theories he advanced in physics were only conclusively proved long after his death. Maxwell's ideas also paved the way for Einstein's special theory of relativity and the quantum theory. They know the laws by heart, and do the calculations by fingers…. When will they begin to think? Then comes active life: What do they do that by? Precedent, wheeltracks, and finger-posts………………James Clerk Maxwell

            1844-Thursday- I have six locks on my door, all in a row. When I go out, I lock every other one. I figure no matter how long somebody stands there picking the locks, they are always locking three of them. …….George Carlin………….A a pin-tumbler lock door lock was patented by Linus Yale Sr.Linus Yale Jr. invented the modern combination lock in 1862. A pin tumbler lock is is a lock mechanism that utilizes a group of pins of varying lengths to prevent opening the lock without the correct key.

            1848- Tuesday-Dit dot ditty dit dot a ditty ditty
Dit dot ditty dit dot a ditty ditty
Dit dot ditty dit dot a ditty ditty
Dit dot ditty, Baby come home to me
I sent my baby a telegram asking to be her man
Begging her to come back home to me (Baby come home to me)…
……..Morse Code of Love
…..The Capris ….  Samuel F. B. Morse obtained a reissued patent for Morse code.   Morse was the first and original inventor of the electro-magnetic telegraph, for which a patent was issued to him for the use of electricity to transmit signals over long distances and reissued in 1848. The Xeroxian curse of the Internet strikes again. The first sentence is all over the web.  When the crack research staff of the Gnus tried looked for more information, our search led us to the Telegraph, Telegraphy and Signaling Patents and Inventions site where there is no reference to a Morse patent in 1848!!! Morse received patents in 1840, 1843, 1846 but none in 1848.  However we like the item intro using the Capri’s Morse Code of Love so we’re leaving the item in.

            1865 – Tuesday- Where beauty has no ebb, decay no flood, But joy is wisdom, time an endless song………. Happy Birthday, William Butler Yeats, born in Dublin, Irish poet, dramatist and mystic. Winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1923.  Yeats is regarded as one of twentieth century's great poets. In his three periods of poetry, observers generally regard his middle and late works as his most characteristic. Sailing to Byzantium and Easter 1916.

            1868 -Saturday- Can you hear me now?........ Wallace Clement Ware Sabine was a U.S. physicist  best known for scientific work in the field of architectural acoustics. Sabine focused his investigations on the sound-absorbing properties of materials and their effect upon reverberation, the rate of decay of residual sound.

            1870 –Monday Happy Birthday, Jules Bordet, Belgian immunologist and microbiologist and winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1915.  Bordet's experiments helped establish the basics of immunology -- that that the body creates antibodies in a defensive response to certain antigens just the way the brain creates a defensive response to seeing a Sylvester Stallone movie…..With another Belgian bacteriologist, Octave Gengou, Bordet developed the complement-fixation reaction which is A diagnostic test to determine the presence of antigen or antibody in the blood by adding complement to the test system. This breakthrough later allowed August von Wassermann to develop the Wassermann test to diagnosis syphilis.

            1876 –Tuesday- Happy Birthday, William Sealey Gosset, English chemist, statistician who went by the pen name, Student.  Gosset worked  as a chemist at the Guiness Brewery.   He did mathematical research for beer brewing, but had difficulties working with only a small sample size since people kept drinking his samples and singing Wild Rover.  He invented the t-test to handle small samples for quality control in brewing.

            1881 –Monday- I’ve got a crush on you  sweetie pie……Frank Sinatra………The USS Jeannette was crushed in an Arctic Ocean ice pack. The Jeanette, a bark-rigged wooden steamship, privately owned but Navy operated, left San Francisco in 1879.The crew included four other Navy officers, twenty-three enlisted men and three civilians. On  September 6, 1879, she entered the Arctic ice, where she was soon frozen in. During the next twenty-two months the drifting ice carried the ship several hundred miles to the northwest, until on  June 12, 1881 her hull was squshed open by ice flows. Jeannette sank the following morning, after her crew had removed boats, equipment and provisions in preparation for a months-long journey on foot across the desolate ice to reach open water north of Siberia. In the end, of the thirty-three who set off after the ship went down, only thirteen of Jeannette's men survived their adventures and returned to civilization.

            1886 –Sunday-  King Ludwig II of Bavaria was found kaput (his psychiatrist was also kaput in the lake…giving new meaning to empathy) in Lake Starnberg south of Munich. Ludwig was a faygala, and wildly eccentric to say the least and a ravin loon to say the most but he  built fairytale castles that today rate as Germany's leading tourist attractions.  The official cause of death was drowning but Ludwig died under mysterious circumstances just three days after being declared legally insane.

            1892 – Monday- Heroes and villains Just see what you've done…..The Beach Boys……Happy Birthday  Basil Rathbone English actor famous for playing the hero,Sherlock Holmes, and villains in Captain Blood, The Mark of Zorro and the Sheriff of Nottingham in the Adventures of  Robin Hood.  Also of note is that it is said that Margaret Mitchell wanted him to play Rhett Butler in Gone With The Wind

            1893 –Tuesday- Books... are like lobster shells, we surround ourselves with 'em, then we grow out of 'em and leave 'em behind, as evidence of our earlier stages of development…………… Happy Birthday, Dorothy L. Sayers, English mystery author. A contemporary of Agatha Christie, Her first novel, Whose Body? (1923), introduced Lord Peter Wimsey, the character for which she is best known. Wimsey appeared in eleven novels and several short stories

            1893 – Tuesday- When Grover Cleveland's little girl was quite young her father once telephoned to the White House from Chicago and asked Mrs. Cleveland to bring the child to the 'phone. Lifting the little one up to the instrument, Mrs. Cleveland watched her expression change from bewilderment to wonder and then to fear. It was surely her father's voice—yet she looked at the telephone incredulously. After examining the tiny opening in the receiver the little girl burst into tears. "Oh, Mamma!" she sobbed. "How can we ever get Papa out of that little hole?" Grover Cleveland  noticed a "rough place" on the roof of his mouth. It was diagnosed as cancer. Ultimately, on July 1, the President underwent a risky operation aboard his yacht. The surgeons performed the entire operation inside the mouth without making an external incision. Two weeks later, a second operation was done, again on the yacht, to remove additional suspicious tissue. A vulcanized rubber plate was made for the President, which restored his speaking voice so well that when he reappeared in public no one could detect that an operation had taken place. At his insistence, his illness and surgery were kept secret from the public, the press, the Cabinet, and (probably) the Vice President, Adlai Stevenson. A second, less risky operation was performed aboard the yacht on July 17.Shockingly, when did the White House ever lie about a president?  Really!  But they lied this time as direct questions about the President's health were answered falsely. Cleveland is alleged to have said that he had done more lying in the period just before his surgery and the period immediately thereafter than he had ever done in the remainder of his life.  The operation was not revealed to American public until 1917, nine years after the president's death.

            1898 –Monday- The Yukon Territory was formed, with Dawson chosen as its capital.  Dawson was replaced by Whitehorse (which we haven’t heard of either) became the capital in 1952. The Yukon Territory is 207,076 sq mi (536,327 sq km), in northwestern  Canada. The first governor was Sargeant Preston of the Yukon. Lieutenant Governor was his dog, Yukon King, and Comptroller was his horse, Rex.

            1903 –Saturday- Happy Birthday to the Galloping Ghost, Harold “Red” Grange, American football player. Grange is most famous for a memorable afternoon when his Fighting Illini played the Michigan Wolverines.  On October 28, 1924, and Grange scored on runs of 95, 67, 56, and 45 yards-in the first quarter. He scored a fifth touchdown in the third quarter and passed for a sixth in the final stanza. Illinois not only had beaten Michigan, 39-14, but Grange had galloped for 402 yards on 21 carries and completed six passes for 78 more yards. He went on to play professional football with the Chicago Bears and, briefly, with the New York Yankees (the football team).  He suffered a major knee injury and finished his career with the Bears.  The nickname Galloping Ghost was coined by sportswriter, Warren Brown.Brown also coined the nickname "The Sultan of Swat" for Babe Ruth

            1906 –Wednesday- Happy Birthday, Bruno de Finetti, Italian mathematician. De Finetti contributed to the theory and foundations of subjective probability, and advanced the application of mathematics to actuarial questions and to bureaucratic organizational techniques. He also pioneered the concepts of “exchangeability” or “exchangeable events", and developed de Finetti's theorem on exchangeable sequences of random variables. We have no idea what that means but it was in NNDB so it must be important although it sounds better in Italian; de Finetti contribuito alla teoria e fondamenti della probabilità soggettiva, e avanzato l'applicazione della matematica a questioni attuariali e tecniche organizzative burocratiche. Egli ha anche aperto la strada al concetto di "scambiabilità" o "eventi scambiabili", e sviluppato il teorema di de Finetti su sequenze di variabili aleatorie scambiabili.

            1911 –Tuesday- There is no democracy in physics. We can't say that some second-rate guy has as much right to opinion as Fermi ……….Happy Birthday, Luis Alvarez, American physicist who was awarded the 1968 Nobel Prize for physics for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics  Alvarez developed the proton linear accelerator,= particle accelerator[1] is a device that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to high speeds and to contain them in well-defined beams, patented three types of radar still used today, designed an instrument that for 15 years served as the universal standard of length, co-discovered the hydrogen isotope tritium, searched for hidden chambers in an Egyptian pyramid, analyzed the Zapruder film documenting John F. Kennedy's assassination.  With his son, Walter, he found the iridium spike, which we think may be related to the extinction of half the life forms on earth sixty-five million years ago."

            1912- Thursday- Never again! I believe I turned five somersaults on my way down…My course downward… was like a crazy arrow. I was not prepared for the violent sensation that I felt when I broke away from the aeroplane…….. The first successful parachute jump from an airplane in the U.S. was made by Captain Albert Berry in  a Benoist Headless airplane over Kinlock Field near the site of the present Lambert Field in St. Louis, Missouri. Berry jumped from about 1,500 feet. He had made prior parachute jumps from hot air balloons.  The idea of parachutes had been around a long time, with the original credit going to Leonardo da Vinci. Grant Morton claimed to have performed the same feat in 1911 off the coast of California but Berry had over 1,000 soldiers as witnesses.

            1925,-Saturday- Charles Jenkins invented a mechanical television system called radiovision and claimed to have transmitted the earliest moving silhouette images on June 13, 1923. Charles Jenkins publicly performed his first television broadcast transmission, from Anacosta, Virginia to Washington in June, 1925. He called it "visions by radio." The first mechanical TV system broadcast used 48 scanning lines and showed a model of Dutch windmill with its blades turning. Highlights of the broadcast day included Manimal, Joanie Loves Chachi, Cavemen, Pink Lady and Jeff, Cop Rock, and My Mother, The Car.

            1926-Sunday- Happy Birthday, Jerome Lejeune, French geneticist who discovered the first human chromosomal anomaly, the trisomy 21, the  extra chromosome that causes Down syndrome.  In 1959, a paper by Dr. Lejeune showed that the cells of people with Down syndrome contain 47 chromosomes, one more than the 46 that had been found, not long before, to be the normal human complement. What causes the extra chromosome has not been discovered.

            1927 –Monday-  Aviator Charles “Lucky Lindy” Lindbergh received a ticker-tape parade down 5th Avenue in New York City.   The first New York ticker-tape parade took place on October 29, 1886, when workers spontaneously threw ticker tape out brokers’ office windows onto to a parade honoring of the dedication of the Statue of Liberty. The first person to be so honored was Admiral Dewey, hero of the Battle of Manila Bay, on September 30, 1899. Theodore Roosevelt also got one in 1910, after he returned from his African safari when he dated Sheena, Queen of the Jungle. Ticker Tape parades have been a bit more difficult since 1969 when the old stock tickers that spewed out endless miles of a thin newsprint tape were replaced with electronic boards. They tried throwing electronic boards but they tended to dent the cars so now they use confetti, scrap paper and Bernie Madoff’s tax returns.

            1928 – Wednesday-……….don't know much trigonometry.
Don't know much about algebra,
don't know what s slide rule is for.
But I know that one and one is two,
………….Sam Cooke……..Happy Birthday- John Forbes Nash, American mathematician, awarded a Nobel Prize in Economics in 1994 for his pioneering work in game theory which explained, among other thing why your team gets words like turbulence while playing Pictionary while the other team gets tree.  Also, why your first monopoly is Baltic and Mediterranean Avenues, why you get six vowels in your first scrabble draw, and why the dealer always has one more point than you in Blackjack.  Nash developed what became known as "Nash's equilibrium" to explain how two or more competitors can arrive at a mutually beneficial yet non-cooperative business arrangement. In 1951, he developed the theory that manifolds - objects containing various forms and components - can be described accurately using algebraic equations. He later developed what became known as the Nash-Moser theorem, which explained how it was possible to embed a manifold in a Euclidean space (sometimes called Cartesian space or simply n-space, is the space of all n-tuples of real numbers, (x_1, x_2, ..., x_n). It is commonly denoted R^n….that should clear it up for you)by employing differential calculus instead of algebra and geometry. Whew! We thought manifolds were in a car engine.  Nash's career was diminished by severe mental illness, which was documented in Sylvia Nasar's biography of Nash, A Beautiful Mind, and the film of the same name directed by Ron Howard so now everyone thinks Nash looked like Russell Crowe.

            1934 –Wednesday- Getting to know you,
Getting to know all about you.
Getting to like you,
Getting to hope you like me.
 ….Rogers and Hammerstein………Adolf Hitler and Mussolini met in Venice, Italy.  The meeting did not go well. For some reason, Mussolini would not use his translator and he was not fluent in German. Secondly, Hitler kept quoting Mein Kampf which bored Mussolini – Mussolini later described the German dictator as "a silly little monkey".

            1935–Thursday-  In one of the biggest upsets in championship boxing, the 10 to 1 underdog James J. Braddock defeated Max Baer (father of Max Baer Jr. of the Beverly Hillbillies) in Long Island City, New York, and becane the heavyweight champion of the world after winning a fifteen round decision. Writer Damon Runyon nicknamed Braddock the “Cinderella Man.” The movie bio of Braddock Cinderella Man would star , Russell Crowe….see John Nash 1928, Crowe played him too. Braddock would hold the title until June 22, 1937, when he was knocked out by Joe Louis in Chicago.

            1940 –Thursday- Do you want to dance and hold my hand
Tell me baby I'm your lover man
Oh baby do you want to dance? ….
Happy Birthday, Bobby Freeman, American singer. Freeman appeared on Dick Clark’s Saturday night show singing Do You Wanna Dance to an elephant. Freeman later had another hit during the early 60’s dance craze, C’mon and Swim.  A great song, Do You Wanna Dance was covered by the Beach Boys, Bette Midler, Johnny Rivers, and the Ramones. Freeman’s version had the great pause where you though the record was over but it came back louder than ever.